Queen Nzinga Mbande (1583-1663), sometimes referred to as Anna Nzinga, was ruler of the Ndongo and Matamba Kingdoms of the Mbundu people in what is now Angola.
As the favoured daughter of King Kiluanji of the Ndongo, Nzinga Mbande was brought up witnessing her father’s governance of the kingdom first-hand. He even took her with him when he went to war. Kiluanji made deals with the Portuguese who were expanding their slave trading operations in South West Africa, and this relationship was maintained when her brother Ngola Hari became king. However in 1617 the Portuguese Governor Correia de Sousa launched attacks against the Ndongo kingdom that captured thousands of Mbundu people.
In 1621 when the Portuguese invited the Ndongo king to take part in peace talks, he sent his sister Nzinga Mbande in his place. At her famous first meeting with De Sousa chairs were only provided for the Portuguese, and Mbande was expected to sit on the floor. Instead she commanded one of her servants to go down on all fours and act as her chair. During the negotiations Mbande walked a fine line between preventing the Portuguese from controlling the kingdom as they had done in Kongo, while keeping options open to trade for firearms to strengthen her armies. In this she was successful, although as a condition of the agreement she had to convert to Christianity and was baptised as Anna de Sousa, with the Governor becoming her Godfather.
In 1626 Mbande became Queen of the Ndongo following the death of her brother. Her reign began in peril as the Portuguese went back on their deal with her and declared war, as did other neighbouring tribes. Forced into retreat from her own lands, Mbande led her people south to the kingdom of Matamba, which she attacked, capturing Matamba’s Queen and routing her army. Mbande then installed herself as the new ruler of Matamba, from where she launched a prolonged campaign of guerrilla warfare against the Portuguese which would last for the next 30 years.
Mbande developed a legendary reputation as a warrior, although claims that that she took part in human sacrifice are likely the result of European propaganda and gossip. Accounts that she maintained a personal harem of more than 50 men are also unproven. What is known is that Mbande assembling a diverse army to oppose the Portuguese that included runaway slaves, defecting soldiers, and women. Exploiting European rivalries she made an alliance with the Dutch, which included acquiring her own personal bodyguard of 60 Dutch elite soldiers armed with rifles. Working with the Dutch, Mbande successfully defeated Portuguese armies in 1644, 1646, and 1647. However the Dutch were eventually pushed out of the region in 1648 and Mbanda was forced to carry on the fight alone. While she was never able to completely defeat them, she successfully resisted Portuguese invasion for decades.
Mbande continued personally leading her troops into battle until she was in her sixties, but the long war eventually wore both sides down. In 1657 she finally signed a peace treaty with Portugal. She then spent the rest of her life focused on rebuilding a nation which had been devastated by conflict and over-farming. She died of natural causes in 1663, aged 81. Today Nzinga Mbande is a symbol of Angolan independence, memorialised by numerous statues.
In this map, the War of the Portuguese Succession goes even worse than OTL, with António of Portugal being exiled out of Europe. Brazil, after the foundation of the Iberian Union by Phillip (the enemy of António), was heavily militarized, causing most of the former Portuguese colonies to fall under Iberian control. While Portugal still had autonomy under the union, António failed to believe it would be ultimately beneficial for the nation. After claiming the throne until 1584, he decided to make his residence in the Portuguese colony of Zambezia. Securing the region around him, he and his loyal Missionary army kept up trade with the other former Portuguese trade ports. By 1600, António’s successor had built of something of an empire, focused on Africa itself. The ports in India soon fell to the native states or the Iberians, leading the king of “Portuguese Africa” to only focus on the continent itself. The Kingdom promised a new hope for anyone not supporting the Iberians, who were slowly dominating the Portuguese people and culture. As time went on, they managed to make a sincere military presence in Africa, trading with the natives and becoming a major player in the slave trade (even creating their own branch in the “Portuguese Africa Company”). The late-1600’s into the early-1700’s were a Golden Age for Portuguese Africa, and shone a light on a warm road ahead.
NOTE: The Viceroyalties are not viceroyalties in the colonial sense. In order to govern the kingdom more efficiently, the King of Portuguese Africa would promote lords to rule each area of the kingdom. It worked much like a feudal-like system, but the lords ultimately had more control in their respective regions than the King did. This system was one of the reasons that Portuguese Africa was so short lived.
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