pragmatics

ravens-and-writings  asked:

So, I don't think I've seen any Jacob/Queenie headcanons of yours yet. How do you think their story will play out?

Well, we know that Queenie went to visit Jacob in March/April of the year following the events of Fantastic Beasts and that it appears he had parts of his memory intact.

I think Queenie and Jacob are likely to use this meeting as a launching off point to embark on a relationship. She may possibly quit her job at MACUSA to work with him–he does have a Help Wanted sign in his window when she visits, after all. 

I can’t actually see Tina putting up much more than a token protest at this, despite her position as an Auror. Tina was obviously and visibly heartbroken with having to say goodbye to Jacob, as much as Newt and Queenie–so I think her only wish is for her sister to be happy. That said, I also think Tina, being the pragmatic soul that she is, will likely start secreting money away to ensure that Jacob and Queenie can make haste out of American should the need arise.

Invariably, the need does arise, though not through anything as drastic as being caught (my sense is that MACUSA is incredibly understaffed for the sheer amount of volume they have to manage and that they are inept to the extreme.) Jacob wants to marry his Queenie, and he cannot do that in America. Queenie is only too happy to have him, so she agrees–and he being the successful business owner that he is, he can sell the bakery for a tidy sum and immigrate to England, France or wherever they choose (I’m thinking France.)

This coincides nicely with the changes in Tina’s life, revolving around a certain British magizoologist who wants her for his own, but cannot legally have his creatures in America…

Jacob sets up another bakery in France, and shortly after, Queenie Goldstein becomes Queenie Kowalski. She and Jacob start a family right away, more due to the lack of contraception during this time than anything else (they really, really can’t keep their hands off of each other.) 

Queenie basks in her new role, and when Newt and Tina wed and come up against the kids-vs-career issue, Auntie Queenie is more than happy to provide childcare for their son (Newt and Tina only have the one, mostly due to secondary infertility issues) since Jacob is prosperous enough to hire help in the bakery. 

She gives Jacob a large family of their own in the meantime, and the four of them prove a loving, cohesive family and support system during the uprising that is Grindelwald’s war and WWII.

After the war, after Newt and Tina return from the frontlines (they are both called to serve, in their own way; leaving their son behind is the most difficult choice they’ve ever had to make), the four of them buy homes on the coast of England (Dorset, to be precise) and raise their families together. 

Dorm Life with 'Wanna one' [part 3]

You bothered with dinner three times longer than you planned.
The blame for this could be attributed to Daehwi’s pragmatism, which sometimes reached insanity…
“We need 300 grams of rice, not 296!”
 …Or to Woojin, who instead of checking with the recipe created in the kitchen a complete mess…
“Why did I add chili sauce here?
I just thought, it will be more delicious…”
… But most likely all the fault was because your inability to cope with simple tasks on your own.
Others continually had to help you with cutting mushrooms, grating carrots and other similar operations.
Jaehwan kept throwing worried glances at you, although he had told you an hour ago that he felt uncomfortable in the kitchen too.
The situation eventually heated up to the point. So, when you saw the ready-made dish, you swore someday to learn how to cook.
“It’s not that bad,” Daehwi tried to calm you down. “We able to somehow do this together, right?”
 "I still feel myself useless,“ you answered.
"Hey, do not dramatize,” Jaehwan threw, placing his portion of rice on the plate.
“If today you learned something new, then this experience is positive”
“Thank you. Sounds inspiring”
“Well, sometimes I have to calm myself down too…”
 You nodded, letting him know that you understand what that means, and then, in an almost idealistic family setting, started eating.

Internet Pragmatics™ and Racial Stereotypes

White people in the English-speaking world have been given free license to break colonialist faux-Classical grammar rules 5eva (i can haz, lolspeak, l33tspeak, My Immortal, cattes, such soft so doge, u wot m8, sh*tgibbons, boaty mcboatface, lyking the bred, etc).

While white people are assumed to know the rules and consciously flout them for humorous effect, people of color doing the same things online often have to add footnotes proving they know what they did “wrong,” as the online audience will unfairly assume they are uneducated and “didn’t know any better.” This author probably got dozens of “corrections,” whether gentle or angry, for an obviously intentional nonstandard pattern, prompting their valid frustration at the sentient fedoras.

And it’s a safe bet that most of those pedants also follow gimmick accounts that twist language all the dang time, but they only complain about one person’s indefinite determiners.

washingtonpost.com
Opinion | It’s not just Trump’s message that matters. There’s also his metamessage.
A linguistics professor examines James Comey’s testimony about his conversations with the president.

When people talk to each other, they glean meaning from metamessages. But messages come in handy when someone wants to deny a meaning that was obvious when the words were spoken.

The president’s “exact words,” according to Comey’s notes, were: “I hope you can see your way clear to letting this go, to letting Flynn go. He is a good guy. I hope you can let this go.” Risch cried literal meaning. Zeroing in on the word “hope,” he asked Comey if he knew of anyone being charged with a criminal offense because “they hoped for an outcome.” Though he confessed that he didn’t, Comey said, “I took it as, this is what he wants me to do.” Risch rested his case: “You may have taken it as a direction but that’s not what he said.” Donald Trump Jr., the president’s son, later made the same point in a tweet: “Hoping and telling are two very different things.”

Actually, they aren’t, when the speaker is in a position of power, as Harris noted. Referring to her experience as a prosecutor, she said, “When a robber held a gun to somebody’s head and said, ‘I hope you will give me your wallet,’ the word ‘hope’ was not the most operative word at that moment.” The gun gives the robber power to encourage another to make his hope a reality.

Opinion piece written by Deborah Tannen, professor of linguistics at Georgetown University

Why the SPN mixtape scene from 12x19 is screenwriting gold, and should be taught to the next generations of screenwriters everywhere - analysis

20 seconds. Two lines of dialogue, three gestures, a couple more camera angles. Episode 19, season 12 of a genre TV show “Supernatural”. A single strike of screenwriting and cinematic genius. The mixtape scene.

Robert Berens and Meredith Glynn, I bow before you.

This scene should be used as an example for future screenwriters how you can put maximum of meaning into minimal time and dialogue. Should be analyzed and taught at universities everywhere, how to achieve the most using the least. How to write for TV, where you only have less than an hour to built something spectacular.

WOW.

Let’s just peel off all the layers of these 20 seconds of footage and these 13 words. 13 WORDS.

(Cas knocks, Dean doesn’t say anything. Cas opens the door, apologizes for disturbing Dean in his room, and then takes a cassette tape out of his left inside coat pocket, and puts it on the desk, while tapping the label on it that says “Deans (sic!) top 13 Zepp traxx”.)

Cas: Um, I just wanted to return this.

Dean: It’s a gift. You keep those.

13 tracks. 13 words. The future. So number thirteen is important for the future. I mean, are you trying to tell us something here, writers?

(Dean takes the tape, oustreches his arm, and gives it back to Cas. We see Cas’ hand grabbing the tape, and taking it back.)

That tiny scene is ENORMOUS from the perspective of the narrative and the characterization. Let’s see what we can get out of it. (Prepare yourself: it’s gonna be long. Damn, how much meta can you write based on 20 seconds of television and two lines of dialogue?) (Hint: A lot.)

Keep reading

The Resilience of Presupposition

In our episode on how the semantics and pragmatics of presupposition work, we looked at how some sentences carry presuppositions, and how these kinds of assumptions come about. We worked out that they grow out of an interaction between the meanings of certain words, and a rule on how new information impacts the relationship between speakers in any given conversation.

We also mentioned that once a presupposition gets its claws into a sentence, it tends not to let go. If we try to shake it loose by flipping the sentence upside down — adding in a “not” — we find that it manages to hang on. Consider the following two sentences.

    (1a)    Nina regrets that she searched for her father

    (1b)    Nina doesn’t regret that she searched for her father

The word “regret” is a presupposition trigger; whenever it appears in a sentence, the clause that follows must be true — at least, if the sentence has any hope of making sense. So, (1a) presupposes that Nina searched for her father, since it would be a very strange thing to say if she hadn’t. But even with that “not” in there, in (1b), the assumption sticks around.

So, how does this work? If you keep going, we’ve got a bunch of explanations and calculations for you!

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Consider: Jyn and Cassian being soft. Consider Cassian threading his fingers through hers at a briefing for the team. Consider him pressing his lips to her knuckles as Jyn, flat-mouthed, describes exactly seventeen different ways to break into an Imperial base. Consider Jyn resting her head to Cassian’s shoulder and swiping her thumb back and forth across his wrist as he goes over datapads. Consider the pair of them tangled up like happy cats as they write out mission reports and try to avoid Hoth’s awful temperatures. Consider soft!rebelcaptain, y'all.

Some quick thoughts about how the Grand Relics reflect everyone on the crew’s personality. A lot of these points have been touched on before, but I wanted to wrap everything up nice. 

  • Davenport gets the Oculus, which is focused on Vision. If you can imagine it, you can make it real. Pretty great for a leader, and definitely good for the pragmatic captain we’ve gotten to know. You need to know exactly what you want, and if you can’t visualize it and understand it and execute it right, it will go horribly wrong. It’s the most laser precise of the relics, because you really need to have control of your own mind to use it. Of course Davenport loses his mind, loses his iron control of the situation, and the Oculus summons black holes.  It’s leadership gone wrong and self control without the control. 
  • Lup gets the Phoenix Fire Gauntlet, which is super dangerous short term but also fairly limited. It lights things of fire, and that’s it. It’s the least finessed of the Relics, and because of that it’s the most dangerous. It’s destroyed eight towns. It’s all power, none of the wherewithal and heart we see Lup demonstrate. She’s an evocation specialist, she’s the powerhouse of the group and because of that she has to know when to stop. The Gauntlet never stops, and hurts lots of people in the short term, but once it’s fired out it’s not quite as insidious as some of the other relics. It’s straightforward, and like Lup that’s both a strength and weakness. 
  • If Lup is the flamethrower that can mess you up in the short term, Taako is more subtle but overall more destructive. The Philosopher’s Stone is willing to play nice, be used, and generally not act up, right up until it throws you a curve ball and nearly crystallizes the entire world. Taako is the master of the random, game changing play, and Stone mirrors that ability to mess up everything and amplifies it ten fold. It’s not the charmer, it’s sales pitch is the most blatant thing ever and it sounds like your weird uncle, but it will bide its time until it decides the time is right to just upend everything. 
  • Nice, quiet Barry got the Animus Bell, which is nice and quiet and diligent and straight up murders people. It doesn’t make waves or look for trouble, the people who have owned it have kept it quiet and used it sensibly and thoroughly to awful, awful ends. Even Lucretia didn’t know what it did, which suggests that it’s the shyest of the relics. Barry is solid sort of guy. He does his best, death after death, body after body. He’s also a lich who invades people’s minds to get information. The Animus Bell is equally willing to drudge forward nicely and quietly, getting into dark magic and possessing people’s bodies. 
  • Merle, of course, is their godly man. He likes nature and Pan and has more insecurities than you could shake a stick at. The Gaia Sash takes that need for faith in a higher power and desire for control and blows it up. Sloane was calling herself a god by the end of her time with it, but she was also desperate for anything to ease her mind, something to put her faith in. It’s the nature relic, technically, but you could just as easily call it the God Relic. It’s all about power and how you use it and what you need to stay sane, namely the belief in something more powerful than you. 
  • It’s been discussed before how it’s weird that Magnus got time magic while Lucretia presumably got wards and protection, but it does make sense in a certain way. The best way to protect something is to make sure the bad thing never happened. I’m more interested in how the Chalice presents itself, namely that it really believes it’s a good person (relic) even while it does awful, awful things. Magnus is also someone who tries to be good, but often, thoughtlessly acts cruel. The Temporal Chalice plays the sweet tempered host, then in a fit of spite makes them watch all of Phandolin get destroyed and got Isaak to murder his best friend. Magnus will play the moral highground, and also bully people without meaning to. But while Magnus really tries to be good, the Chalice is all surface gentility with nothing underneath. It’s Rustic Hospitality, without the actual underlying Rustic Morality. 
An Analysis of Bakugou’s Superiority Complex

I think you’re at least kind of right. Bakugou knows Midoriya has something that he lacks, and that causes him to feel bitterness towards Midoriya. It’s also hard for Bakugou to deal with the idea that Midoriya is more like All Might than he is. Although, I don’t Bakugou ever admired Midoriya back when Midoriya was Quirkless. I think he hated Midoriya because Midoriya makes him feel weak.

I think Bakugou’s hatred of Midoriya comes from him having a textbook case of superiority complex.

A superiority complex is “a psychological defense mechanism in which feelings of superiority counter or conceal feelings of inferiority.” In other words, Bakugou’s narcissism and feelings of superiority are due to him trying to cover for his inferior feelings. When Bakugou is feeling weaker than Midoriya in some cases, he’ll lash out against Midoriya and treat him as inferior in order to protect his feelings of weakness. Whether Midoriya realizes it or not, he picks on Bakugou’s insecurities, and, in order to protect his ego, Bakugou bullies Midoriya and tries to make himself feel superior.

I don’t think Bakugou’s superiority complex has always existed. I think Midoriya simply triggered it.

From when he was a young child, Bakugou has always been praised.

As his mom points out, all that praise for his talents has made him narcissistic.

Bakugou’s feelings of superiority come from all the praises during his childhood. That much is self-explanatory. Because of those praises, he has high expectations for himself.

Because Bakugou was praised for his Quirk and Midoriya had no Quirk, it was easy for Bakugou to come to the conclusion that Midoriya is inferior.

As a result, when Midoriya, someone who’s supposed to be beneath him, tries to help him, it’s a huge blow to Bakugou’s ego. Midoriya is supposed to be a Quirkless loser. Bakugou isn’t supposed to need his help.

Any time Midoriya tries to help Bakugou, it makes Bakugou feel weak. In order to feel less weak and to prove his superiority, he bullies Midoriya and brings him down. A superiority complex exists to cover for an inferiority complex. In Bakugou’s case, his inferiority complex comes from Midoriya making him feel weak and like he has lower self-worth. His superiority complex kicks in when he bullies and brings Midoriya down in order to feel stronger. If Bakugou can keep convincing himself that Midoriya is weak and that he’s superior, then Bakugou can feel strong. The weaker Midoriya is, the stronger Bakugou feels. It’s a vicious mindset that Bakugou develops over the years, and he can’t get over this mindset and acknowledge Midoriya’s strength easily.

Bakugou’s superiority complex is so bad that he even considers losing if it means not having to work with Midoriya. Working with Midoriya is just that big of a bruise to his ego, and it makes him feel stronger thinking Midoriya is not good enough to work with him.

He still has to mentally think Midoriya is a piece of shit even while working with him.

Bakugou has gotten into this mindset where he has to prove he’s better than Midoriya in order to make himself stronger. Midoriya makes him feel weak. In order to combat those feelings, Bakugou has to put Midoriya down.

Midoriya getting a Quirk from All Might and catching up to Bakugou in terms of ability makes Bakugou feel weak. That’s why he can’t accept Midoriya’s strength so easily. Midoriya is supposed to always be beneath Bakugou. When he catches up to Bakugou, that only pisses Bakugou off because that’s not the way it’s supposed to be. It’s a failure on Bakugou’s part to allow Midoriya to catch up to him.

Once Bakugou realizes Midoriya received All Might’s power, he thinks that means there must be something Midoriya has that Bakugou doesn’t. Midoriya did something right while Bakugou did something wrong. Since All Might chose Midoriya, a kid who was always weaker than Bakugou, it makes Bakugou feel weak. This aggravates his inferiority complex. Bakugou feels so weak that he blames himself for getting captured by the villains and leading to All Might’s downfall.

It doesn’t help Bakugou’s inferiority complex when he feels like Midoriya is always looking down on him. He hates it when people do that.

Just a reminder, if people feel weak or incompetent and they let that consume themselves, then they have an inferior complex.

An inferior complex isn’t always conscious. In Bakugou’s case, it was initially subconscious and then became more conscious after All Might lost his powers. His inferiority complex is aggravated by anyone who makes him feel weak. Midoriya especially makes it worse. However, other people have aggravated Bakugou’s inferiority complex as well.  

If someone stands against Bakugou, Bakugou wants that person to give it his or her all. If that person doesn’t, to Bakugou, that person is looking down on him and making him feel weak.

Todoroki does just that during the Sport’s Festival.

Bakugou’s superiority complex isn’t the only defense mechanism for his inferiority complex. Often he just gets REALLY PISSED OFF against the people who make him feel weak. For instance, this is what he’s like after his fight with Todoroki.

Bakugou also shuns anyone who makes him feel weak, like Todoroki for example.

There are other smaller examples of other students picking on Bakugou’s inferiority complex. Midoriya and Todoroki are just the big examples.

Not everyone with a superiority complex is as destructive as Bakugou. In fact, out of all the students with an inferiority complex, Bakugou seems to cope with it the worst since he hurts others in the process.

Aoyama is a milder example someone with of a superiority complex. Remember, a superiority complex is simply a defense mechanism for an inferiority complex.

People, like Aoyama, who feel insecure about themselves and let that insecurity consume them have an inferiority complex.

To cope with the inferiority complex, they act more superior. Although, in Aoyama’s case, instead of tearing people down like Bakugou, he simply boasts himself, tries to get attention, and acts like he’s amazing.

Aoyama acts like he loves himself, and he loves the attention. There could be an argument to be made that Aoyama doesn’t have a superiority complex since he doesn’t bring others down in order to make himself feel superior. However, he boasts how amazing he is, gets dramatic, and seeks attention as a way to cope with his feelings of inferiority.

Right now, Bakugou and Aoyama are the only students I can think of who have developed a superiority complex from their inferiority complex.

There are certainly other students who have an inferiority complex. It’s inevitable given the nature of being a hero. Being a hero is very competitive. In order to be successful, students need to stand out from their peers, and their peers in turn will will use their weaknesses against them. Villains also take advantage of any weakness students may have. It makes sense for students to feel like they’re inadequate compared to the amazing talent of their peers or to feel like they’re not as strong as they should be.

Interestingly enough, it doesn’t really look like Midoriya has an inferiority complex. An inferiority complex occurs when people become too focused on their deficiencies and start to feel intense lower self-worth. Midoriya doesn’t have that. Midoriya has usually been pretty pragmatic about his weaknesses and doesn’t let them make him think he’s inadequate or worth less.

Bakugou’s bullying never caused Midoriya to give up or feel worth less. Midoriya has always thought Bakugou is amazing. As a result, Bakugou became a role model for Midoriya instead of someone who pushes him down.

Hearing that Togata could have been the successor for One for All and that Nighteye thinks Togata would make a better successor doesn’t make Midoriya think he is unworthy of One for All. Midoriya still thinks he’s worthy of One for All and will push himself to prove it.

Keep in mind, Midoriya not having an inferiority complex does not mean he isn’t sometimes humble or hard on himself. He’s not cocky. He will have moments where he doesn’t take credit for his achievements or is disappointed in himself. That’s part of human nature. 

Here, Midoriya is giving others credit for his achievements. 

When he says this, he’s not saying he doesn’t deserve to be where he is or that he’s not deserving of his Quirk. He’s simply giving people who have helped him throughout is life credit. He wants to be the number one hero for their sake as well as his own. That’s not an inferiority complex. 

During the moments Midoriya is hard on himself, it’s usually because it’s the rational conclusion, such as in the example shown below. 

All Might tells Midoriya that he can only use to five percent of his power. Midoriya reasonably thinks that doesn’t sound like a lot. Midoriya isn’t being unreasonably hard on himself or thinks he’s weak. He’s just coming to the rational conclusion based on what he knows. Midoriya knows he needs to work on controlling his Quirk without breaking his bones. Midoriya feeling like he has a lot to work on doesn’t mean he thinks he’s a lesser being or has low self-esteem. 

People having moments where they’re hard on themselves or think they can do better is normal. An inferiority complex is when those inferior feelings happen all the time whether subconsciously or not. Bakugou often feels weak, and this manifests into the angry and mean-spirited behavior we know. Bakugou always subconsciously or consciously thinks he’s weak. It’s a more general feeling rather than one that happens occasionally. Midoriya doesn’t always think he’s not good enough or not deserving. If he’s not good enough in a certain area, then he’ll come to the rational conclusion for that particular area. An inferiority complex is a general feeling of inferiority rather than the occasional moments of feeling inferior. It makes people feel like they’re worth less overall. It’s a neurotic condition, meaning people with an inferiority complex worry frequently about their inferiority, even when it’s irrational or not important. The negative attitudes at times are irrational. 

Take Momo’s inferiority complex for example. She is very sensitive to her shortcomings from the Sports Festival. She is very hard on herself for not living up to her high expectations. She even goes as far as saying she “hasn’t left behind any noteworthy results.” Even though Momo is a very rational thinker, this is a VERY harsh criticism on her part and has affected her attitude since then. 

Momo’s negative feelings about herself occur when she compares herself to Todoroki. She starts feeling not good enough and loses confidence in herself. An inferiority complex affects the general perception and behavior one has towards himself or herself. 

Her inferiority complex prevents her from speaking up about a plan because she thinks she’s not good enough to share her idea. 

She thinks so little of herself that she comes to the conclusion that if Todoroki’s plan didn’t work, then hers can’t work either. 

An inferiority complex affects the behavior of individuals. In Momo’s case, hers makes her more passive because she feels like she’s not good enough to voice her opinion. In Aoyama’s case, it makes him more self-centered in order to compensate for his inferior feelings. In Bakugou’s case, it makes him become a bully because bringing people down makes him feel more superior. 

Midoriya not having an inferior complex makes sense. Midoriya is supposed to be Bakugou’s foil. Bakugou’s weaknesses are supposed to be Midoriya’s strengths.

If both boys have an inferiority complex, then they don’t make that good of foils. While Bakugou has feelings of weakness that he lets consume him. Midoriya doesn’t let his flaws make him feel weak or insecure and tries to push himself to be number one anyway because he believes he’s worthy of being number one.

Keep in mind, not everyone with an inferiority complex lets it hold them back or has harmful ways to cope with the inferiority complex like Bakugou does. An inferiority complex is simply a constant feeling of being inadequate and not measuring up. Some people with an inferiority complex use it to improve the skills they think they lack. It can be a driving force to improve. Bakugou, in a way, has also used his inferiority complex to improve himself. Unfortunately, he also tries to handle his feelings of weakness by lashing out and bringing others down.

The worst way to cope with an inferiority complex is to develop a superiority complex from it. People with a superiority complex still have low self-esteem like others with an inferiority complex. However, they also bring down others in order to cope with their low self-esteem and end up being isolated from people as a result.

I think Lup’s speech is best understood in context of the wider themes of the show.

Travis/Magnus got a lot of flack during The Suffering Game arc for always pushing for trust. And what confused me some about that arc was that Griffin was structuring the game in such a way that Travis/Magnus would get flack for trusting. In every other arc- with Sloane in Petals to the Metal, the purple worm in Eleventh Hour, Kravitz in Crystal Kingdom- THB were ultimately incentivized to be compassionate, and penalized if they weren’t. That rings true to the McElroy Brand at large. And The Suffering Game does end with Lord Sterling rewarding Magnus for his compassion, and Antonia forgiving Taako for forsaking them and telling them that who they are when they’re pushed to the brink isn’t the real them.

I can see that as foreshadowing both the Red Robes’ discussion about destroying worlds, and whatever the endgame is. I see this a lot with discussions of the AtLA finale- the idea that it’s selfish not to sacrifice your ideals to pragmatism. But ideals matter. Keeping them alive and living according to them has an impact on the world. At the end of the first round of Wonderland, the Liches show THB the people who forsook them, who played game theory right- and they are pouring off necrotic energy, strengthening the Liches and Wonderland. I’m not saying that these situations aren’t very complex morally, but this wasn’t just a case of Lup or Magnus being overly idealistic. It was them knowing that there are other ways of strengthening the Hunger.

Because of Lup’s intervention, Taako came up with a solution that saved the souls of most of the people on that planet while keeping the crystal from the Hunger. Paloma’s last prophecy said that when faced with two terrible options, they must always remember that there is another way. I cannot see TAZ leaving us with a message that the ends justify the means.

  • ISTJ & INTJ: *discussing our strengths and weaknesses*
  • INTJ: I sound like I never do anything for others unless it's in my best interest but that's not true. What I do is consider whether something fits into my ethics code, and if it does I don't really feel like I'm making a big sacrifice and if it doesn't I don't feel bad about not doing it. For example if a friend needed my help I would automatically help them, but if what they wanted of me was unreasonable I would weigh the pros and cons, realise it was unfair of them to ask and not feel bad because I've done nothing wrong.
  • ISTJ: You are very good with boundaries.
  • INTJ: I- yeah I never really thought of it that way. I really do lay down the law and don't change my opinion unless new information is brought to light.