Title IX is one of the most significant laws in the protection of trans students throughout the United States. In states that have additional laws helping trans students, many of those laws clarify or build from the protections stated here.
Title IX is a federal law prohibiting sex discrimination in schools. Courts and the U.S. Departments of Justice and Education have concluded that discrimination because a person is transgender or gender non-conforming is illegal sex discrimination. Title IX applies to all schools (K-12 and post-secondary) that accept federal funds, including nearly all public schools. Complaints of discrimination or harassment can be filed with the U.S. Department of Education.
However, Title IX doesn’t explicitly list transgender people as a protected group – the Obama administration has interpreted it that way. This reading has remained unchallenged for the most part, and a federal appeals court supported the interpretation in a ruling last month. But the policy is still vulnerable to political changes, especially as it comes months before a presidential election.
Now, the stance that transgender students are protected is being challenged. North Carolina recently passed a controversial law requiring people to use the bathrooms consistent with their “biological sex,” including in schools. The Department of Justice threatened to block implementation of the law; the state sued the federal government last week. The Justice Department then sued the state as well as public entities such as the University of North Carolina, alleging that they are violating Title IX.
from this article by the LA Times