These screencaps display what appear to be Jupiter Jones’ worldly possessions, and they contain a mix of expected and suprising details. The main things to pick up on here are the following.
Several of Jupiter’s posters are of space, with the most prominent and MEANINGFUL being the huge poster of the planet Jupiter. In the script, Jupiter is described as having been obsessed with the planet for her entire life - there may have been lines pertaining to this directly, but as things stand the poster is the biggest nod to that. My former-astronomer dad (seriously!) says that the mechanical thing with models of Earth and Jupiter looks like an orrery, which is a term normally reserved for mechanical models of the solar system (they clearly eliminated the other planets to leave the MEANINGFUL PLANETS OF MEANINGFULNESS).
While the photo of Maximilian is obviously there to demonstrate Jupiter’s close affinity with her father - notice the way her hand is reaching out to it in sleep - it’s interesting to note that it seems to be a photo from a far-distant Christmas (James D’Arcy looks particularly young in the photo). You can see parts of a Christmas tree to the edge of the frame, and the telescope is half-wrapped in a manner that suggests that it was probably a Christmas present. In short, Maximilian’s telescope - like Jupiter’s - was a gift.
A child’s space
Jupiter’s bed and furniture are very old, and Jupiter’s drawers are covered with heart stickers that she probably applied when she was a little girl. In short, Jupiter is effectively stuck in a kind of stasis - while she’s fully grown, her surroundings haven’t changed all that much since she was a child. She’s caught in limbo.
While she doesn’t seem like one, we can only presume that Jupiter is a Pink Floyd fan from her Dark Side of the Moon poster. Jupiter has several very incongruous images on her walls, with the most notable being a Fayum mummy portrait and a mugshot (not her own, I must stress). The general feel you get is of an appetite for travel - there are various photos of Jupiter posing in various different locales, as well as images of various destinations and skylines.
To draw all these elements together, they collectively form a picture of Jupiter as a young woman who’s intellectually curious and craves more from her life. She also likes 70s prog-rock and art-y things.
Costume Analysis: Portrait of a Young Woman by Giovanni Battista Moroni, 1560-78
Row 1: Portrait of a Young Woman
Row 2: The Fabrics: left: a white silk with gold and black appliques (?) right: red silk (?) damask
Row 3: The sleeve puffs with gold applique
Row 4: The rings: two square cut, one oval
Row 5: The sleeve ruffs, white lace with intricate edgings
Row 6: Lace ruff of white lace with intricate edgings, and pearl earrings
Row 7: Hair plaited and tied into a bun with pink ribbons, and a tiara-like hair ornament of silver with metal drops, enameled in black and gold
Row 8: Black wooden fan with gold drop edgings, decorated with intricate patterns and images of birds.
Row 9: Left: Hanging from a pink ribbon, an intricate gold jewel of a seated goddess (?) between two dogs in an architectural setting, with three pearls hanging below. Composed of enamel, ruby, emerald, gold and pearls. Right: A necklace of numerous gold chains and strings of pearls.
Row 10: A gold girdle with a central ornament of a rose, composed of alternating decorative plaques.
1st of January 1540, King Henry VIII met Anne of Cleves for the first time in Rochester,
where she was having a short rest during her journey to Greenwich. Henry wanted
to surprise his wife-to-be, not knowing how negatively surprised he himself would
be after this meeting.
After Jane Seymour’s
death 24th October 1537, Henry mourned for her over two
years. Jane was the only wife who
didn’t fail him and gave him a son, which immortalized Jane’s name in Henry’s
eyes. But years were passing, and the king still had only one son to inherit
the throne, so he needed to remarry and secure the future of the Tudor dynasty.
It was Thomas Cromwell,
the king’s chief minister, who suggested Anne of Cleves’ candidature for the
king’s next wife and consort, which happened during the
negotiations with the Schmalkaldic League in 1538. Cromwell saw the benefits of
allying England with the Duchy of Cleves, which was not ideal but was still practical
from political perspective. John III, Duke of Cleves and Anne’s father, was neither
Lutheran nor a member of the league, but he was powerful and was closely linked
to the Lutheran leader – John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, who was married
to Anne’s elder sister, Sibylle of Cleves.
During the long years
of his reign, Henry played a crafty diplomatic game with France and Spain, establishing
political alliances with one of them while keeping itself open for an opposite
alliance if circumstances fitting his interests emerged. The break with the Rome left
the country and nation isolated, in quite a vulnerable position. France and
Spain were Catholic countries, and, in 1537, a papal delegation headed by Reginald
Pole, who lived in self-imposed exile in Rome and was Henry’s strong opponent in the English Reformation, swayed France
and Spain to align against England. There was hope for the formation of a
Catholic league against the heretical King of England.
situation continued to worsen. Pope Paul III excommunicated Henry in December
1538, and the English began to fear that King Francis I of France and Emperor Charles
V were planning invasion. Henry, Cromwell, and the king’s other ministers were becoming
increasingly worried about the ever-heating international situation, considering
the possibility to secure a new alliance through the king’s marriage to a
foreign princess. Encouraged by Cromwell and his ministers, Henry began to think
King Henry took the question seriously. He didn’t
want to make“a blind betrothal proposal”. He wanted to get a young, beautiful,
intelligent, and fertile bride, who would breathe into his aging body youth and
energy, would please him as a lover and a companion, and would birth him more
sons. To make sure that his bride would fit his strict requirements, Henry had
agents in foreign courts report to him on the appearance and other qualities of
various candidates, and painters were dispatched to create their portraits.
In “Six Wives:
The Queens of Henry VIII”, David Starkey writes about the first contacts with
the Cleves court:
“Early in 1539 the English took the first soundings in the Saxon court.
The English ambassador, Christopher Mont, had two sets of instructions: his
official ones from Henry, and another, secret set from Cromwell. The latter
were addressed by Cromwell ‘to his friend Christopher Mont’, and ordered him to
make discreet enquiries about ‘the beauty and qualities of [Anne], the eldest
of the two daughters of Cleves, her shape, stature and complexion’. If his
enquiries led him to think that ‘she might be likened unto his Majesty’, he was
to suggest the proposed marriage to the Saxon minister Burchard, though the
formal initiative would have to come, it was made clear, from Cleves.
Anne, Mont quickly discovered, had won golden opinions all round.
‘Everyman’, he reported to Cromwell, ‘praiseth the beauty of the said Lady, as
well for the face, as for the whole body, above all other ladies excellent.’
Among the superlatives one struck home particularly with Henry. ‘She
excelleth’, it was reported, ‘as far the Duchess [of Milan], as the golden sun
excelleth the silvern moon.”
Anne of Cleves
had a younger “rival” for Henry’s hand in a marriage – Christina of Denmark, a
niece of Emperor Charles V.
Christina was already a widow, but that didn’t
preclude Henry from considering her as his consort. In 1533, she was married by
proxy to Francesco II Sforza, Duke of Milan, and she made her official entry in Milan,
accompanied by splendid festivities. At the time of their marriage, her husband
was already physically weak: he had never fully recovered from an assassination
attempt on his life – he had been poisoned but had been felicitous to survive.
The Duke of Milan died only two years later, in 1535.
Denmark was watched by John Hutton, the English representative in the
Netherlands, during her stay at the Imperial court in Brussels. Hutton wrote
about the sixteen-year-old widowed Duchess:
“She is not pure white as (Jane Seymour) but she hath a singular
good countenance, and, when she chanceth to smile there appeareth two pits in
her cheeks, and one in her chin, the witch becometh her right excellently
Christina and characterizations of her beauty and her character enkindled a flame of desire in Henry’s heart, and he quickly became enamoured by her. The king sent Hans
Holbein the Younger to Brussels, and the resulting portrait confirmed Christina’s
breathtaking beauty. Henry’s passions were fanned white hot, and he fell in
love with the young woman without meeting her. However, Henry’s marriage
proposal didn’t go ahead because Christina was strongly opposed to the idea of
Appalled by Henry’s
treatment of Anne Boleyn and Catherine of Aragon, Christina of Denmark said:
“If I had two heads, I would happily put one at the disposal of the
King of England.”
By March 1539,
Henry entered into marriage negotiations with the Duke of Cleves, who had two
unmarried daughters – Anne and Amalia.
The king resolved
to see the portraits of Anne and Amalia before choosing whom to marry. The
matter was discussed with the Cleves minister Olisleger by the English envoys,
‘the little doctor’, Nicholas Wotton and Richard Beard. Two recent portraits of
Anne and Amalia, probably by Barthel de Bruyn the Elder, were offered, but the
English agents enlightened Henry that the said portraits should be taken with a
pinch of salt because the painters were able to catch only a glimpse of the two
ladies – they couldn’t see them in full because they were dressed in German Protestant
In early July 1539, Henry sent a new
delegation to the Cleves court in Dusseldorf, led by Dr William Petre, with the
purpose to demand to see the two women ‘since
one of them [was] to be their Queen’ and to continue negotiations with the
Soon Wotton and Beard
returned to England. They probably had two portraits of the Cleves maidens with
them, but we don’t know about this for sure. In about a week, the envoys and Holbein
were again dispatched by the king to Cleves, where they arrived in early August
of 1539. Holbein started working on the portraits straight away and finished in about a week. Then the king’s party hastened to return to England.
At the beginning
of September, the news was promulgated that a new embassy headed to Dusseldorf to finalize
the marriage treaty. Contrary to the infamous myth, we don’t know anything
certain about Henry’s reaction to the portraits presented to him by Holbein, and
Holbein wasn’t the one who could exaggerate or belittle beauty or ugliness.
Thus, there is a high probability that Henry simply heard a lot about Anne and
was fascinated by the illusive image of Anne of Cleves which he had created in
Henry’s choice of brides was limited to Anne
and Amalia after Christina’s rejection. England needed a new political alliance,
and he craved to have a second son, but he didn’t have a bunch of available and
agreeable brides to choose from. Perhaps, Henry made up his mind to marry Anne
of Cleves because she, at her twenty four, seemed to him a more suitable
candidate for the role of his wife than her younger sister Amalia.
Unfortunately, Henry didn’t know many
things about Anne of Cleves before their first meeting, which lay the ground for
the lack of his understanding of her true personality and her upbringing.
Wotton told the
king a lot about Anne, including the fact that Anne was the Duchess of Cleves’ favourite
daughter and that she was “of very lowly and gentle conditions, by the which she hath so much won
her mother’s favour that she is very loath to suffer her to depart from her.’
Henry was in the dark
that Anne’s upbringing wasn’t suited for life in at the English court. He wasn’t
aware that Anne had been given only elementary education for a highborn noblewoman,
usual by the standards of the Tudor time. Anne could read and write in German, but
she couldn’t speak foreign languages. She was proficient with needlework and good
at other domestic skills. But Anne couldn’t dance, play the lute and other music
instruments, and she wasn’t taught to flaunt herself, there was no coquetry in
writes about Henry’s feelings for Anne of Cleves:
“But, in any case, by this point Henry was almost beyond putting off.
For he had fallen in love, not as previously with a face but with an idea. And
his feelings were fed not with images but with words. All over the summer,
Cromwell and his agents had told him that Anne – the beautiful, the gentle, the
good and the kind – was the woman for him. Finally he had come to believe them.
Only a sight of the woman herself might break the spell.”
The Imperial ambassador
Eustace Chapuys wrote about Anne of Cleves’ arrival in England and her first
meeting with King Henry:
This year on St John’s Day, 27 December, Lady Anne, daughter of the duke
of Cleves in Germany, landed at Dover at 5 o’clock at night, and there was
honorably received by the duke of Suffolk and other great lords, and so lodged
in the castle. And on the following Monday she rode to Canterbury where she was
honorably received by the archbishop of Canterbury and other great men, and
lodged at the king’s palace at St Austin’s, and there highly feasted. On
Tuesday she came to Sittingbourne.
On New Year’s Eve the duke of Norfolk with other knights and the barons
of the exchequer received her grace on the heath, two miles beyond Rochester,
and so brought her to the abbey of Rochester where she stayed that night and
all New Years Day. And on New Years Day in the afternoon the king’s grace with
five of his privy chamber, being disguised with mottled cloaks with hoods so
that they should not be recognized, came secretly to Rochester, and so went up
into the chamber where the said Lady Anne was looking out of a window to see
the bull-baiting which was going on in the courtyard, and suddenly he embraced
and kissed her, and showed here a token which the king had sent her for New
Year’s gift, and she being abashed and not knowing who it was thanked him, and
so he spoke with her. But she regarded him little, but always looked out the
window…. and when the king saw that she took so little notice of his coming he
went into another chamber and took off his cloak and came in again in a coat of
purple velvet. And when the lords and knights saw his grace they did him
reverence…. and then her grace humbled herself lowly to the king’s majesty, and
his grace saluted her again, and they talked together lovingly, and afterwards
he took her by the hand and led her to another chamber where their graces
amused themselves that night and on Friday until the afternoon.
… So she came to Greenwich that night, and was received as queen. And
the next day, being Sunday, the king’s grace kept a great court at Greenwich,
where his grace with the queen offered at mass, richly dressed. And on Twelfth
Night, which was Tuesday, the king’s majesty was married to the said queen Anne
solemnly, in her closet at Greenwich, and his grace and she went publicly in
procession that day, she having a rich coronet of stone and pearls set with
rosemary on her hair, and a gown of rich cloth of silver, richly hung with
stones and pearls, with all her ladies and gentlewomen following her, which was
a goodly sight to behold.”
Henry couldn’t foresee
that the real Anne of Cleves would be different from his dream bride. Upon
arrival in Rochester, the king ordered his attendant, Sir Anthony Browne, to notify
Anne that one of his representatives had delivered for her the king’s New Year
gift, a special sign of his attention and benevolence. Then,
having disguised himself, Henry entered the chamber.
The king’s dreams
were shattered. Not suspecting her husband-to-be was
burning with impatience to see her, she wasn’t prepared to receive the king:
she was standing near the window, observing a bull-fight which had been laid on
for her entertainment, and she didn’t recognize Henry in a servant who appeared
in her chamber. She didn’t greet him courteously as she would have greeted the
king, and he, abashed by her disinterest, strode towards her and tried to kiss
her, but she didn’t welcome his advances.
Only later, the poor German
princess realized that the disguised
servant was the King of England himself! Henry was so shocked and so humiliated
that he took an immediate dislike to Anne, saying “I like her not!”