popularise

Manhattanhenge

‘Manhattanhenge’ is a phenomenon that happens around summer solstice when the setting sun aligns with the east–west streets of the main street grid of Manhattan, New York City, resulting in a golden glow.

Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson popularised the term, which was named after the similar event at Stonehenge. This year, it’ll occur on both 12 and 13 July at 8:20pm (EST)

Find more curious NYC events in our New York guide

Oscar Wilde:

- a well-known gay

- popularised the aesthetic movement

- wrote a whole book about how it was dumb to get a life-size portrait of yourself … then got a life-size portrait of himself

- went bankrupt bc he put too much effort into a magazine about himself that noone bought

- spent all his money on decorating his college room

- socialist anarchist concerned with wealth gap

- cried once bc he would never be as beautiful as his plates

….

uM WHEN WILL YOUR FAVE EVER??

do people honestly think the term “person of colour” was actually created by tumblr. it was coined and popularised in the late 1970’s by people of colour to have term to refer to non-white people; in opposition to the term “coloured”- a term that has derogatory connotations and was created by white people to oppress and segregate communities. it’s wild to me that people will call actual, legitimate terms “tumblr buzzwords” just because they are uneducated on the history of the word and have heard it for the first time on this hellsite.

i mean call me a wacky conspiracy theorist but i’m sure the demand for parrots would be slim to nonexistent if we popularised the intelligence and affection (paired with the manageability) of chickens, pigeons, turkeys, etc. 

Honestly I have mixed feelings about stim toys becoming popular among neurotypical people.

I mean on the one hand I am all for stim toys becoming normalised. That something that really does need to happen and it relieves a lot of anxiety about stimming in public. Also the more normalised stimming is the more accepted it’s likely to be and should hopefully reduce some of the stigma surrounding stimming (though for this to be truly effective the less ‘pretty’ and more stigmatised stims need to also be normalised).

However on the other hand for a lot of neurotypicals stim toys are often more of a distraction and are used by them as toys rather than tools to help them focus or anything. Stim toys are becoming popularised as distraction toys and novelties and it’s having serious consequences for neurodivergent people in the form of the stim toys being banned all over the place because of how they are being used as a distraction by neurotypical people. In a way this is actually worse than stim toys being uncommon, at least in my opinion, because teachers tend to be less willing to make exceptions on established bans than they are for items that aren’t banned.

Basically what in saying is its cool that stim toys are being normalised and helping to destigmatise stimming, however neurotypicals need to be considerate of how they are using the stim toys, and of the consequences using them as novelty distractions is having for the neurodivergent people who need stim toys to cope.

Also it’s pretty gross if ur neurotypical and play with stim toys but continue to be ableist and be intolerant towards neurodivergent people for stimming or behaving “weird”.

Folks often rag on TVTropes and its various imitators for being cliquish and badly organised, but I’m inclined to think their real crime is the work they’ve done to popularise the notion of “subverting” tropes - i.e., the notion that if you want to defy a trope, all you need to do is identify its most salient features, then do the exact opposite.

This idea has wormed its way into a great deal of online media analysis, particularly when it comes to discussion of racism and sexism in media; how often do you see a book or a film roundly praised for “subverting” this or that problematic trope?

The trouble is, that doesn’t actually work.

Most of the time, the exact opposite of a sexist or racist trope is merely another sexist or racist trope.

It’s insidious like that.

Molecule of the Day: Chloroform

Chloroform (CHCl3) is a colourless, dense liquid that is immiscible with water at room temperature and pressure. Popularised by movies and dramas, it is often cited as an incapacitating agent in popular culture.

Chloroform was used as a general anaesthetic due to its ability to depress the central nervous system, a property that was discovered in 1842. This produced a medically-induced coma, allowing surgeons to operate on patients without them feeling any pain.

However, chloroform was found to be associated with many side effects, such as vomiting, nausea, jaundice, depression of the respiratory system, liver necrosis and tumour formation, and its use was gradually superseded in the early 20th century by other anaesthetics and sedatives such as diethyl ether and hexobarbital respectively.

While chloroform has been implicated in several criminal cases, its use as an incapacitating agent is largely restricted to fiction; the usage of a chloroform-soaked fabric to knock a person out would take at least 5 minutes.

Chloroform is metabolised in the liver to form phosgene, which can react with DNA and proteins. Additionally, phosgene is hydrolysed to produced hydrochloric acid. These are believed to cause chloroform’s nephrotoxicity.

Chloroform is often used as a reagent to produce dichlorocarbene in situ via its reaction with a base like sodium tert-butoxide. This is a useful precursor to many derivatives. For example, the dichlorocarbene can be reacted with alkenes to form cyclopropanes, which can be difficult to synthesise otherwise.

Chloroform is industrially synthesised by the free radical chlorination of methane:

CH4 + 3 Cl2 –> CHCl3 + 3 HCl

It can also be synthesised by the reaction of acetone with sodium hypochlorite in bleach by successive aldol-like reactions:

3

The Exorcism of Anneliese Michel

Though the classic horror film ‘The Exorcist’ popularised the phenomenon known as demonic possession, individual cases are still incredibly rare, and exorcisms - the ritual of casting out demons - are rarer still. Most cases of so-called possession are now treated from a psychiatric standpoint, though occasionally a patient’s family will try any avenue of treatment once the symptoms become severe enough. This is what happened to twenty-year-old Anneliese Michel in 1975.

Anneliese (Anna) Michel was a devoutly Catholic woman who lived a quiet life alongside her parents and three siblings in Bavaria, West Germany. Though the entire family was deeply religious, Anna was almost fanatically obsessed with 'being pleasing to the Lord’, and attended Mass many times a week. Friends from school remembered her as a lovely, shy girl who frequently prayed and knelt on the floor while she did her schoolwork.

When she was sixteen Anna suffered a seizure and was diagnosed with temporal lobe epilepsy. Around this same time she became very depressed and withdrawn, and complained about seeing 'devil faces’ in the walls around her. Anna’s parents committed her to several institutions and took her to counselling, but by 1973, at the age of twenty, Anna stopped responding to treatment and became convinced there was a demon inside her head. Her parents attempted to have her healed, but their daughter apparently became incredibly violent when a priest tried to touch her head with a crucifix, and screamed when holy water was sprinkled near her. Initially the priests Michel’s family contacted refused to conduct an exorcism, but when Anna began drinking her own urine and speaking an unknown language in a voice far different from her own, the family bishop agreed to contact the Vatican and permission to perform an exorcism was granted.

On 24 September 1975, a Catholic priest named Arnold Renz began the exorcism of Anneliese Michel in her family home. Although she was twenty-two-years old, Anna was tied to her bed using yards of rope and denied food and water during the gruelling exorcisms, some of which lasted over eight hours. She was forced to genuflect for hours at a time, and Renz administered anti-psychotic medicine during the rites despite having no qualifications or medical authorisation. For over ten months Anna was systematically starved and forced to pray by Renz and both of her parents until she weighed just 30 kilograms.

On July 1, 1976, Anneliese Michel died at her home after a particularly long exorcism session. The medical team who attended her determined she died from persistent malnutrition and dehydration, and also stated that Anna hadn’t been seen by a doctor for at least three months before she died. Both of Anna’s knees were broken from endless praying, and an autopsy revealed she was suffering from pneumonia as well as kidney failure and gum disease. When the local police heard of her death while under the care of her parents and at least one priest, they built a case against them and eventually charged the Michel’s with negligent homicide. The Catholic priest who performed most of the exorcisms was also charged with negligent homicide.

During the trial in 1978 a score of doctors testified that Anneliese Michel was not possessed, but rather mentally ill. It was discovered that no medical doctor was aware of Anneliese’s previous health record for epilepsy, and no doctor was seeing her regularly during the last round of exorcisms. Both of Anneliese’s parents and the priest Arnold Renz were found guilty of manslaughter as a result of negligence and jailed for six months. The Catholic Church drew intense criticism in the aftermath of Michel’s death, and had to change its requirements for conducting exorcisms.

anonymous asked:

i am new to ifnt and rly dont wanna make anyone mad but i don't see the big deal abt woohyun. yes he is hot and can sing but why does every1 love him so much? i dont mean it in a bad way jst that i dont see how he is more popular than others. also i dont see how his voice is so different to other kpop singers? but then again i am new so maybe i dont kno wht i am talking about. pls help me to understand more?

You caught me at the absolute pinnacle of my Woohyun feels, which happens every year around his birthday. And therefore (with a little help from my friends) I have constructed this little list of reasons why Woohyun is absolutely deserving of the amount of love he receives from Inspirits and why it’s kinda hard not to love him, even if he isn’t your favourite member…

1. WOOHYUN’S LIVE VOCALS

Woohyun is known for having what many call a ‘power-house’ vocal. You can always rely on him to hit those incredible high notes in INFINITE songs. He’s known for being able to bellow out his lines; his voice is strong, loud and instantly recognisable. But he also pours a lot of emotion into his vocals, every note dripping with it. His solo album Write.. and his subsequent appearances on Immortal Songs 2 showcased another side to his vocals too; a softer side, gentle, quieter but without lacking that trademark emotion in his voice. It really proved he’s a versatile vocalist, and not just there to yell at the top of his lungs (but it’s still incredible when he does). Here is Woohyun performing on Immortal Songs 2. This appearance earned him the highest score for an idol on the show at that point. 

He is (in my opinion) one of the best live singers in kpop at the moment. I can’t think of many people who could hold a candle to him, really. Yet he is still improving and working on his voice; he still admits he has far to go. 

2. WOOHYUN’S FAN SERVICE / HIS LOVE FOR FANS

Woohyun is known for being the ‘fan idiot’ in INFINITE. He’s got a different heart for every occasion and is usually credited with popularising the ‘finger heart’ that everyone uses nowadays. In 2012 he came 3rd in Weekly Idol’s Fan Service poll (as voted by idols), and the video shows some good examples of him showering Inspirits with love. He consistently refers to fans as his ‘girlfriends’, to the point his twitter bio even says it (팬=여친 fan=girlfriend). But his love for Inspirits runs deeper than superficial hearts and displays of cuteness. INFINITE and Inspirits have had a close relationship since debut, and it has continued on to this day. During One Great Step, INFINITE’s first world tour in 2013/14, Woohyun personally went out to buy roses and small rings to present to fans at their shows, spending his own money. He wrote and composed the song ‘함께 (Together)’ during OGS, and dedicated it to Inspirits, saying it was about fans (see the lyrics here). 

At Dream Concert in 2016, Woohyun performed as a solo artist for the first time, and even other fandoms began to feel jealous at the amount of attention he gave to Inspirits. [Even more reactions here] He sang just for them, never taking his eyes off their section of the crowd and taking out his earpiece to listen to them singing along. Okay, so later all of INFINITE roasted Inspirits for not being able to sing well, but at least Woohyun then tried to explain how to sing properly.

It should be noted too, that after this performance, Woohyun and INFINITE gained a lot of new fans who were impressed by him. 

3. WOOHYUN’S PASSION FOR SINGING / MAKING MUSIC

As I mentioned above, Woohyun wrote and composed ‘함께 (Together)’ for INFINITE while they were taking part in their first world tour. During their movie, Grow, which showed the behind the scenes of OGS, you see Woohyun jumping up in the middle of eating to go and compose. 

He was excited about this song and wanted to share it with the rest of INFINITE once he was finished, asking them to contribute to the lyric writing too. Then his solo album Write.. was released in 2016 with 3/6 tracks having Woohyun’s direct involvement: ‘향기 (Scent/Nostalgia)’ which was entirely written and composed by Woohyun, and ‘Gravity’ and ‘Everyday’ which Woohyun co-wrote and composed [source]. You could tell he had worked extremely hard on these songs, and could tell how proud he was of them when he spoke about them in interviews. Whenever Woohyun takes the stage, you know that the energy and enthusiasm he exudes isn’t just an act… He truly loves singing, is passionate about performing and wants to share his talent with the world. For example, look how stupidly in his element he is performing Everyday in Singapore during INFINITE’s second world tour ( © Honey Tree ) :

4. AND EVERYTHING ELSE:

Those were just three main points focused on Woohyun as a singer, performer and idol. There are so many other sides to Woohyun too, and so many reasons to love him. 

  • He loves cooking, and his instagram is full of videos of him making food
  • His relationships with the other INFINITE members are really sweet. Just one recent example would be: even when everyone was teasing Sungjong and being kinda mean (including Woohyun), he did then reassure him that there would be plenty of INFINITE schedules soon and that he needn’t worry. He’s also super affectionate with the others, and you’ll often find him touching them or correcting their hair/touching their face/leaning on them.
  • Actor Woohyun!!! He’s been in multiple dramas, but my personal favourite is Hi School Love On, where he played Shin Woohyun… Please watch it if you haven’t already, it’s so good (and it’s all available on KBSWorld’s youtube channel with subs, here)!
  • His friendships with other 91 line celebrities, especially SHINee’s Key with whom he debuted as the special sub-unit ToHeart in 2014
  • Like you mentioned, he is ridiculously good-looking and is known for not having had any surgery - that nose and that jawline are aaaaallll natural, ladies ~~ 
  • He loves football and plays for FC Men (FC 멘), an all-star team affiliated with the Suwon Bluewings alongside other celebrities. 

My closing statement is this: usually when you stan a group you’ll have a favourite member, one you look at more than the others, one you might pay a little more attention to during MVs or performances or shows. But then often (and in most cases when it comes to my Inspirit friends), you end up loving them all. Your bias might even change (maybe even many times). You’ll find it hard to stick solely to one member, especially when the rest of the group are so damn lovable. Soon enough, you realise you’re OT7 biased and there’s nothing you can do about it.

Do yourself a solid and give Woohyun a chance. I’m sure you’ll see why everyone likes him so much in no time. 

anonymous asked:

I once had someone say to me that ttrpgs can be split into "combat focus" and "social focus". I'm new to the tabletop scene and wanted ur opinion on this since ur in the industry

Complete balderdash, like all hard binaries - though it’s admittedly a common fallacy, and the reason why is a fascinating bit of tabletop roleplaying history.

See, back in the 1990s, there were basically two major tabletop RPGs popularity-wise: Dungeons & Dragons, and Vampire: The Masquerade, with everybody else fighting over third place. As one might expect, this situation soon precipited as massive, hobbywide Nintendo-verus-Sega style pissing contest about which game was the best.

The approach that was eventually settled on by the pro-Vampire side was to try and hedge Dungeons & Dragons out of the competition by defining the term “roleplaying game” in such a way that it excluded D&D. True roleplaying, they contended, was a freeform activity with minimal or no mechanical engagement, and rolling dice was a crutch for the creatively lazy. Since D&D involves nothing but rolling dice to hit monsters with swords, the argument continues, obviously it’s not a roleplaying game at all, but just a tabletop wargame with delusions of grandeur. This is known today as the “role-playing versus roll-playing” fallacy.

(In the interest of complete accuracy, a form of this argument had already existed within the D&D community itself; however, the notion that the propensity to favour “roll-playing” over “role-playing” was an intrinsic feature of particular games, as opposed to a mere habit of particular players, wasn’t popularised until this era.)

The situation isn’t nearly so contentious these days - thankfully, the tabletop roleplaying community has largely mellowed out! - but the fallout remains in the form of the “social versus combat” binary, which is really just a more polite form of the old “role-playing versus roll-playing” binary, attempting to divide games into “social focus” (implicitly rules-light, low engagement, and freeform) and “combat focus” (implicitly rules-heavy, high engagement, and regimented).

The truth of the matter is that a game’s approach to rules design tells you essentially nothing about its narrative focus. You could have a breezy, rules-light game about kung fu monks kicking each other in the head, and you could have a rigid turns-and-tokens system about Congressional politics, and the former would have “combat focus” while the latter would have “social focus”, for all that their rules are put together in a manner that’s exactly the opposite of what the orthodoxy of those terms would have you expect.

Basic Witchcraft Substitutions

“I’m a secret Witch and don’t have access to herbs. What can I use instead of ____?”

“I can’t afford a cauldron, what can I use instead?”

“I can’t get ______, can I use _______?”

So I get this kind of question a lot. Witchcraft in the modern day, especially Witchcraft as it’s practiced by younger people and/or people on social media Witchcraft groups, has a certain aesthetic around it that tends to popularise expensive cauldrons, gem-studded wands, expensive black velvet shawls, and all the other trappings of a field that has become caught, like so many things, in the web of materialism and a desire to be identifiably “Witchy”. Now, please understand that this is not an inherently bad thing - common aesthetic or cosmetic themes are a trope common to many cultures and subcultures around the world and through history. They serve as common binding elements, giving people a much-needed sense of community, a sense of belonging, and a certain amount of morale boosting that might otherwise be hard for a person in a somewhat shunned subculture to achieve. 

However, for those who are unable to make this kind of subculture connection apparent for whatever reason be it societal, financial or otherwise, or for those who wish an alternative presentation and practice of the Craft, this can sometimes be problematic. Many Witchcraft resources online assume that a Witch has free and open access to certain things, such as a metal cauldron, a ceremonial athame, a certain number of expensive herbs or crystals, or other such tools or components. Since this isn’t always practical, here is a simple substitution guide for you, giving a non-exhaustive list of potential, basic substitutions. 

Please bear in mind, this list only gives example substitutions - other options are also potentially possible! 

——-

Athame
Most knives, especially things like letter-openers that are not used for eating. It doesn’t have to be sharp, as athames should never be used for cutting - that’s a boline’s job

Boline
A boline is simply a sharp knife that is used for cutting spell ingredients and the like. Any sharp knife will do, just cleanse it appropriately before and after.

Cauldron
Most bowls, though metal or fired and glazed clay is best as these materials are both fireproof and waterproof. Flowerpots or ceramic mugs can work if nothing else is available!

Chalice
Any glass will work, however something special and with a stem, like a decorative or ornate wine glass, would be most suitable. You could also use a special or ornate mug, but one either without a handle or with two handles would be better than one with a single handle.

Coloured candles
If you don’t mind the lack of colour, white is a good “general” colour. However, if the colour is essential, consider tying coloured ribbons around the base. Do not melt crayons into the wax, however - this can clog the candle-wick and cause it to explode, potentially violently.

Crystals
Look up the associations for that stone, and see if any more common ones would do. In a pinch, consider instead writing the intentions on paper and burning it, or using stones from around your area that you feel have an appropriate energy.

Deity statues
If your deities would find it appropriate, it may be possible to simply write their name on a candle, or inscribe a basic god or goddess figure into one, and burn that in place of using a statue or idol of your deities.

Grimmoiré
A grimmoiré is really just a book that’s written in. Any notebook will work, no matter if it’s bound in singed leather or in a plastic spiral-bound homework book.

Herbs
Again, consider possible alternatives - if sage isn’t available, rosemary is a good protective. If you don’t have feverfew for a headache charm, consider willow leaves or bark.

Pentacle table top
A pentacle drawn on a piece of paper will work well as an alternative, or you could consider using something like water daubed into a pentagram on the table top.

Ritual or altar cloth
Cleanse and bless any clean, appropriately coloured fabric and it will work well. A bedsheet is an ideal altar cloth. Black cloth is reserved for Samhain or funerary altars.

Wands
A wand is simply a channelling device for your own innate energies and abilities, so anything that channels will work. Something like a stick that’s been blessed will do, as will any rod made out of metal. 

—————

Blessed be,

– Juniper

quetzalrofl  asked:

Why did the guys that wrote up things like the bag of devouring or those insta-kill flesh-boring worms hate DnD players so much?

(With reference to this post here.)

That’s actually a really fascinating question whose answer touches on not only the history of Dungeons & Dragons as a game, but some fairly fundamental issues regarding the tabletop roleplaying hobby as a whole.

Folks who have only casual contact with the tabletop roleplaying hobby tend to have a pretty standard idea of what’s involved: enter dungeon, kill monsters, get treasure, rinse and repeat.

For some games, Dungeons & Dragons among them - as its name suggests - that’s broadly true. However, there can be substantial disagreements between games - including the various editions of Dungeons & Dragons itself - regarding how players are expected to go about achieving these goals, and even what the basic process of play is supposed to look like.

Naturally, individual groups can play the game however they want. By nature, however, even the simplest game rules encode a vast array of assumptions about how the game ought to be played. For brevity, I’m going to call this body of baked-in assumptions a game’s default or assumed mode of play.

As noted, different editions of D&D have very different assumed modes of play, to the extent that Dungeons & Dragons basically isn’t one game, but half-a-dozen completely different games that just happen to share a title and a handful of common terminology.

Of course, the fundamental activity of D&D generally remains “enter dungeon, kill monsters, get treasure”, so the question of what D&D’s assumed mode of play is reduces to a more focused question: what is a dungeon? There are about five different answers to that question, each reflecting broad trends in the tabletop roleplaying hobby as a whole.

1. A Dungeon is a Logistical Puzzle

Though D&D has a lot of superficial trappings lifted directly from Tolkien, at its inception the internal nuts and bolts of the game were much more strongly informed by the swords-and-sorcery fiction of the 1960s and early 1970s: writers like Fritz Leiber, Michael Moorcock, and Jack Vance.

One of the common threads in the genre is that your typical swords-and-sorcery adventure is basically a heist narrative: a group of highly skilled professionals, each with their own signature specialty, must combine their talents to break into a secure location and steal some desired object without being apprehended. Think Ocean’s Eleven with evil wizards.

Early D&D - or OD&D, for brevity - followed largely in these footsteps. Each dungeon was essentially a logistical puzzle: how can the party marshal their resources to extract the treasure from the dungeon as efficiently as possible?

Unlike many later tabletop RPGs, experience points in OD&D were awarded primarily for recovering treasures, not for killing monsters, so combat was something of a failure state - a high-risk, low-reward activity to be avoided wherever possible. It was preferable by far to trick, sneak or fast-talk your way past the monsters; indeed, the desire to have fast-talking always be an option is the reason that most D&D monsters are intelligent and capable of speech, even the really weird ones - a quirk that would carry forward into most later iterations of the game. Out-of-combat activities had a formal rounds-and-turns structure, just as combat did, creating a constant time pressure with the threat of the dreaded Random Encounter Table hanging over players who might otherwise prefer to dally.

The drawback to this heist-style mode of play is that it’s extremely demanding on the GM (that’s “Game Master”, for those just tuning in - i.e., the person who’s running the game); in order to play this style of game effectively, scenarios need to be very carefully designed, and running them demands keeping track of a great deal of information. Among many groups, there was a natural tendency to de-emphasise the logistical big picture in order to focus on overcoming individual set-piece obstacles, which leads us to…

2. A Dungeon is an Obstacle Course

In order to fully understand how this mode of play developed, you have to bear in mind that Dungeons & Dragons started out as a hack for tabletop wargames - the earliest rulebooks explicitly positioned it as a fantasy roleplaying “overlay” that could be added to your wargame of choice, rather than as a standalone game - and for the bulk of its early history, wargaming clubs remained its primary venue of play.

It’s for this reason that, once D&D had become popularised, the question of how to play it competitively arose. This might sound like a very strange notion to modern gamers - competitive roleplaying games? - but it seemed perfectly obvious at the time.

In order to avoid damaging the game’s party-based structure with infighting, rather than having individual players compete against each other, the approach that was eventually settled upon was to hold tournaments at gaming conventions, where several groups would be run through the same adventure in parallel. Some tournaments emphasised speed of play, while others awarded points for completing specific objectives, prefiguring the ideas of both speed-running and video game achievements by some decades. However, the variant that emerged as by far the most popular was the survival module.

A survival module was a pre-written adventure that, unlike others, was not actually expected to be completed. A typical survival module consisted of a relatively linear series of extraordinarily deadly obstacles, many of them blatantly unfair, intended to kill player characters as quickly as possible. Each player would typically be allocated more than one character, with replacement characters dropped in as the current one expired (e.g., like lives in a video game); the tournament’s winning group would be the one whose last surviving character’s corpse hit the ground furthest from the dungeon entrance.

Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 1st Edition (which is actually the third iteration of the game, owing to its somewhat muddled early chronology) was the child of this era of play. It’s here that the screwjob monsters and magic items discussed in the previous post came into their own - and in context, it’s easy to see why! Many of the era’s infamously deadly pre-written adventures were originally survival-based tournament modules, repackaged and sold in hobby stores with no indication of their original purpose, which inadvertently helped to popularise that style of play among players outside the tournament scene.

Further developments aren’t strictly germane to the question, so I’ll touch on them only briefly:

3. A Dungeon is a Story Path

The “dungeon as obstacle course” mode of play would remain dominant throughout the life of the game’s 1st Edition and into the early part of the 2nd. However, changing trends in the tabletop roleplaying hobby - brought on in no small part by the unprecedented popularity of White Wolf’s “World of Darkness” games (i.e., Vampire: The Masquerade et al.) - created demand for more a narratively focused gaming experience. By the mid-1990s, Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd Edition had shifted to adventures structured less like obstacle courses and more like Choose Your Own Adventure novels, with each room in the dungeon serving as a decision point in a branching narrative. Of course, not all adventures were created equal; many were derided for their penchant for “railroading”, essentially reducing the player characters to passive spectators to a story whose outcome was already determined.

Toward the very end of the 2nd Edition’s tenure, another shift began that leads us directly to…

4. A Dungeon is a Simulated Environment

If you’re playing a game where the walls have hit points, you’re playing this. Coming into its own in the game’s 3rd Edition, the major impetus of this mode of play is to provide a single, unified set of game mechanics that allows the dungeon to be treated as a simulated environment - a sort of Sim Dungeon, if you will. This unification extended beyond characters and monsters, to the extent that everything up to and including individual ten-foot sections of dungeon walls would be assigned its own traits - hit points, elemental resistances, etc. - to govern basic interactions. Dungeons & Dragons 3rd Edition was also the first iteration of the game to post-date mainstream Internet access, so this is where theorycrafting and competitive character-building - facilitated by the game’s emphasis on mechanical rigour - really took off.

It wouldn’t be Dungeons & Dragons without an abrupt shift in focus every few years, though, which is how we get…

5. A Dungeon is a Series of Tactical Set-Pieces

Motivated partly by a dissatisfaction with the 3rd Edition’s perceived tendency to emphasise theoretical character-building over actual play, the game’s 4th Edition pulled a hard 180. Returning to D&D’s roots as a modified tabletop wargame while incorporating elements of modern board games, this mode of play reenvisions a dungeon as a series of tactical set-pieces: carefully constructed combat scenarios that focus on heavily stylised map-based play with no pretence of simulating anything in particular. The GM’s role shifts from that of a supervisor or referee to that of an opposing player, and the tone departs from high fantasy to become more like that of a kung fu movie - the kind where people are leaping and being hurled all over the battlefield and calling out their special moves by name.

(This was, needless to say, a controversial move. Dungeons & Dragons 4th Edition was perceived as hostile to its online community in many circles, and was widely derided as being too video-game-like in is execution - though ironically, most detractors compared it to completely the wrong genre of video games, failing to recognise that most of the elements they decried as MMO-isms had been borrowed by MMOs from earlier iterations of D&D in the first place. In practice, if video game comparisons are unavoidable, it plays more like a tabletop implementation of Disgaea or Final Fantasy Tactics.)

Protection tips; Mirrors

If you are uneasy about a haunting or a bad spirit in your house, cover the mirrors with a towel or place them face down. I actually like to do this when I have rituals too. This form of protection originates from the concept of covering mirrors for a week after someone has died, which is an age old practise but was popularised by the Victorians. It was said the spirit of the dead would get trapped in there. This is one of the reasons why it is said you will get bad luck for smashing a mirror; people believe that the spirits trapped within will then be loose in your home.

It is also said that mirrors can become portals to the spirit world. This most commonly happens if the mirror has been stationary for a long time, or is sitting in a room in which a violent death occurred.

How can I keep my mirror safe?

In my experience, it is best to treat mirrors like windows. Nothing is going to get in unless you leave the window open, or something is strong enough to break it’s way through. Because of this, I have this window protection spell on my mirror, and re-preform it now and again to keep the spell going. Drawing a pentagram on it in makeup or pen you can scrub off will always help too!

Seven things carried in passing trucks

1. That medium-sized tanker in a fetchingly sensible shade of silver. This is a shipment of very fine dream sand, as you would be able to discern if you could get close enough to read the hazard notice. I would not recommend getting quite that close, because if the tanker were to suffer a spillage everyone within a three-month radius would end up furiously sleeping for at least three months.

2. The small grey truck with a conspicuous ‘speed limiter installed’ sign. This is not actually a truck. It is two elephants on a specially-modified bicycle. You are only seeing it as a truck because that is what you expect a large grey object to be on a road of this size.

3. The large green truck with a stylised smiley face logo on it, heading West. This truck is full of spies. Literally full: they are stacked some seven deep in an ingenious spy stacking system which cannot be patented on account of being top secret. They are conservatively-dressed and have very serious faces, apart from the one at the bottom who is making fart jokes and being ignored.

4. That red shipping container, glimpsed briefly in traffic in the other lane. Contents: a slightly smaller red shipping container, containing a slightly smaller red shipping container, containing another, slightly smaller red shipping container, and so on. The source of so many shipping containers of non-standard dimensions is not obvious. In the smallest container is a miniature safe, locked, key nowhere in sight, emitting a furious buzzing noise.

5. The small orange shipping container, marked with a logo in a language you do not read. This is a shipment of fruit, primarily silver moon apples headed for the perilous realm, where they will form part of the fairy world’s seasonal fruit baskets. If you are offered one of these fruit baskets, do not accept it.

6. A small-size black and white horse carrier, no horse visible inside. This carrier was once used by one of the four horsemen of the apocalypse, and as a result has become a place of pilgrimage for ghosts. At the moment it is being used to transport the ghosts of Arthur Sullivan and W. S. Gilbert. They have obtained some highly sought-after permits to spend the night haunting a theatre in which Hamilton is being performed, and are making their way there right now.

7. Half a house, as transported on a special truck for the carrying of large things. This is a witch-squashing house, as popularised by the film the Wizard of Oz. These days, they are usually remotely controlled; essentially, they are the drones of the mystical world. This one has been damaged by being dropped from a great height onto a particularly rocky coven. It is being sent for repair in Swindon.

debunkinglesbians  asked:

i just want you to know that its okay to admit that youre not a lesbian. i understand that tumblr has popularised this false idea of "compulsory heterosexuality" but the truth is that women cannot be gay. maybe you are bisexual, repressing straight urges, or asexual.

i just want you to understand I AM a lesbian and I absolutely LOVE!!!!! having LOADS!!!!! of sex with women and just women!!!!!! that lesbians ARE beautiful and amazing. I also want you to understand women are very much gay and god do they love being gay!!!! I am not bisexual, ace or straight and am in fact a proud lesbian believe it or not thanks for being an lesbiophobic asshole have a terrible week

Explained: cope meme
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Happy Easter from Australia!

Not every kid in Australia grows up with the Easter Bunny.  The Easter Bilby is a popular alternative, being a native and adorable little night-dwelling cute machine.  The lesser bilby was made extinct in the 1950s due to rabbits taking over their habitats and food supplies, and the greater bilby’s conservation status is vulnerable, also due to the introduction of rabbits, foxes and cats.  Popularising the Easter Bilby is just our little twist on the holiday, and if we lose these shy little darlings to extinction in future, we’ll make sure no one forgets the bilby.