The 9th of November - the most momentous day in the history of Germany
9th November 1848 - Execution of Robert Blum:
The execution of the member of the Frankfurt National Assembly (the first democratically elected all-German parliament that emerged from the bourgeois revolution of March in the states of the German Confederation) and the suppression of the Vienna October rising marked a decisive turning point in the development of the German Revolution of 1848-49 and is regarded as the beginning of the end of this revolution.
9th November 1918 - November Revolution in Berlin:
The Social Democratic politician Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed the German Republic from a window of the building of the Reichstag (the German parliament):
„Der Kaiser hat abgedankt, er und seine Freunde sind verschwunden. Über sie alle hat das Volk auf der ganzen Linie gesiegt. Das Alte und Morsche, die Monarchie ist zusammengebrochen. Es lebe das Neue! Es lebe die deutsche Republik!”
(“The Emperor has abdicated, he and his friends are gone. The people have triumphed all along the line about them. The old and rotten, the monarchy has collapsed. Long live the new! Long live the German Republic! “)
9th November 1923 - Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch in Munich:
A relatively unkown Nationalsocialist leader in Bavaria named Adolf Hitler attempted a coup d’etat against the Republic. Military and police forces supressed the putsch. 16 people died.
9th November 1936:
On the night of the 9th to 10th November the Nazis removed the monument of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy before the Gewandhaus in Leipzig, the city were the Jewish composer had died in 1847.
The mayor of Leipzig, Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, who was on a trip abroad at this time, declared in protest his resignation.
9th November 1938 - the apex of the November pogroms (7th to 13th November):
After the assassination of a German diplomat in Paris the Nazis staged the November pogroms (up to the present the night of 9 to 10 November 1938 is often known under the euphemistic term “Kristallnacht” (“Night of the broken glass”)
In the Nazi propaganda the progroms committed by SA and SS members were allegedly outbursts of the people’s anger against the Jews.
Throughout the territory of the German Reich Thousands of Jewish people were arbitrarily arrested and tortured. Hundreds of them were murdered within a few days. Jewish shops and facilities were vandalized, synagogues were burnt down.
These events mark the transition from social exclusion and discrimination to the open persecution of the Jews in the dictatorship of the Nazis
9th November 1948: Berlin Blockade
The mayor of West Berlin Ernst Reuter made a speech before the ruins of the Reichstag in front of thousands of people in which he appealed to the international community to solidarise with the inhabitants of West Berlin: “Ihr Völker der Welt, ihr Völker in Amerika, in England, in Frankreich, in Italien! Schaut auf diese Stadt und erkennt, daß ihr diese Stadt und dieses Volk nicht preisgeben dürft und nicht preisgeben könnt!”
(“People of this world, people in America, in England, in France,
in Italy! Look at this city and realize that you can’t abandon this city and this people.”)
9th November 1967:
At the official inauguration of the new rector of the University of Hamburg students showed a banner with the slogan: “Unter den Talaren Muff von 1000 Jahren” (“Under the gowns the musty odour of a thousand years”)
This slogan became one of the most famous symbols of the ‘68 movement in West Germany.
9th November 1989 - The Fall of the Wall:
The opening of the border between East Germany and West Germany marked the spectacular success of the peaceful revolution in the GDR and resulted in the reunification of Germany on the 3rd October 1990.