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William Shakespeare - IV Henry

Görsel :  A female Viet Cong guerrilla armed with a Russian-made PPs-43 submachine gun

A lot of people have asked if I can make a list of everything I’ve read for my MA this year. And while that would be pretty impossible, it occurred to me that I can just copy and paste the bibliographies of papers I’ve written for you to look through. I’m going to do this installments (and I will tag them ‘emd library,’ but for those of you who are interested, here’s a resource list of Shakespeare/early modern criticism on the random topics I’ve written about this year:

Shakespeare and Single Combat

  1. Ascoli, Albert Russel. 2010. ‘Wrestling with Orlando: Chivalric Pastoral in Shakespeare’s Arden,’ Renaissance Drama n.s. 36/37, pp. 293-317.
  2. Alexander, Nigel. 1971. Poison, Play, and Duel: A Study in Hamlet (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.).
  3. Cranfill, Thomas M. 1973. ‘Shakespeare’s Old Heroes,’ Texas Studies in Literature and Language 15, pp. 215-30.
  4. Edelman, Charles. 1991. Brawl Ridiculous: Swordfighting in Shakespeare’s Plays (Manchester: Manchester University Press).
  5. Evans, G. Blakemore and others. 1997. The Riverside Shakespeare (Boston: Houghton MifflinCompany).
  6. Foakes, R. A. 2003. Shakespeare & Violence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  7. Jackson, James L. 1990. ‘“They Catch One Another’s Rapiers”: The Exchange of Weapons in Hamlet,Shakespeare Quarterly 41, pp. 281-98.
  8. Knowles, Ronald. 1991. ‘The Farce of History: Miracle, Combat, and Rebellion in 2 Henry VI,’ The Yearbook of English Studies 21, pp. 168-86.
  9. Low, Jennifer. 1999. “Manhood and the Duel: Enacting Masculinity in “Hamlet,”’ The Centennial Review 43, pp. 501-512.
  10. Low, Jennifer. 2000. ‘“Those Proud Titles Thou Hast Won”: Sovereignty, Power and Combat in Shakespeare’s Second Tetralogy,’ Comparative Drama 34, pp. 269-90
  11. Meron, Theodor. 1997. ‘The Homeric Wars Through Shakespeare,’ Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (American Society of International Law) 91, pp. 126-31.
  12. Meron, Theodor. 1998. Bloody Constraint: War and Chivalry in Shakespeare (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  13. Sacharoff, Mark. 1970. ‘Tragic vs. Satiric: Hector’s Conduct in II, ii of Shakespeare’s “Troilus and Cressida,”’ Studies in Philology 67, pp. 517-31.
  14. Semenza, Gregory M. Colón. 2001. ‘Sport, War, and Contest in Shakespeare’s Henry VI,’ Renaissance Quarterly 54, pp. 1251-72.
  15. Snyder, Susan. 1980. ‘Ourselves Alone: The Challenge to Single Combat in Shakespeare,’ Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 20, pp. 201-216.
  16. Waggoner, G. R. 1965. ‘Timon of Athens and the Jacobean Duel,’ Shakespeare Quarterly 16, pp. 300-311.
  17. Watson, Curtis Brown. 1960. Shakespeare the Renaissance Concept of Honor (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

Be warned, just because they’re on this list doesn’t necessarily mean they’re ‘good’ critics. (Theodor Meron, for instance, is wrong about a lot of stuff.) But here’s the first bit. Happy hunting.

Soviet Thunder: The PPSh-41 - 7.62 Tokarev

Back to the war heroes, we come to the PPSh-41. This was one of the Soviet’s most common weapons. The Soviet’s primary SMG, the PPSh-41 is an icon of the WWII-era USSR soldier and is probably one of the most common submachine guns in the former 2nd World and the 3rd World.

The story of the PPSh-41 dates to the 1920′s. The Russian military was trying to get off of a shitload of non-Russian guns and calibers they obtained during WWI and the Russian Civil War. So while they were causing famines and purging everything, they began organizing a number of different designs to get the Red Army on Russian weapons.

These included the Korovin Pistol, the Maxim-Tokarev LMG, and also around 4 different submachinegun designs. These were narrowed down to the Tokarev 1927 submachine gun and the PPD-34. The PPD won and was modified into the later PPD-40 following the fighting in the Winter War.

However, the PPD-40 was seen as too costly as the Germans began invading, so it was simplified into the PPSh-41 we know today and was made in the millions.

The PPSh’s high production numbers made it an icon of the combat of the Eastern Front. It was heavily used by the Russian Army, usually to assist mobile wave attacks. It’s high rate of fire, large 71 round drum magazines and reasonably controllable recoil made it a force to be reckoned with, especially against German troops. Many German soldiers actually tended to steal PPSh’s from captured or killed Russian soldiers and used them. It became so common that the Wehrmacht adopted two models. One modified for 9mm Parabellum as the  MP41® and unmodified ones in 7.62 Tokarev and 7.63 Mauser as the MP717®. 

Also made was the PPS-43. This was an even more simplified version made by the Red Army in Leningrad and was noted for a folding stock and modified for 35 round stick mags. Actually many Russian soldiers preferred the stick mag over the drum, as the drum tended to misfeed more and were a lot heavier.

Following WWII, the PPSh-41 series still served as the standard SMG for the Russians until the 1960′s. From there, it was used heavily by the Combloc. East German guards at the Berlin Wall were armed with PPSh-41′s until the 1970′s, North Korean and Chinese soldiers used them during the Korean War, the Vietcong used them heavily in Vietnam. Afghanistan used them, Yugoslavia used them, Guinea-Bissau used them, Siad Barre’s regime in Somalia used them. Even around 60 years later, the PPSh-41 is still showing up in modern conflicts like Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan and more. Around 6 million PPSh series guns have been made, and are still being used.

With their heavy usage by the 2nd and 3rd World, the PPSh is an icon of the Russian soldier, more so than the AK. WIth such a status, any movie showing off the Red Army, the Vietcong or the 3rd World have a PPSh.

With it’s long use by the USSR, the Combloc and a number of insurgencies across the globe makes the PPSh-41 a common movie gun. WWII films made in or about the USSR heavily feature the gun. And for movies, it was a perfect gun, as it’s high rate of fire combined with hot loaded blanks can lead to a giant muzzle flash and from the East Germans of Bridge Of Spies to the Vietcong of The Green Berets, the PPSh is a common sight.

And just like it’s appearance in movies, it’s heavy usage by pretty much every insurgent force as well as the Combloc has made it a common sight in video games. A lot of WWII games tend to include a Russian campaign, and the PPSh is commonly used as the USSR’s submachinegun of choice. Most games recreating the Vietnam War have the PPSh as the VC/NVA’s standard SMG and a small amount of modern combat games even include the gun for it’s militia factions. It’s big, loud and lethal.

And that is the PPSh-41, the submachinegun of the 3rd World. It’s a war time design that’s seen great success ever since. It’s an icon of the Russian soldier and from the Hungarian Revolution to the modern insurgencies, it’s a common sight. It’s big, it’s easy to make and use, and it’s a revolutionary’s best friend.


The PPSh-2

The PPSh-41 submachine is an iconic weapon of the Soviet Union from World War II, being one of the most heavily produced submachine guns in history with millions made.  Despite the success of the PPSh-41, the General Artillery Department of the Red Army General Staff wanted a new submachine gun that was lighter and had better ergonomics.  To answers the GAU’s call, the designer of the PPSh-41, Georgy Shpagin, invented the PPSh-2, a new submachine gun based upon the principles of his earlier designs.  The PPSh-2 was designed to be simples, easy to use, reliable, and most importantly economical to mass produce.  As a result, the weapon was mostly constructed from stamped sheet metal.  It fired from an open bolt, used a 35 round magazine, and was chambered for 7.62x25 Tokarev.  Firing in fully automatic only, it had a rate of fire of around 550 rounds per minute. They were produced in two models, first with wooden furniture, and later with a telescoping metal stock.

The PPSh-2 performed favorably during Soviet weapons trials, and around 200 - 250 were produced for field trials.  However, in the end the GAU chose a competing model called the PPS-43, designed by Alexei Sudayev.

July 19 || 6:00 pm 

 Finished this chart a few days ago with all of the U.S. presidents and their major accomplishments! S/O to thearialligraphyproject for this life changing printable which can be found here. I love this thing! 

(This is one version) - The flag was held aloft on top of the Reichstag building in Berlin, by a Soviet soldier, Alexei Kovalyov from Kiev aided by a Sergeant from Dagestan. May 2 1945.

The Russian photographer Yevgeny Khaldei, is credited with taking the picture.
Here are the main points concerning the flag: Khaldei said the flag was made by his uncle, who stitched the hammer, sickle and star on to a red table cloth taken from the TASS office in Moscow. Khaldei was then on a short stay in Moscow, but soon returned to the front.
On 2 May 1945 Khaldei ordered the three soldiers in his company up to the roof of the Reichstag. Various positions were tried before the final famous picture was chosen. The day after, the picture arrived in Moscow.

He has a ‘Pistolet-pulemyot Sudaeva’ 43, or PPS-43, a Russian full-automatic sub-machine-gun strapped over his right shoulder.

WW2 Colourised Photos (Colorised by Olga Shirnina from Russia)


The PPs-43 Submachine Gun,

The Soviet PPSh-41 was an excellent weapon, so much so that it has become a legendary weapon of World War II.  However the PPSh-41 still had some flaws and needed further refinement.  For example its blisteringly fast 800 round per minute rate of fire quickly exhausted a 35 round magazine, thus it worked best with a large, heavy, and unreliable 71 round magazine.  The PPSh-41 was heavy for a submachine gun at 8 pounds.  Finally, while the PPSh-41 was easy to mass produce, the Soviet government wanted a submachine gun that was even quicker to produce using less resources, machining hours, and skilled manpower.

In 1942 a Russian officer named Lt. I.K. Bezruchko-Vysotsky invented the design which would provide the basis for the PPs-43.  The design would be adopted by the firearms designer Alexei Sudayev, who improved upon the design with an emphasis in simplifying it for mass production.  The first prototypes were tested in Spring of 1942, and the weapon was adopted as the PPs-42.  Later Sudayev improved upon the design further, which was again adopted as the PPs-43.

Like the PPSh-41, the PPs-43 was chambered for the 7.62x25mm Tokarev cartridge.  However several changes were made that created a much different submachine gun.  First and foremost, whereas the PPSh-41 used a simple wooden stock, the PPs-43 used a collapsible metal stock.  The PPs-43 made extensive used of stamped metal rather than machined parts.  Thus machining time of the PPs-43 was only 2.7 hours whereas machining time for the PPSh-41 was 7.3 hours.  The PPs-43 utilized a blowback operated action which fired with an open bolt.  Rate of fire was purposely decreased to 500-600 rounds per minute, a significant decrease from the the 800 RPM of the PPSh-41.  Thus, the PPs-43 was only issued with a double stack 35 round magazine.  Fire was in fully automatic only, and a stamped metal recoil compensator was attached to the muzzle to decrease recoil and muzzle climb.  Overall, the PPs-43 was much lighter and economical than the PPSH-41, weighing 1.5 pounds lighter.

During World War II, the Soviet Union was the king of submachine guns, producing 6 million PPSH’s alone.  PPs numbers are impressive as well, with 2 million being produced by the end of the war.  Like the PPSH, German forces often used captured PPs’, using the German 7.63x25 Mauser cartridge.  Production ended in 1946 due to an oversupply of submachine guns after the war.  As a result, thousands were shipped to other communist nations such as China, North Korea, Vietnam, and the eastern European Soviet Bloc countries.  A modified copy called the M/44 was also manufactured by Finland and chambered for 9mm Para.

A maioria de nossos sentimentos gerais — todo tipo de inibição, pressão, tensão, explosão no jogo dos órgãos (…) — excita nosso impulso causal: queremos uma razão para nos acharmos assim ou assim — para nos acharmos bem ou nos acharmos mal. Nunca nos basta simplesmente constatar o fato de que nos achamos assim ou assim: só admitimos esses fato — dele nos tornamos conscientes —, ao lhe darmos um algum tipo de motivação.
—  Friedrich Nietzsche.
43 Minutes Part 1

I wrote this fic intending for it to be a 2 (maybe 3) parter, but if you guys don’t want another part just let me know. I am totally happy to do whatever you all prefer. I would also like to apologise in advance if the medical knowledge in this fic is not up to scratch. I am not a qualified medical professional so I am really sorry if any of this is inaccurate. Please do not hesitate to let me know if anything is inaccurate though, I would be happy to learn in the future!

This fic is based on Unicorn Baby’s 4th birthday, and the events that happen during the difficult day for Amelia. 

May 15th 2012

‘Addie. Addie, my baby’s going to die.’

May 15th 2016

Amelia knew that today was not going to be a particularly easy day for her but in the same way as all the other anniversaries, she tried her best to forget and soldier on with it. She woke up alone as Owen was called into the hospital during the night. It was fine. She could handle this on her own, heck she had been dealing with it on her own for the last 4 years, why should today be any different? Amelia got out of bed, wearing one of Owen’s shirts that drowned her tiny figure, and grabbed a box from under the bed. She sat back down on the bed and took a deep breath before opening the box. It was filled with memories.

Memories of her dad – his watch, photos of his wedding to her mom, photos of him with Amelia as a child playing and laughing.

Memories of her brother – Mer’s old phone with his voice encapsulated inside, photos of him with Zola and Bailey, one of his old shirts that she took from the dream house on the day of his funeral. It still smelt of him a bit, but the scent was beginning to fade.

Memories of her best friend – photos of them travelling together and being silly, a necklace Amelia bought her for her 21st birthday.

Memories of her sweet baby. The baby who was meant to be turning 4 today, and running around with his little friends and stuffing his face with birthday cake. Amelia hesitated as she got to one special memory – his hospital tag. There wasn’t much for her to take from the hospital as a memory of him, she didn’t even get a picture of him. The tag was the only thing she had to remember him by. Her heart broke as she stroked the tag, the anger and hurt creeping back into her emotions. Her eyes began to fill with tears when it all came flooding back to her.

Happy Birthday my beautiful boy. I love you all the way around the world and back again.

Snapping herself out of this state, she started to get ready for the day ahead of her.

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