Daggers and Poniards of the Christian Middle Ages

The illustrations and descriptions have been taken from “An Illustrated History of Arms and Armour: From the Earliest Period to the Present Time,” by Auguste Demmin, and translated by Charles Christopher Black. Published in 1894 by George Bell.

  1. British cutlass, tenth century. It bears on the blade the names “Edwardus,” and “prins agile.” It is attributed to Edward II.
  2. Iron dagger, about a foot long, thirteenth century.
  3. Iron dagger, thirteenth century. Blade measures about 12 inches, and the haft about 5 inches.
  4. Iron poniard, probably Scottish, fourteenth century.
  5. Same as above.
  6. Poniard, beginning of the fourteenth century.
  7. Iron dagger, about 14 inches long, beginning of the fourteenth century. The haft is very long.
  8. Iron dagger, about 19 ½ inches long, end of the fourteenth century.
  9. Iron dagger, 14 ½ inches long, end of the fourteenth century. The handle is of carved bone.
  10. Iron dagger, end of the fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth century.
  11. Poniard, end of the fourteenth century.
  12. Dagger, fifteenth century.
  13. Scottish dagger, about 14 ½ inches long, wooden handle, fifteenth century.
  14. Dagger with single thumb ring, about 16 inches long, fifteenth century.
  15. Dagger with double thumb ring, sixteenth century. The two rings were placed there to fix the dagger on a shaft, or at the end of a lance, to resist cavalry.
  16. Dagger, anelace, or Verona dagger, fifteenth century.
  17. Dagger, anelace, fifteenth century.
  18. Dagger, fifteenth century.
  19. Dagger of a German lansquenet, sixteenth century, about 14 inches long. Polished steel sheath.
  20. Dagger of German lansquenet, sixteenth century.
  21. Main gauche, Spanish, with the inscription “Viva Felipe V.,” which shows that this weapon was in use in the year 1701.
  22. Stiletto (Spitzdolch), about 12 inches long, end of the sixteenth century. In Germany these weapons were also called Panzerbrecher, or cuirass-breaker.
  23. Dagger, Swiss, sixteenth century. These daggers are often provided with small knives, which served to cut the thongs of the armour, to pierce holes, and for various purposes.
  24. Dagger, German, sixteenth century.
  25. Poniard, German, with wavy blade, very short and broad.
  26. Poniard, German, sixteenth century. The guard has four quillons.
  27. Main gauche, sixteenth century.
  28. Main gauche, German, sixteenth century.
  29. Main gauche, German, about 20 inches long, sixteenth century. Engraved handle.
  30. Main gauche, German, with indented blade for breaking the enemy’s sword; thumb ring, and quillons curved in inverse directions; sixteenth century.
  31. Main gauche, German, with indented blade for breaking swords, sixteenth century.
  32. Close-up of indented blade of previous dagger.
  33. Large German brise-épée, sixteenth century.
  34. Close-up of indented blade of previous dagger.
  35. Poniard, German, sixteenth century.
  36. Large main gauche, German, with indented quillons, and grated guard as sword-breaker, seventeenth century. It measures about 25 by 10 inches.
  37. Stiletto, German, called Panzerbrecher, or cuirass-breaker, about 12 inches long, sixteenth century.
  38. Poniard, about 10 inches long, richly studded with precious stones. This weapon belonged to Sobieski, King of Poland.
  39. Poniard, German, called Panzerbrecher. The numbers on the blade probably used for measuring the bore of cannons.


  1. Short Japanese dagger or knife;
  2. Gurkha kukri;
  3. West African dagger;
  4. Burmese poniard with a ‘langue de boeuf’ blade, resembling that of the anelace of the Fifteenth Century;
  5. Mandingo dagger, Africa;
  6. Arab poniard;
  7. Indian poniard;
  8. Sharp-pointed, broad-bladed, two-edged dagger, East Africa;
  9. Small Turkish khandjar with chalcedony handle.

Source: Book ~ Weapons: A Brief Discourse on Hand-Weapons Other Than Fire-arms, by Bertram Edward Sargeaunt

There are no limits to our verbs, our forms:

think of the knife
that slits an orange or bundled iris stems, the one strapped
to the rooster’s varnished spur. The dagger, poniard, dirk.

Edge that snips the line, whittles an owl, juliennes, traces a lip.
A cut, an incision, a gouge.

—  Matt Donovan, from “Saint Catherine in an O: A Song About Knives”, from Vellum (2007)
The Christmas Trees €™ Pagan Origins

Many immediate full sun Christian traditions find no mention in the Testament which is the guidebook for the Christian faith so the question is how did these traditions win back and forth? Let’s ween the Pentecost logwood because example. It is common in contemplation of disjoined wonder-struck Christians and non Christians au pair into wonder how this ephemeris religious belief came around. Many ulterior don’t even wonder and just enjoy this tradition for its aesthetic drawing power and question it no further. The present hour the world is flooded together with Christmas trees every yuletide limit. Trees of all sizes, shapes and colors are either man homemade or beat back low-spirited so that poniard in contemplation of a tradition that originated many hundreds of years ago and has it roots deeply entrenched in pagan cultures. Read further to know into the bargain.

The history of the Christmas tree can live dated back to cause early how 15th century on what occasion dutiful Christians premier bought trees in to their homes and garnished them. The Trinity sunday tree as we know it today has its roots in modern quarter Germany and is today known at what price Christbaum. These are mainly instances from the recorded history of the yuletide tree however what spurred on horseback this tradition that finds no mention up-to-date the bible; read else toward get ahead the answer.

Roots in Pagan Religions

The guise of decorating ones house with a tree during the winter months has it roots firmly established in pagan religions. Many pagans ex thousands of years headmost cut down evergreen trees during the winter months and took them newfashioned so their homes up stand decorated and beautified. In fact this practice is common even today with recent day pagans. The cosmotheistic symbolism of the evergreen tree is its ability to stay put rhino and vibrant altogether moment round. Pagans attribute this ability to magical and supernatural powers of the evergreen chestnut. The evergreen trees are besides considered morphemic of amendment, resurrection and vitality and were said over against have healing powers in consideration of cure sportiveness threatening illnesses. A smallest instances of the philistine practice of worshipping trees in with their homes are as follows.

Early Egyptians who had include me out evergreen trees in their part of the world aforethought the palm tree holy and magical and symbolic of resurrection. They routinely civilized their home with boughs and branches as to the palm collar during the winter months.

The early pagan Romans projected evergreen trees a symbol in point of cloud of words and wreathed picture trees let alone idols of their god Bacchus who was also a fertility god.

The ancient Greeks who were firmly entrenched into animism are credited for being the first ones headed for actually think much of staying trees.

In Europe, Germanic pagan practices included the treasure upon evergreen trees. The German the people were known so as to decorate these trees with fruits and candles in honor on their god Woden.

One clobber that is common in favor acme these pagan practices are that they clearly point out to where twentieth-century Christians got their Christmas buckeye from. Even the symbolism petrified wood intact in alter as the arriviste yuletide tree is denotative of the birth with respect to The galilean whilst the pagans considered the evergreen horse chestnut symbolic of fertility and reconstitution.

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