All disabled people experience disability as social restriction, whether those restrictions occur as a consequence of inaccessible built environments, questionable notions of intelligence and social competence, the inability of the general population to use sign language, the lack of reading material in Braille, or hostile public attitudes to people with non-visible disabilities.
In Neighbours, Lindqvist returns to the barren Scandinavia that her grandmother would have known: rural and sparsely populated, where signs of humanity are few, and the ones that do exist are in the process of being swallowed by the elements due to neglect.
“I started the series after I tried living for around six months in the small town where my mother grew up,” Lindvist tells me. “The area has seen a big outflux of people who have moved away to live in towns and cities over the years. Their homes are often left empty, because there’s no property demand in these areas."
The sign said, “Population 430,” so I expected a quiet little town, and it was. But there was also a big stage production at the local school the next morning. As it turned out the school is among the top rated in the state, and its choir and theater director has been been staging two completely original productions for the kids every year for the last 20 years. These two set and costume designers moved here with their families all the way from the Chicago area after driving through Mosier and falling in love with it. “It’s a great place to raise our own kids,” they said. “And what is the most satisfying part of your work?” “Helping cultivate the artistic tendencies in children. There are kids who might have otherwise gone through school thinking they’re not good at anything because they’re not good at school or sports. This is something they can do, and they can do it well in a supportive environment. The great thing about theater is that it’s not a competitive sport. Everyone works together.”
“Se Habla Español.” The sign meaning “Spanish is spoken here” is commonly seen in business storefronts and advertising and is a commentary on the changing times and America’s fast-growing Spanish-speaking population.
But try this sign on for size: “America – We Speak 350 Languages Here.”
A new U.S. Census Bureau report out Tuesday highlights the breathtaking diversity of language in the United States. According to the report, the most comprehensive data ever released on languages spoken less widely in the U.S., at least 350 languages are spoken in American homes.
Those languages include Pennsylvania Dutch, Ukrainian, Turkish, Romanian and many others, as well as 150 Native North American languages like Dakota, Apache and Cherokee. More than 350,000 people speak Native North American languages, according to the report, which is based on American Community Survey data collected from 2019 to 2013.
“While most of the U.S. population speaks only English at home or a handful of other languages like Spanish or Vietnamese, the (data) reveals the wide-ranging language diversity of the United States,” a Census Bureau spokesman said in a statement.
In the New York metro area alone, more than 1 in 3 people age 5 and over speak a language other than English at home, and at least 192 languages are spoken. If you speak Bengali at home, you have company. About 106,000 people in the New York metro area speak the language native to the region of Bengal.
Even smaller language groups were found in other major metro areas. In Chicago, where at least 153 languages are spoken at home, about 17,500 people speak Serbian. And in Los Angeles, at least 185 languages are spoken, and about 13,000 people speak Indonesian.
In the Riverside, Calif. Metro area, 2,425 people speak Dutch at home. And in the Atlanta metro area, it might not be unthinkable to spot a sign that says, “Swahili spoken here.” According to the census data, 4,195 Atlanta residents speak Swahili.
Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu and Amharic are just a few of the other less-widely spoken languages in the nation’s most populous metro areas.
Knowing the number of languages and how many people speak them in a particular area provides valuable information to policymakers, planners and researchers, the Census Bureau said.
Best Observational Evidence of First Generation Stars in the Universe
ESO - European Southern Observatory logo.
17 June 2015
VLT discovers CR7, the brightest distant galaxy, and signs of Population III stars
Artist’s impression of CR7: the brightest galaxy in the early Universe Astronomers using ESO’s Very Large Telescope have discovered by far the brightest galaxy yet found in the early Universe and found strong evidence that examples of the first generation of stars lurk within it. These massive, brilliant, and previously purely theoretical objects were the creators of the first heavy elements in history — the elements necessary to forge the stars around us today, the planets that orbit them, and life as we know it. The newly found galaxy, labelled CR7, is three times brighter than the brightest distant galaxy known up to now.
Astronomers have long theorised the existence of a first generation of stars — known as Population III stars — that were born out of the primordial material from the Big Bang . All the heavier chemical elements — such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and iron, which are essential to life — were forged in the bellies of stars. This means that the first stars must have formed out of the only elements to exist prior to stars: hydrogen, helium and trace amounts of lithium.
These Population III stars would have been enormous — several hundred or even a thousand times more massive than the Sun — blazing hot, and transient — exploding as supernovae after only about two million years. But until now the search for physical proof of their existence had been inconclusive .
A team led by David Sobral, from the Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences, the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon in Portugal, and Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands, has now used ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) to peer back into the ancient Universe, to a period known as reionisation, approximately 800 million years after the Big Bang. Instead of conducting a narrow and deep study of a small area of the sky, they broadened their scope to produce the widest survey of very distant galaxies ever attempted.
Their expansive study was made using the VLT with help from the W. M. Keck Observatory and the Subaru Telescope as well as the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The team discovered — and confirmed — a number of surprisingly bright very young galaxies. One of these, labelled CR7 , was an exceptionally rare object, by far the brightest galaxy ever observed at this stage in the Universe . With the discovery of CR7 and other bright galaxies, the study was already a success, but further inspection provided additional exciting news.
The X-shooter and SINFONI instruments on the VLT found strong ionised helium emission in CR7 but — crucially and surprisingly — no sign of any heavier elements in a bright pocket in the galaxy. This meant the team had discovered the first good evidence for clusters of Population III stars that had ionised gas within a galaxy in the early Universe .
“The discovery challenged our expectations from the start,” said David Sobral, “as we didn’t expect to find such a bright galaxy. Then, by unveiling the nature of CR7 piece by piece, we understood that not only had we found by far the most luminous distant galaxy, but also started to realise that it had every single characteristic expected of Population III stars. Those stars were the ones that formed the first heavy atoms that ultimately allowed us to be here. It doesn’t really get any more exciting than this.”
Artist’s impression of CR7: the brightest galaxy in the early Universe Within CR7, bluer and somewhat redder clusters of stars were found, indicating that the formation of Population III stars had occurred in waves — as had been predicted. What the team directly observed was the last wave of Population III stars, suggesting that such stars should be easier to find than previously thought: they reside amongst regular stars, in brighter galaxies, not just in the earliest, smallest, and dimmest galaxies, which are so faint as to be extremely difficult to study.
Jorryt Matthee, second author of the paper, concluded: “I have always wondered where we come from. Even as a child I wanted to know where the elements come from: the calcium in my bones, the carbon in my muscles, the iron in my blood. I found out that these were first formed at the very beginning of the Universe, by the first generation of stars. With this discovery, remarkably, we are starting to actually see such objects for the first time.”
Further observations with the VLT, ALMA, and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope are planned to confirm beyond doubt that what has been observed are Population III stars, and to search for and identify further examples.
 The name Population III arose because astronomers had already classed the stars of the Milky Way as Population I (stars like the Sun, rich in heavier elements and forming the disc) and Population II (older stars, with a low heavy-element content, and found in the Milky Way bulge and halo, and globular star clusters).
 Finding these stars is very difficult: they would have been extremely short-lived, and would have shone at a time when the Universe was largely opaque to their light. Previous findings include: Nagao, et al., 2008, where no ionised helium was detected; De Breuck et al., 2000, where ionised helium was detected, but alongside carbon and oxygen, as well as clear signatures of an active galactic nucleus; and Cassata et al., 2013, where ionised helium was detected, but of a very low equivalent width, or weak intensity, and alongside carbon and oxygen.
 CR7’s nickname is an abbreviation of COSMOS Redshift 7, a measure of its place in terms of cosmic time. The higher the redshift, the more distant the galaxy and the further back in the history of the Universe it is seen. A1689-zD1, one of the oldest galaxies ever observed, for example, has a redshift of 7.5.
CR7 is located in the COSMOS field, an intensely studied patch of sky in the constellation of Sextans (The Sextant).
The nickname was inspired by the great Portuguese footballer, Cristiano Ronaldo, who is known as CR7.
 CR7 is three times brighter in terms of ultraviolet light emission than the previous titleholder, Himiko, which was thought to be one of a kind at this very early time. Dusty galaxies, at later stages in the history of the Universe, may radiate far more total energy than CR7 in the form of infrared radiation from warm dust. The energy coming from CR7 is mostly ultraviolet/visible light.
 The team considered two alternate theories: that the source of the light was either from an AGN or Wolf–Rayet stars. The lack of heavy elements, and other evidence strongly refutes both these theories. The team also considered that the source may be a direct-collapse black hole, which are themselves exceptional exotic and purely theoretical objects. The lack of a broad emission line and the fact that the hydrogen and helium luminosities were much greater than what has been predicted for such a black hole indicate that this, too, is unlikely. A lack of X-ray emissions would further refute this possibility, but additional observations are needed.
This research was presented in a paper entitled “Evidence for PopIII-like stellar populations in the most luminous Lyman-α emitters at the epoch of re-ionisation: spectroscopic confirmation”, by D. Sobral, et al., is accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal.
The team is composed of David Sobral (Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands), Jorryt Matthee (Leiden Observatory), Behnam Darvish (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California, USA), Daniel Schaerer (Observatoire de Genève, Département d’Astronomie, Université de Genève, Versoix, Switzerland; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IRAP, Toulouse, France), Bahram Mobasher (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California, USA), Huub J. A. Röttgering (Leiden Observatory), Sérgio Santos (Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade de Lisboa; Departamento de Física, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal) and Shoubaneh Hemmati (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California, USA).
ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world’s most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and two survey telescopes. VISTA works in the infrared and is the world’s largest survey telescope and the VLT Survey Telescope is the largest telescope designed to exclusively survey the skies in visible light. ESO is a major partner in ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.