portugal in history

Portuguese Influence on Japanese

I’m pretty sure I have a similar post on this, but this post is much more in depth because I wrote a whole term paper about this. If you love BOTH of these languages like I do or if you want to learn more about Japanese, stay tuned: 

Some (very brief) History:
In about 1543, the Portuguese arrived on the island of Tanegashima (off the coast of Kyushu) in Japan. The contact of the Portuguese and Japanese resulted in a lot of trade and religious conversion (on the part of the Japanese). For a pop culture context, look up the movie “Silence” with Andrew Garfield. At one point the daimyos promoted having the Portuguese in Japan, but at a later date they didn’t really like them anymore because he wanted to “nationalize” Nagasaki. So they kicked the Portuguese out. 

Linguistics!
Changes from Portuguese → Japanese

Some phonological changes:

Nasality

Portuguese nasal ending -ão translates to Japanese ending -an. Where do you think the word bread (pan パン) in Japanese comes from? Portuguese ‘pão’ bread! 

Epenthesis (insertion)

A consonant-vowel syllable type is the most frequent syllable pattern in Portuguese, however, Portuguese does allow consonant clusters at the beginnings and the ends of syllables. Japanese can only have consonant-vowel structures, but Japanese can also have 1consonant-vowel-2consonant syllable structures IF the second consonant is a nasal ‘n.’ Because of these differences in structure, Japanese has to change something about these words from Portuguese in order for them to fit into the language. One of these repair mechanisms is vowel epenthesis (or insertion). For example, Portuguese ‘cruz’ has a complex onset (’cr’) and a final consonant (’s’) which is not allowed in Japanese. To repair this, Japanese inserts a ‘u’ between the ‘k’ and ‘r’ sound, and an ‘u’ after the ‘s’ which makes it ku.ru.su. 

Consonant changes

Portuguese and Japanese differ on a couple of consonants (i.e. Portuguese has some consonants that “don’t exist” in Japanese phonology, so Japanese has to change these consonants to fit theirs). Some of these changes include:
Portuguese f → h sound 
Portuguese l and r → r (because Japanese has to l/r distinction)
Portuguese v → b when at the beginning of a word (my data had no examples of v or b in the middle of a word so I only placed the conditions that exist). 

I have more data regarding semantic change and orthographic choices (i.e. how Japanese chose to represent certain loan words in kanji). If you’re interested in seeing some of that, let me know. 

But one last interesting point: 

Did you know Japanese kabocha (pumpkin) comes from the Portuguese word for Cambodia? 

Before the Portuguese arrived in Japan, they were in Goa (India) and Macao (China). Supposedly on their route from Goa to Macau, they stopped in Cambodia. I’m thinking that maybe “kabocha” used to be “pumpkin of Cambodia” where, when the Japanese received these pumpkins from the Portuguese, just clipped it and ended up using “kabocha” to refer to the pumpkin. 

Just a fun fact. Because I was floored when I learned this. 

Edit: All data based on romanized orthographic recordings so orthography may not actually correspond with phonemes, etc.

Quinta da Regaleira - Portugal 

Quinta da Regaleira is a UNESCO world heritage listed estate near Sintra Portugal. The estate features a palace, a chapel, a lake, grottoes and fountains, and was once home to millionaire entomologist, Antonio Augusto Carvalho Monteiro. 

There are two wells on the property, that have spiral staircases lining their walls. The wells were never used as an actual water source, instead they were used for ceremonial purposes, such as Tarot initiation rites. The design of the tunnels themselves connect to Tarot mysticism, with the number of stairs and landings all being symbolic to tarot. Tunnels connect the two wells, and also lead to various monuments and caves around the property. 

“The Carnation Revolution, also referred to as the 25 April , was a military coup in LisbonPortugal on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the regime of the Estado Novo. The revolution started as a military coup organized by the Movimento das Forças Armadas (Armed Forces Movement, MFA), composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but the movement was soon coupled with an unanticipated and popular campaign of civil resistance. This movement would lead to the fall of the Estado Novo and the withdrawal of Portugal from its African colonies.”

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Xerez Cromlech, Portugal

The Xerez Cromlech (Cromeleque do Xerez) is a megalithic structure of standing stones (menhir) around one central stone. The site has been reconstructed since the stones had to be moved to keep them from being submerged by the Alqueva reservoir. They have been placed in a quadrangular shape instead of a circle, which is unusual. Construction is estimated to have taken place sometime between the early 4th to mid-3rd millennium BC. The site is located near Monsaraz, Portugal.

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female rulers + the four elements - for @ladyflorence1215

turhan hatice sultan and isabella of portugal // elizabeth i and nurbanu sultan // wu zetian and hurrem sultan // victoria i and anne of austria

A plate with a Dutch couple (notice the woman’s full skirt, and the man’s breeches and vest) circa 1700 to 1750. Chinese export porcelain appeared in European markets as early as 1517, the year king of Portugal Manuel I established an embassy at Beijing. The Dutch eventually overtook the Portuguese to become a principle maritime power in the Far East, and the main provider of Chinese blue and white porcelain which was increasingly in demand. This plate is one example of porcelain commissioned by the Dutch specifically to be exported back to sell to European buyers.

Interestingly, the plate was created on two continents! The scene and designs painted in underglaze cobalt blue, black, and brown were done in China, then the plate was shipped to Europe, and the overglaze enamel decoration in red and gold were added by European artisans.

25th of April, 1974 - Portugal - Photo by Eduardo Gageiro

In PIDE’s headquarters (International and State Defense Police), the portrait of António de Oliveira Salazar, the dictator, is taken down during the Carnation Revolution.

anonymous asked:

Aljubarrota

(the battle of aljubarrota happened cuz of some issues with who was gonna be the new leader of portugal, and castile was sorta getting in the way. Then portugal called up england, and spain called up france, and they went to war.)

(spoiler alert, Portugal and England won.)

(this secured port’s independance and all that jazz)

Fun fact, in 1962, India and Portugal went to war against each other, over small patches of land in India called Goa, Daman and Diu
that had belonged to the Portuguese for almost 500 years

It was a crushing defeat for the Portuguese, as they didn’t have enough military assets in the area to mount any credible resistance, and thanks to international pressure, their attempts at reinforcing their military presence where limited to shipments of infantry and small arms, their only heavy weapon of notice in the region being an obsolete sloop, the NRP Afonso de Albuquerque, of the pre-war era, that was quickly sunk by the more modern Indian warships:

The war was also the first time a developing nation used an aircraft carrier in a military operation, in the form of the INS Vikrant

Lasting over 36 hours, it was a quick but decisive conflict that finally gave India full sovereignty over her territories, while at the same time showing Portugal just how alone they were in their ultimately futile attempts at keeping their colonies, something that would be known as the Portuguese Colonial Wars, which lasted until 1974 and effectively brought to an end the Portuguese Empire.