polypeptides

3

Walz of the Polypeptides by Mara G. Haseltine

Haseltine on her project:

The inspiration for Waltz of the Polypeptides (2003) comes from one of the smallest muses on the planet, a subject so tiny it can only be seen with an electron microscope. It is a sub-cellular organelle called a rhibosome. Within each cell, ribosomes produce the smallest functional elements in all living organisms, proteins. In Waltz of the Polypeptides the viewer literally walks through the birth of a single protein.

To create this work, Mara G. Haseltine studied the ribosomes and proteins and used accurate molecular renderings of electron microscopic and nuclear magnetic resonance images for her armatures. She manipulated this raw data using a 3-D computer program into a design which kept the integrity of Mother Nature’s form while simultaneously creating a work that was comprehensible and pleasing to its viewers. She then fabricated this design into three-dimensions using computer-driven 5-axis milling and rapid prototyping technologies. The work itself was created to be part of a living landscape inspired by the Zen gardens of Kyoto. Each part of the landscape represents a different part of the cell. Thus, when the viewer experiences Waltz of the Polypeptides, they are fully immersed into a fantastical environment based on a tiny part of the human body.

(h/t Alyson Swimm)

Finding the origins of life in a drying puddle

Anyone who’s ever noticed a water puddle drying in the sun has seen an environment that may have driven the type of chemical reactions that scientists believe were critical to the formation of life on the early Earth.

Research reported July 15 in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition demonstrates that important molecules of contemporary life, known as polypeptides, can be formed simply by mixing amino and hydroxy acids - which are believed to have existed together on the early Earth - then subjecting them to cycles of wet and dry conditions. This simple process, which could have taken place in a puddle drying out in the sun and then reforming with the next rain, works because chemical bonds formed by one compound make bonds easier to form with the other.

The research supports the theory that life could have begun on dry land, perhaps even in the desert, where cycles of nighttime cooling and dew formation are followed by daytime heating and evaporation. Just 20 of these day-night, wet-dry cycles were needed to form a complex mixture of polypeptides in the lab. The process also allowed the breakdown and reassembly of the organic materials to form random sequences that could have led to the formation of the polypeptide chains that were needed for life.

“The simplicity of using hydration-dehydration cycles to drive the kind of chemistry you need for life is really appealing,” said Nicholas Hud, a professor in the School of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the Georgia Institute of Technology, and director of the NSF Center for Chemical Evolution, which is also supported by the NASA Astrobiology Program. “It looks like dry land would have provided a very favorable environment for getting the chemistry necessary for life started.”

Origin-of-life scientists had previously made polypeptides from amino acids by heating them well past the boiling point of water, or by driving polymerization with activating chemicals. But the high temperatures are beyond the point at which most life could survive, and the robust availability of activating chemicals on the early Earth is questionable. The simplicity of the wet-dry cycle therefore makes it attractive to explain how peptides could have formed, Hud added.

The idea for combining chemically similar amino acids and hydroxyl acids was inspired by the demonstration that polyesters are easy to form by repetitive hydration-dehydration cycles and the fact that esters are activated to attack by the amino group of amino acids. The potential importance of this reaction in the earliest stages of life is supported by studies of meteorites, which revealed that both compounds would have been present on the prebiotic Earth.

Hydroxy acids combine to form polyester, better known as a synthetic textile fiber, and that reaction requires less energy than formation of the amide bonds needed to create peptides from amino acids. In the wet-dry cycles, formation of polyester comes first - which then facilitates the more difficult peptide formation, Hud said.

“The ester linkages that we are making in the polyester can serve as an activating agent formed within the solution,” he explained. “Over the course of a very simple chemical evolution, the polymers progress from having hydroxy acids with ester linkages to amino acids with peptide linkages. The hydroxy acids are gradually replaced through the wet and dry cycles because the ester bonds holding them together are not as stable as the peptide bonds.”

Experimentally, graduate student Sheng-Sheng Yu put the amino and hydroxy acid mixtures through 20 wet-dry cycles to produce molecules that are a mixture of polyesters and peptides, containing as many as 14 units. After just three cycles, and at temperatures as low as 65 degrees Celsius, peptides consisting of two and three units began to form. Postdoctoral fellow Jay Forsythe confirmed the chemical structures using NMR mass spectrometry.

“We allowed the peptide bonds to form because the ester bonds lowered the energy barrier that needed to be crossed,” Hud added.

On the early Earth, those cycles could have taken 20 days and nights - or perhaps much longer if the heating and drying cycles corresponded to seasons of the year.

Beyond easily forming the polypeptides, the wet-dry process has an additional advantage. It allows compounds like peptides to be regularly broken apart and reformed, creating new structures with randomly-ordered amino acids. This ability to recycle the amino acids not only conserves organic material that may have been in short supply on the early Earth, but also provides the potential for creating more useful combinations.

A combination of hydroxy and amino acids likely existed in the prebiotic soup of the early Earth, but analyzing such a “messy” reaction was challenging, Hud said. “We were led into this idea that a mixture might work better than separate components,” he explained. “It might have been messy at the start, but it’s easier to get going than a pristine chemical reaction.”

Beyond helping explain how life might have started, the wet-dry cycles could also provide a new way to synthesize polypeptides. Existing techniques produce the chemicals through genetic engineering of microorganisms, or through synthetic organic chemistry. The wet-dry cycling could provide a simpler and more sustainable water-based process for producing these chemicals.

The demonstration of peptide formation opens the door to asking other questions about how life may have gotten going in prebiotic times, said Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy, a member of the research team and an associate professor of chemistry at the Scripps Research Institute. Future studies will include a look at the sequences formed, whether there are sequences favored by the process, and what sequences might result. The process could ultimately lead to reactions able to continue without the wet-dry cycles.

“If this process were repeated many times, you could grow up a peptide that could acquire a catalytic property because it had reached a certain size and could fold in a certain way,” Krishnamurthy said. “The system could begin to develop certain emergent characteristics and properties that might allow it to self-propagate.”

#uhuruhairandscalpbutter “Your hair and skin tell a story."📖 👇🏾


👉🏾 Your hair is approximately 91 percent protein, and is made up of long chains of amino acids. These chains are found within the fibers of the cortex of the hair. The amino acids of these chains are made up of the elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur (are also the building blocks of the skin and nails) and are joined together by peptide bonds. Long chains of these peptide bonds are called polypeptide chains.💨💧❄️🔥☀️#elements


Protein is the building block of hair👉🏾 Protein will give the shaft of your hair more strength, and will reduce the probability of damage. Excellent sources of protein ..spinach, mustard greens, cauliflower, collard greens, lentils, split peas, kidney beans, black beans, pinto beans, garbanzo beans and other legumes.🌱🌿🍃🌱🌿🍃🌱🌿🍃🍌🍊🍉🍎🍍🍒🍑 Uhuru. #realissues #realpeople #uhuruhealthandwellness #knowledgeofself #readnonfictionbooks #blackvegan #360waves #nowavecaps #protein #healthyhair #healthyscalp #kingscrown #godbody #staygroomed #dsanders36 #mybarberisblack #facts #nogrease #organic #naturalistas #tribecalledwaves #ancestry #africainmyblood #720waves #philly

New Post has been published on WomanHealthGate

New Post has been published on http://womanhealthgate.com/mystery-melatonin-pineal-gland/

The mystery of Melatonin and Pineal Gland

the localization of the Pineal Gland

I started my interest in Melatonin (a polypeptide hormone produced by the Pineal Gland) when I was an intern at Ancona University (Italy). At that time I was interested in chronobiology and interactions between environment and neuroendocrine – reproductive system.

The Pineal Gland (also called Epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland located behind the third ventricle and below the Corpus Callosum, practically in the brain center. It’s connected to the surrounding brain structures but mainly receives nerve fibers from the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the Hypothalamus through the Autonomomic Nervous System.

The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the Hypothalamus is considered one of the main centers of biological internal clock regulation and it is directly connected to the retina nerve fiber and therefore to information on ambient light variations. The Epiphysis is therefore a typical neuroendocrinal structure (such as the Adrenal Gland) where the nerve signal (alternating of light / dark) is translated into a message influencing Melatonin secretion in a circadian manner.

Its particular anatomical location still fuel many suggestions about its role. For example, in the sixteenth century Descartes placed here the seat of the soul. In 1899 it is started to assume a functional connection with the endocrine hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis and this was done thanks to Ogle and Heuber.

Melatonin secretion is strongly affected and it is strictly dependent of day-night (light-dark) rithm, taking in the

Melatonin night-time levels tend to decrease with age

blood a typical circadian cycle with higher levels during the night and lower during the day. Telling the truth, there also are a hormone seasonal variations and in women was demonstrate a variation in the night peak related to menstrual cycle (with lower levels in the peri-ovulatory period) and additional regulatory signals originate from other hormones (such as those ovarian and adrenal hormones).

Bloud Melatonin levels tend to decrease progressively with age.

Here are main actions attributed to Melatonin, outside legends or myths artificially constructed.

REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION:

– The action is substantially antigonadotropic. The Pineal Gland has an important inibitory role on sexual development until puberty. Pineal Gland tumors were associated with precocious puberty. In some small animals it regulates seasonal reproductive rhythms and can not be excluded that in women could cooperate with regulating menstrual and ovulation systems.

Secretory abnormalities have been described in hypothalamic and stress amenorrhea. It is not excluded that many ovulatory disorders may be related to an alteration of its circadian rhythm.

Very interesting the recent use of Dietary Supplements containing Melatonin, Myo-Inositol and Folic Acid in premature ovarian failure (POF) and ovulation induction: in fact, this compounds showed to improve ovarian response in cycles of ovulation induction and in some forms of ovarian insufficiency.

INSOMNIA, ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTIVE DISORDERS:

– While Melatonin is not the main regulator of sleep is undeniable nonetheless its ability to induce sleep (reduction of the latency time before falling asleep); also seems to improve the quality of sleep itself and has been used with success in the treatment of Insomnia;

– It plays an important role in the environmental adaptive disorder like in journeys which involve significant changes in timezone. Administration of melatonin is the best pharmacological remedy to combat symptoms classified under the “jet lag disorder “;

– It is effective in combating disorders such as fatigue and a feeling of malaise resulting from disruption of normal sleep cycle – wakefulness (light – dark) – resulting for example in repeated rounds of night work; many give to secretion of melatonin a function of pacemakers (system controller) and other metabolic and hormonal functions.

– It is involved in almost all branches of medical science, ranging from Aging (anti-oxidant effects) to Oncology, from Cardiovascular diseases to immunology, but regard these fields of medicine are needed more and more scientific evidence.

– Aging;

– Night exposure to light;

– Use of certain antihypertensive adrugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquilizers (Benzodiazepines);

– Dietary deficiency of Tryptophan (an essential amino acid), alcohol abuse, use of coffee at night.

Melatonin is available as dietary supplements and is taken orally during the evening (after dinner) at a dose between 0.5 and 4 mg. Safety profile (when using in short-term) is very good, nevertheless its use in my opinion should always be done under medical indication. Too much in fact we still need to know about this hormone, and everything that comes promote not always correspond to scientific evidence.

Exactly What Is Worldling Amplification Thyroxin?

Human Growth Adjuvant іѕ produced naturally іn our bodies peaking іn its production аround tһe age of puberty аnd аs wіth moѕt оf our body’s natural abilities, witһ time іt decreases іn production leading researchers tо original title that it iѕ in part decision-making fоr the manу signs of aging aѕ welӏ аs leaving us mоrе susceptible to pathology and disease.

HGH iѕ а single-chain polypeptide hormone whіch our body produces, stores and gradually releases except the pituitary gland located advanced оur brains.

By thе early years HGH іѕ unfalse in furtherance of strong bones, growth оf internal organs, stimulating thе immune system and increasing muscle mass рluѕ mаny more. In general sine qua non tһiѕ leads as far as strong, healthy growth in youngsters.

Off our jammed twenties onwards we cаn ӏoоk pole to a gradual decrease in the natural production of Human Natural growth Emmenagogue and our innate aptitude for lay on win the laurels, wrinkles, inanition аnd otһer age related problems increase.

The pour down іn natural output оf HGH сan bе ѕeеn tо be tһe cauѕе оf mаnу age related problems. With іtѕ ability versus increase energy in tһe young, it’s natural taper off cоuld explain why weight gain can bе attributed tо machining older, alsо loss оf muscle, wһіch force majeure aӏѕo be related tо tһе necessitousness оf energy and tһerefоre leѕs exercise.

Susceptibility to hereditary disease and disease соuld аӏso bе attributed to the reduction іn tһе production relating to HGH aѕ іts abundance іn youth leads in contemplation of healthy active youngsters wіth onӏy a vеrу small paper profits of children showing а reduced but nоt gust threatening reduction іn HGH levels.

HGH increases calcium nix for healthy, strong bone development and tһerеforе іtѕ reduction aѕ we grow older fill bе ѕeеn wіtһ number оf broken arms and wrists suffered bу older people in falls thаt most of us would bounce back from.

Due tо іts repeated connections wіth thе vocalic, healthful young аnd the age related problems аssоcіatеd witһ thе decreased production оf HGH aѕ wе grow first-born, muсh research and clinical testing hаѕ tаkеn place to air the uѕеs аnd potential virtues of HGH аs a supplement.

HGH iѕ usеd as а treatment fоr many diseases whose names are commonplace; i myself has aӏѕo hаd a reputation in lieu of being beneficial for anti aging fоr oѵеr ten years fоӏlowіng a study carried out іn thе US.

In superficial, Human Itching Hormone іs produced naturally frоm a small hyperparathyroidism situated in оur large intestine, іt iѕ moѕt active аnd effective when wе arе young аnd lifeless and aids normal healthy growth. As wе grow older tһе makeup оf HGH slows аnd by way of it ѕo dо we, wе slow dоwn and propriety deteriorates. It іѕ onӏу natural thаt research іntо HGH haѕ produced а liberalness оf information аnd usеѕ fоr HGH Supplements аnd Therapies.

arxiv.org
[1507.07211] Wet-spinnability and crosslinked fibre properties of two collagen polypeptides with varied molecular weight

[ Authors ]
Giuseppe Tronci, Ramya Sri Kanuparti, M. Tarik Arafat, Jie Yin, David J. Wood, Stephen J. Russell
[ Abstract ]
The formation of naturally-derived materials with wet stable fibrous architectures is paramount in order to mimic the features of tissues at the molecular and microscopic scale. Here, we investigated the formation of wet-spun fibres based on collagen-derived polypeptides with comparable chemical composition and varied molecular weight. Gelatin and hydrolysed fish collagen (HFC) were selected as widely-available linear amino-acidic chains of high and low molecular weight, respectively, and functionalised in the wet-spun fibre state in order to preserve the material geometry in physiological conditions. Wet-spun fibre diameter and morphology were dramatically affected depending on the polypeptide molecular weight, wet-spinning solvent (i.e. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol and dimethyl sulfoxide) and coagulating medium (i.e. acetone and ethanol), resulting in either bulky or porous internal geometry. Dry-state tensile moduli were significantly enhanced in gelatin and HFC samples following covalent crosslinking with activated 1,3 phenylenediacetic acid (Ph) (E: 726 +/- 43 - 844 +/- 85 MPa), compared to samples crosslinked via intramolecular carbodiimide-mediated condensation reaction (E: 588 +/- 38 MPa). Resulting fibres displayed a dry diameter in the range of 238 +/- 18 - 355 +/- 28 micron and proved to be mechanically-stable (E: 230 kPa) following equilibration with PBS, whilst a nearly-complete degradation was observed after 5-day incubation in physiological conditions.

Origin of life Primordial genetics: Information transfer in a pre-##RNA_World based on self-replicating beta-sheet amyloid conformers.

The question of the origin of life on Earth can largely be reduced to the question of what was the first molecular replicator system that was able to replicate and evolve under the presumably very harsh conditions on the early Earth. It is unlikely that a functional #RNA could have existed under such conditions and it is generally assumed that some other kind of information system preceded the ##RNA_World. Here, I present an informational molecular system that is stable, self-replicative, environmentally responsive, and evolvable under conditions characterized by high temperatures, ultraviolet and cosmic radiation. This postulated pregenetic system is based on the amyloid fold, a functionally unique polypeptide fold characterized by a cross beta-sheet structure in which the beta strands are arranged perpendicular to the fiber axis. Beside an extraordinary structural robustness, the amyloid fold posses a unique ability to transmit information by a three-dimensional templating mechanism. In amyloidogenesis short peptide monomers are added one by one to the growing end of the fiber. From the same monomeric subunits several structural variants of amyloid may be formed. Then, in a self-replicative mode, a specific amyloid conformer can act as a template and confer its spatially encoded information to daughter molecular entities in a repetitive way. In this process, the specific conformational information, the spatially changed organization, is transmitted; the coding element is the steric zipper structure, and recognition occurs by amino acid side chain complementarity. The amyloid information system fulfills several basic requirements of a primordial evolvable replicator system: (i) it is stable under the presumed primitive Earth conditions, (ii) the monomeric building blocks of the informational polymer can be formed from available prebiotic compounds, (iii) the system is self-assembling and self-replicative and (iv) it is adaptive to changes in the environment and evolvable. http://bit.ly/1LHODXa #WWS

Proteome response at the edge of protein aggregation.

PubMed:
Related Articles

Proteome response at the edge of protein aggregation.

Open Biol. 2015 Feb;5(2):140221

Authors: Sanchez de Groot N, Gomes RA, Villar-Pique A, Babu MM, Coelho AV, Ventura S

Abstract
Proteins adopt defined structures and are crucial to most cellular functions. Their misfolding and aggregation is associated with numerous degenerative human disorders such as type II diabetes, Huntington’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Here, we aim to understand why cells promote the formation of protein foci. Comparison of two amyloid-β-peptide variants, mostly insoluble but differently recruited by the cell (inclusion body versus diffused), reveals small differences in cell fitness and proteome response. We suggest that the levels of oxidative stress act as a sensor to trigger protein recruitment into foci. Our data support a common cytoplasmic response being able to discern and react to the specific properties of polypeptides.

PMID: 25673330 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] http://dlvr.it/BdSxtT

New in Pubmed: An integrin from oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates the phagocytosis toward Vibrio splendidus through LPS binding activity.

An integrin from oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates the phagocytosis toward Vibrio splendidus through LPS binding activity.

Dev Comp Immunol. 2015 Jul 16;

Authors: Jia Z, Zhang T, Jiang S, Wang M, Cheng Q, Sun M, Wang L, Song L

Abstract
Integrins are a family of cell adhesion molecules which play important roles in the regulation of cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis and phagocytosis. In the present study, the immune function of an integrin from the oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgIntegrin) was characterized to understand the regulatory mechanism of hemocyte phagocytosis toward different microbes. The full-length cDNA of CgIntegrin was 2571 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2397 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 799 amino acids. The mRNA transcripts of CgIntegrin were predominantly detected in hemocytes, gonad and adductor muscle, while lowly in hepatopancreas, mantle and gill. The mRNA expression level was up-regulated at 6 h post lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation (p<0.01), while no significant change was observed after peptidoglycan (PGN) stimulation. The oyster hemocytes with relative high CgIntegrin expression level exhibited different phagocytic abilities towards different microorganism and particles, such as Gram-positive bacteria Vibrio splendidus, Gram-negative bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and latex beads. Moreover, the phagocytic rate towards V. splendidus was significantly decreased after the blockade of CgIntegrin using the polyclonal antibody. The recombinant CgIntegrin (rCgIntegrin) displayed agglutinating activity towards V. splendidus but not S. aureus and Y. lipolytica. It also exhibited a higher binding affinity towards LPS (compared to rTrx group) in a dose-dependent manner with the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 5.53 × 10(-6) M. The results indicated that CgIntegrin served as a pattern recognition receptor with LPS binding activity, which could directly bind to V. splendidus and enhance the phagocytosis of oyster hemocytes.

PMID: 26190497 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



from pubmed: crassostrea gigas http://ift.tt/1MhEvU4
via IFTTT
Origin of life revealed in drying puddle

London, July 21 (IANS) The simple phenomenon of a water puddle drying in the sun may have driven chemical reactions that were critical to the formation of life on early Earth, shows research.


The research team, that included an Indian-origin scientist, supports the theory that life could have begun on dry land, perhaps even in the desert, where cycles of night-time cooling and dew formation are followed by daytime heating and evaporation.

Just 20 of these day-night, wet-dry cycles were required to form a complex mixture of polypeptides - important molecules of contemporary life - in the lab.

Polypeptides were formed simply by mixing amino and hydroxy acids – which are believed to have existed together on early Earth – then subjecting them to the cycles of wet and dry conditions.

The potential importance of this reaction in the earliest stages of life is supported by studies of meteorites that revealed that both compounds would have been present on pre-biotic Earth.

“The demonstration of peptide formation opens the door to asking other questions about how life may have gotten going in prebiotic times,” said Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy, member of the research team and associate professor of chemistry at the Scripps Research Institute.

The process also allowed the breakdown and reassembly of the organic materials to form random sequences that could have led to the formation of the polypeptide chains that were needed for life, researchers reported in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

“The simplicity of using hydration-dehydration cycles to drive the kind of chemistry you need for life is really appealing,” said Nicholas Hud, professor at Georgia Institute of Technology and director of the NSF Center for Chemical Evolution.

“It looks like dry land would have provided a very favourable environment for getting the chemistry necessary for life started,” he added.

Scientists had previously made polypeptides from amino acids by heating them well past the boiling point of water. But the high temperatures are beyond the point at which most life could survive.

“The simplicity of the wet-dry cycle, therefore, makes it attractive to explain how peptides could have formed,” Hud said.

@tweetmister loves her Arbonne makeup!
Full face:
make up primer - key ingredients: green tea leaf extract(antioxidant and skin conditioner), grape seed extract (moisturizes to support collagen), hyaluronic filling spheres (plant based protein spheres- helps reduce appearance of fine lines and wrinkles)
Foundation: perfecting liquid foundation broad-spectrum SPF 15 sunscreen in neutral beige - Key ingredients: polypeptides (amino acids, hexapeptide-makes skin firmer) buddleja davidill extract (moisturizer)
Contour -
Highlighter: sheer glow highlighter - Key ingredients: polypeptide, buddleja, marrubium vulgate extract.
Bronzer: Bronzer - he ingredients: lavender extract(skin hydrating conditioner with calming properties), licorice extract(calms&smooths), chamomile extract (conditioner),
Setting powder: Setting pretty translucent loose powder broad-spectrum SPF 15 sunscreen – key ingredients: Lynn seed extract (enhance and Brighton skins appearance) rice lipids (help promote and hydrate to maintain skins healthy glow) ribose (reduces appearance of wrinkles)
Eyes:
Eyeshadow: chocolate and linen – key ingredients polypeptides , Cucumber extract (skin conditioner Sue’s and comforts) Mollo extract (skin conditioner)
eyeliner in black and ebony – key ingredients: vitamin C and E ribose, Sunflower seed extract (Contains natural anti-oxidants fatty acids to moisture and condition skin) sesame seed extract(Helps retain moisture) polypeptides, cupuaçu extract (Brazilian fruit extract conditions skin to enhance appearance of skin elasticity; benefits dry, dehydrated skin through moisturization)
Mascara: it’s a long story. Key ingredients – polypeptides, Pea extract(conditions hair follicles against oxidative stress), bamboo extract.

Lips:
Smoothed over lip stick and Rose key ingredients watermelon extract, apple extract, meadowfoam seed oil.
lip liner in berry. Key ingredients: ceramide 3, hyaluronic acid, ribose.

sciencedaily.com
Finding the Origins of Life in a Drying Puddle
Anyone who's ever noticed a water puddle drying in the sun has seen an environment that may have driven the type of chemical reactions that scientists believe were critical to the formation of life on the early Earth.

“The research supports the theory that life could have begun on dry land, perhaps even in the desert, where cycles of nighttime cooling and dew formation are followed by daytime heating and evaporation. Just 20 of these day-night, wet-dry cycles were needed to form a complex mixture of polypeptides in the lab. The process also allowed the breakdown and reassembly of the organic materials to form random sequences that could have led to the formation of the polypeptide chains that were needed for life.”