The Catalan pronouns el, els/-los, la/les, hi/ho and en.
Catalan has some pronouns used to substitute nouns in the sentence. There are personal pronouns and pronouns for objects, which we’ll see in this post. This was a request, so I hope that the anon who asked for it finds it useful!
EL, LA, ELS, LES, HO, EN
These are the English “it” (I’ve bought it).
In Catalan, though, we will use each depending on the gender and whether the object is singular or plural.
EL: masculine singular
LA: feminine singular
ELS: masculine plural
LES: feminine singular
HO: used for neutral words, with the verbs ser/estar (to be), parèixer and semblar (to seem, to look like) and with subordinate clauses
The article will go before the verb in most cases.
Jo compro el llibre ( I buy a book: masculine, singular)
Jo el compro
Has vist la nova pel·lícula de Meryl Streep? (Have you seen Meryl Streep’s new movie?: feminine, singular)
Portaràs la bicicleta? (Will you bring the bicycle?)
As you can see, in the first example “la” becomes l’ because the next word begins with h+vowel. And the participle (vist, from veure) ends with an -a because the object is feminine. Same happens with els and les (vists, vistes). More examples below.
Necessito els teus ordinadors (I need your computers: masculine, plural)
You can also find LOS after the verb if it is in the INFINITIVE FORM.
He decidit comprar els llibres (I’ve decided to buy the books)
He decidit comprar-los (I’ve decided to buy them)
However, you can use els if you place it before the verb (Els he decidit comprar).
Compraré les llibretes que necessites (I will buy the notebooks you need, feminine, plural)
“Ho” is quite unique and it has many uses.
NEUTRAL WORDS (açò, això, allò - this, that, that)
This pronoun substitutes “this” and “that”.
Heu comprat això? (Have you bought that?: you is in plural)
Ho heu comprat?
Has vist açò? (Have you seen this?)
Ho has vist?
These verbs are used to talk about how people/things/events look/are (estar as a verb that talks about a trait, not a location). With “ho” we substitute the trait of the person/object/event
SER/ESTAR (to be)
La teva amiga és molt alta (Your friend is very tall)
La teva amiga ho és
Ara mateix estic content (I’m very happy right now)
Ara mateix ho estic
PARÈIXER/SEMBLAR (to look like, to seem)
Aquell noi pareix/sembla intel·ligent (That guys seems clever)
Aquell noi ho pareix/sembla
Subordinate clauses are introduced with “that” or “que” in Catalan.
Example: Penso que no deuries anar a la festa (I think that you shouldn’t go to the party)
In Catalan, you can substitute the whole clause with “ho”.
Els polítics diuen que solventaran la situació (Politicians say that they will solve the situation)
“que solventaran la situació” is the subordinate clause, and we can substitute it with ‘ho’.
Els polítics ho diuen.
En is used for quantity (this exists in Italian as well, so if you speak it it’ll be easier).
Compro un llibre (I’ve bought a book)
En compro un. As you can see, you say “un” at the end.
El client compra tres peres (El client compra tres peres)
El client en compra tres.
If the verbal tense includes a participle, this one has to match with the article we’re using to substitute the noun. This DOES NOT apply to EN or HO, only to EL, LA, ELS, LES.
Has vist el llibre? (Have you seen the book?)
L’has vist? (No changes here)
Havien comprat una casa, però ara no poden pagar-la (They had bought a house, but now they can’t pay it)
L’havien comprada, però ara no poden comprar-la (They had bought it, but now they can’t pay it). As you can see, before the a the t changes to d.
Han arreplegat els llapis (They’ve picked up the pencils)
Els han arreplegats (They have picked them up)
Hauran comprat les entrades quan arribem (They will have bought the tickets when we arrive)
Les hauran comprades quan arribem(They will have bought them when we arrive)
As you can see, before e the t changes to d.
Catalan has a really interesting system to substitute other complements (time, place, direction, relative clauses, “complements of regime”, predicative complements, etc.). If anyone is interested, let me know and I’ll write a post.
I’d like to debate something I’ve thought before and wrote about…
I don’t trust our current democracy. I trust in deciding together what to do with our country, but not letting participate anyone who does not pass a certain intelligence level.
I’m not saying to limit it to higher IQs or people with doctorates only…I just wish that before you can vote, there would be a simple reading comprehension and arithmetic exam. Read a text and extract the main ideas, and perform some simple calculations, nothing fancier.
If you can’t do it, you cannot make a good informed decision about what is the best option for your interests so you should not vote.
Yes, I understand that people with less monetary means have to work a lot to survive and sometimes do not have the chance to educate themselves a lot becasue,you know, they rather live stupid than starve or be homeless with a degree. But I’m not talking quantum phisics here, you just need to prove that,given an electoral program, you’d be able to get what they mean to do. Or given a news article,get the ideas or facts it’s expressing. I wouldn’t dare to evaluate grammar or similar things, just the ability to extract ideas from a text and, you know, add, multiply, and such things. If you cannot write or read, just do an oral exam, I’m fine with that. Use any language you know, that doesn’t matter.
Becasue for what I see around, I’m pretty sure there’s lots of people with degrees that are unable to do precisely that.
Of course this is prone to abuse depending on the difficulty level of the test,or the way you rate it….
But isn’t out current system also prone to abuse by the news corporations that simplify topics and try to support their own political interests? What is worse, deny people their vote or let people with no idea of what they’re voting to vote?
It is a sincere question becasue I think we take the idea of democracy too much from people that have twisted it for their own interest, and nobody dares to suggest any alternatives that sound less democratic…
I’m really conflicted about this, becasue I understand that people in power tent to twist and abuse it,so it is good to distribute it among lots (as in everybody votes), but there’s overall too many people that have no idea whatsoever what is best for them and vote based on prejudices or unimportant details (how nice does the candidate look,the religion of the candidate, etc…)
Tl, dr: the world is shit and humans are idiots, democracy is broken but past alternatives were worse.
I havent noticed that the rich people became the center of the lok at the end. Even if I noticed that in the wedding there were polítical figures, assisting to a rich person wedding, who was a criminal too. Like the saying: just the poor and foolish go to jail.
I think they did become the center. Not in the sense that they were even good characters, just in the fact that they sucked up most screen time. In general they are almost always at an advantage. The narrative is easier on them, they are the ones who luck out, and the story treats them kinder. They make contributions on occasions when the plot finds it convenient for them but they make sure that these rare contributions are relied upon by other characters.
Examples of how upper class characters were treated nicely (not well, nicely….the narrative is just overly nice to them). I’m very tired so I can’t elaborate my thoughts much beyond just recounting some scenes, but I think that even with just comparing scenes there’s just a really obvious difference to me.
Kai literally disappeared even though he was a poor boy who had to live his young years lying and scheming in order to survive, but now that he’s in a position where he can help people, he’s never shown?? There was no focus on the citizens of EK or RC, no mention of the prisoners after varrick and bolin escape, nothing about the poor people who were against kuvira after the episodes where opal was helping villages. The story didn’t show compassion to them or what they’ve had to struggle through, but the story asks me to show compassion to Kuvira even though she has caused some of these people’s pain.
We had episodes dedicated to the Beifongs, their relationships, their rescue, their political stances. Many times nothing about the beifong subplot had any direct relation to Korra.
Asami’s business is doing great while the rest of the krew is having trouble. Mako is kept from his job of actually helping people through police work to bodyguard the incompetent prince, Bolin is working for a tyrant because he naively believes her cause is good, and Korra is incapacitated for about 2.5 years and is still feeling emotionally and mentally scarred even when she physically heals. The story asks that I direct my attention to Hiroshi and Asami’s relationship despite the fact that he has not been shown since book 1…..despite the fact that mako and bolin barely share any tender interactions at all until the finale….despite the fact that Tonraq finds out that Korra has been missing for 6 months but neither he nor Senna are shown reuniting with Korra. The story asks that, after his second appearance in the entire season, I forgive Hiroshi despite all the hurt he’s caused. He’s suddenly needed in the plot to help the two (rich) people who are supposed to be the greatest inventors.
Raiko, Wu, Suyin, and Kuvira are at the center of the politics. Korra barely has any say on it, and she’s even left out of a council meeting while Wu is invited. Opal seems to be the only one with a deep understanding of how morally wrong Kuvira is because she has been around to see the villages. Bolin learns how Kuvira wrongs the citizens, yet All Is Forgiven after he helps save the Beifongs. Again, the actual people who were suffering because of Kuvira are forgotten, and Bolin doesn’t even have a chance to turn himself around and focus on truly helping these people.
Varrick cares most about profit. He escapes punishment for what he did in book 2 and goes right into Zaofu, then later goes with Kuvira. He realizes that he cannot endanger the lives of so many people by creating the spirit weapon. He helps fight Kuvira. He learns how to respect Zhu Li. He has a conscience. Whoopie. That’s great, but really unoriginal. He took up all of the screentime going through this “transformation” that came entirely from himself and was barely influenced by other people. There are already enough wealthy characters. There’s nothing new about his character.
Wu is shown throughout the entire season to immature, ignorant, irresponsible, etc, The story asks me to be amused that Mako is stuck babysitting him despite Mako’s distaste for Wu both as a prince and a person. The class difference between Mako and Wu is painfully clear and so I think it’s ridiculous and almost down right disgusting how the show ignores that but expects me to think anything about this is funny or entertaining. Wu takes up the center of the scenes he’s in with his unfunny jokes and he does nothing helpful until the end and THEN he becomes somewhat insightful in the last 5 minutes of the show. Again, he’s unoriginal.
Bataar jr gets to work things out with his family even though he is just as guilty as Kuvira.