post postmodernism

We were keeping our eye on 1984. When the year came and the prophecy didn’t, thoughtful Americans sang softly in praise of themselves. The roots of liberal democracy had held. Wherever else the terror had happened, we, at least, had not been visited by Orwellian nightmares.

But we had forgotten that alongside Orwell’s dark vision, there was another - slightly older, slightly less well known, equally chilling: Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World. Contrary to common belief even among the educated, Huxley and Orwell did not prophesy the same thing. Orwell warns that we will be overcome by an externally imposed oppression. But in Huxley’s vision, no Big Brother is required to deprive people of their autonomy, maturity and history. As he saw it, people will come to love their oppression, to adore the technologies that undo their capacities to think.

What Orwell feared were those who would ban books. What Huxley feared was that there would be no reason to ban a book, for there would be no one who wanted to read one. Orwell feared those who would deprive us of information. Huxley feared those who would give us so much that we would be reduced to passivity and egoism. Orwell feared that the truth would be concealed from us. Huxley feared the truth would be drowned in a sea of irrelevance. Orwell feared we would become a captive culture. Huxley feared we would become a trivial culture, preoccupied with some equivalent of the feelies, the orgy porgy, and the centrifugal bumblepuppy. As Huxley remarked in Brave New World Revisited, the civil libertarians and rationalists who are ever on the alert to oppose tyranny “failed to take into account man’s almost infinite appetite for distractions.” In 1984, Orwell added, people are controlled by inflicting pain. In Brave New World, they are controlled by inflicting pleasure. In short, Orwell feared that what we fear will ruin us. Huxley feared that what we desire will ruin us.

This book is about the possibility that Huxley, not Orwell, was right.

anonymous asked:

How do you differentiate between antemortem and postmodern injuries? For the added twist value 👀

Hey Nonnie,

Before we start, lets have some basic definitions. Antemortem injuries occurs before death, it is usually indicated by signs of healing. Perimortem injuries are those that occur at or near the time of death, with no evidence of healing. Postmortem injuries occur after death, also with no evidence of healing.

Differentiating between the types/timeline of injuries is mainly studied in the field of forensic anthropology, dealing with skeletal trauma.

The healing process of injuries happens almost immediately after it occurs. Evidence of the healing process on skeletal fractures can show as early as after 1 week after the injury. Between week 1 and 3, the fracture edges will remold and rounded, and by week 6 a bony callus will form. Healing rates will of course depends on facts such as overall health and nutritional status of the person injured. Anthropologist can use bones to basically figure out history trauma on the body: history of abuse or accidental trauma, history of nutrition, indication of poverty etc. Fun fact, antemortem injuries/fractures can help with confirming identity of an unknown person through presence of plates/pins (which might have serial numbers recorded in medial charts).

Perimortem trauma is important for reconstructing the events that occurs near the time of death, while postmortem trauma is important to determine if the injuries are caused to conceal some information about the crime (or from opportunistic local wildlife feasting on free food). With perimortem fractures, the person died before healing take place, but the fracture should still show signs of the biomechanics of healing starting similar to antemortem fractures. Peri- and post-mortem trauma is different from antemortem trauma since there is no sign of healing. Bones are elastic while alive, and gets dry and brittle after death in a process called plastic deformation. This means that perimortem bone fractures tends to splinter, while postertem breaks shatter in a more regular shape.

Moving away from bones and onto bruising. Bruises is a discolouration of the skin when blood vessels/capillaries are damaged by trauma, letting seeps/hemorrhage. Since bruises accompanies different types of wounds, usually associated with blunt trauma, so they can provide information on their causation and help with the reconstruction of events leading up to death. Bruises are dated/aged differently depending on where it is on the body. A deep bruise in the thigh muscle might not appear for a day or two, while a bruise over a bony prominence and where tissue is loose (ie near the eyes) will appear and swell very quickly. Postmortem injuries tend to have a yellowish brown, kind of bloodless appearance, lacking vital reaction due to the absence of blood flow after death.

Looking at postmortem injuries can be difficult, and trauma on the body might still appear due to resuscitation efforts or from the way the body is handled after death. This is what Watson can pull up online, hopefully there is some useful info here. Happy writing!

Russian prefixes (1/3)

Hey, I decided to make posts about all these prefixes (btw, there`re 70 in total), with examples and significations, to help you understand how meaning of the word changes with its parts (or to confuse you even more). Word formation is what truly makes language learning so much easier and more exciting, isn`t it?

As they teach it in schools, there`re three types of prefixes in Russian language (classified by spelling). Therefore, I`ll make three posts about each type. If you believe that I missed something or if you have any doubt or question, feel free to say it.

part 2 | part 3


[m. stands for meaning, ex. for example] [first of the verbs pair is perfect, the other is imperfect] [outdated and most borrowed prefixes are usually not marked out in most words]


Неизменяемые — Unchanged

The easiest ones. You always write those in the same way — simply as they are.

  • В-/ВО- : m. into, in, inside; ex. войти́/входи́ть (v) (to come in), вокрýг (adv) (around), вложéние (n) (input), вдýмчивый (adj) (thoughtful)
  • ВНЕ- : m. out, exo-; exвнеплáновость (n) (unscheduledness; out of plan),  внеземно́й (adj) (extraterrestrial)
  • ВНУТРИ- : m. inside, within, intra-; ex. внутриве́нный (adj) (intravenous)
  • ВСЕ- : m. all, every, whole; ex. всезнáйка (n) (know-it-all, wise guy), всеми́рный (adj) (worldwide)
  • ВЫ- : m. out, off; ex. вы́йти/выходи́ть (v) (to go out), вы́бор (n) (choice), вы́чурный (adj) (pretentious)
  • ДО- : m. until, before; ex. дойти́/доходи́ть (v) (to reach /destination/, to come), добелá (adv) (/until sth is/ white-hot), достижéние (n) (achievement), доистори́ческий (adj) (prehistoric)
  • ЗА- : m. over, behind; ex. зайти́/заходи́ть (v) (to come in), заоднó (adv) (at one, together with), зака́т (n) (sunset), зама́нчивый (adj) (tempting)
  • ИСПОД- : m. from under; ex. исподтишка́ (adv) (stealthily), исподлóбья (adv) (sullenly /lit. from under forehead/)
  • КОЕ- : m. some; ex. кое-чтó (pr) (something /particular/), кое-где́  (pr) (somewhere /particular/)
  • МЕЖ-/МЕЖДО-/МЕЖДУ- m. between; exмеждуре́чье (n) (interfluve), межвидовóй (adj) (interspecific)
  • НА- : m. on, upon, to; ex. найти́/находи́ть (to find, to discover), наси́льно (adv) (by force), наза́д (adv) (backward), напóр (n) (pressure), напряжённый (adj) (tense)
  • НАД-/НАДО- : m. upon, beyond; ex. надме́нно (adv) (arrogantly), надзóр (n) (supervision), надстрóчный (adj) (superscript), надтре́снутый (participle) (cracked /a little/)
  • НАИ- : m. the most /makes a stronger superlative/; ex. наиме́нее (adv) (the least)наилýчший (adj) (the very best)
  • НЕ- : m. not, non-, un-; ex. неторопли́во (adv) (slowly, unhurriedly), неве́рность (n) (disloyalty), неблагода́рный (adj) (ungrateful)
  • НЕДО- : m. under, not enough; ex. недоста́точно (adv) (not enough), недобóр (n) (shortfall), недонóшенный (participle) (premature /baby/)
  • НИ- : m. no-; ex. ника́к (adv) (no way, nohow), ниче́й (adj) (nobody`s)
  • О-/ОБ-/ОБО- : m. over, close to, to make, …; ex. обойти́/обходи́ть (v) (to bypass, to get around), обы́чно (adv) (usually), оплóшность (n) (mis-step, oversight), осторóжный (adj) (careful)
  • ОКОЛО- : m. near, close to, around; ex. о̀колоцве́тник (n) (perianth), о̀колонау́чный (adj) (near-scientific)
  • ОТ-/ОТО- : m. off, away, apart; ex. отойти́/отходи́ть (v) (to back off), отстóйно (adv) (lame), отда́ча (n) (recoil), отде́льный (adj) (separate)
  • ПА- /outdated/ : m. related to/incomplete; ex. па́луба (n) (deck), па́дчерица (step-daughter)
  • ПЕРЕ- : m. over, cross, trans; ex. перейти́/переходи́ть (v) (to cross), переме́нно (adv) (alternately), переýлок (n) (alleyway), перекрёстный (adj) (cross-), перепóлненный (participle) (overfilled)
  • ПО- : m. by; ex. пойти́ (v, perf) (to go), поспе́шно (adv) (hurriedly), поте́ха (n) (fun), подрóбный (adj) (detailed)
  • ПОД-/ПОДО- : m. under; ex. подойти́/подходи́ть (v) (to come up), подчинённый (adj/n) (subordinate),
  • ПОЗА- : m. before; ex. позавчера́ (n) (the day before yesterday), позапрóшлый (adj) (before the last /time/)
  • ПОСЛЕ- : m. after; ex. послеза́втра (n) (the day after tomorrow), по̀слесле́дующий (adj) (after next /time/)
  • ПРА- : m. grand-, great-, proto-; ex. пра́внук (n) (great-grandson), праязы́к (n) (proto-language)
  • ПРЕД-/ПРЕДО- : m. before, in front of; ex. предположи́тельно (adv) (presumably), представле́ние (n) (performance), предвари́тельный (adj) (preliminary)
  • ПРО- : m. through, over, per; ex. пройти́/проходи́ть (v) (to come through, to pass), провóрно (adv) (agilely), прове́рка (n) (testcheck), прока́зливый (adj) (puckish)
  • ПРОТИВО- : m. against, contra; ex. противостоя́ние (n) (confrontation), противоречи́вый (adj) (contradictory)
  • С-/СО- : m. co-, together, from, with; ex. сойти́/сходи́ть (v) (to come from /upstreirs/), сли́шком (adv) (too /much/), спра́ва (adv) (from left), собра́ние (n) (collection, meeting), сме́жный (adj) (adjacent)
  • СВЕРХ- : m. upon, super-, hyper-; ex. сверхурóчно (adv) (overtime), сверхси́ла (n) (superpower), сверхъесте́ственный (adj) (supernatural)
  • СРЕДИ- : m. among, between; ex. Средизе́мье (n) (Middle-Earth), средиземномóрский (adj) (Mediterranean)
  • СУ- /outdated/ : m. admixture/likeness/with; ex. сýмрачно (adv) (sombrely), сугрóб (n) (snowdrift), сýдорожный (adj) (convulsive)
  • ТРЕ- /outdated/ : m. three times; ex. трезвóн (n) (peal), трекля́тый (adj) (damned)
  • У- : m. completely; ex. уйти́/уходи́ть (v) (to leave), успе́шно (adv) (successfully), уби́йство (n) (murder), уста́лый (adj) (tired)

And the borrowed ones:

a) Greek

  • А-/АН- = a-/an-; ex. ассиметри́я (n) (asymmetry), анома́льный (adj) (abnormal)
  • ГИПЕР- = hyper-; ex. гиперакти́вный (adj) (hyperactive)
  • ГИПО- = hypo-; ex. гипотерми́я (n) (hypothermia)
  • МЕТА-= meta-; ex. метафи́зика (n) (metaphysics)
  • НЕО- = neo-; ex. неоната́льный (adj) (neonatal)
  • ОРТО-= ortho-; ex. ортодокса́льный (adj) (orthodox)
  • ПАН- = pan-; ex. пантео́н (n) (pantheon), пансексуа́л (n) (pansexual)
  • ПАРА- = para-; ex. паради́гма (n) (paradigm)
  • ПРОТО- = proto-; ex. прототи́п (n) (prototype)

b) Latin

  • ИН- = in-; ex. иннова́ционный (adj) (innovative)
  • КВАЗИ- = quasi-; ex. ква̀зинау́чный (adj) (quasi-scientific)
  • ПОСТ- = post-; ex. по̀стмодерни́зм (n) (postmodernism)
  • СУБ-= sub-, semi-; ex. субти́льный (adj) (subtle)
  • СУПЕР- = super-; ex. су̀перлу́ние (n) (supermoon)
  • ТРАНС-= trans-; ex. трансгресси́ровать (v) (to transgress, to Apparate)
  • УЛЬТРА-= ultra-; ex. ультразву́к (n) (ultrasound)
  • ЭКС-= ex-, ec-; ex. эксцентри́чный (adj) (eccentric)

c) Other

  • АНТИ- = anti-, dys-; ex. антиуто́пия (n) (dystopia)
  • АРХИ- = arch-; ex. архипиздри́т (n) (cunt-chaser /rare and strong swear word/), архисло́жный (adj) (very complicated)
  • БИ- = bi-; ex. билингви́зм (n) (bilingualism)
  • ВИЦЕ- = vice-; ex. ви́це-губерна́тор (n) (vice-governor)
  • ДЕ-/ДЕЗ-= de-; ex. дезодора́нт (n) (deodorant), демонти́ровать (v) (dismantle)
  • ДИС- = dis-, dys-; ex. диссона́нс (n) (dissonance)
  • ИР-= ir-; ex. иррациона́льный (adj) (irrational)
  • КОНТР- = contra-; ex. контраба́нда (n) (smuggling)
  • МАКРО- = macro-; ex. ма̀кроу́ровень (n) (macrolevel)
  • МИКРО-= micro-; ex. микроволно́вка (n) (microwave oven)
  • ОБЕР- = chief, master, first; ex. о̀бер-прокуро́р (n) (chief procurator)
  • ПСЕВДО- = pseudo-; ex. псевдони́м (n) (pen name, pseudonym)
  • РЕ- = re-; ex. регенери́ровать (v) (to regenerate)
  • ЭКЗО- = exo-; ex. экзоге́нный (adj) (exogenous, environmental)
  • ЭКСТРА-= exstr-; ex. экстраве́рт (n) (extrovert)