plant-material

Types of Potions

Philtre- water based, delicate ingredients

Infusion- water based, delicate ingredients

Decoction- for immediate ingestion, concentrated, sturdy ingredients, reduce to remove excess water.

Tincture- alcohol-based, keeps for up to a year, time needed for preparation, highly concentrated, dilute

Vinegar- vinegar based, masks ingredients, highly concentrated

Syropp- Ingredients preserved in sugar solution, very sweet

Poultice- chopped plant material, compress, can be infused w/ potions.

Formentation- clothes dipped in potions, compress

Salve- Oil or fat based, thick and creamy, for external application

Elixir- alcohol based, very pure

Tisane- hot water-based herbal extract

Macerate- cold-water-based plant infusion, requires up to 12 hrs

Essential Oils- diluted extracts

Inhalation- vapor from a potion

lifeandthoughtsandtravel  asked:

I know that you are a reptile tumblr but I was wondering if you knew if it were healthy for dogs to be vegans? I'm just curious because of some vegans that have animals and they make them vegans... is it harmful towards the animal or is it completely safe? thank you :)

It’s an absolutely horrible idea. Dogs cannot be vegans and thrive. They’re not vegetarians and they’re not even really omnivores in the same way we are- while dogs will eat everything we do (and more), feeding them a vegan diet is terrible for their health. A lot of vegans who make this decision will blather on about supplements in the vegan food or about how you can make artificial amino acids or how dogs can survive on it so therefore it’s safe, but dogs can also survive eating Ol’ Roy, the worst dog food in the world. Surviving isn’t the same thing as thriving! A dog’s biological structure means that eating plants and only plants isn’t going to work well in the long run- so let’s look at some of the reasons why dogs need to be fed a diet based in animal protein. 

1. The canine digestive tract is not good at digesting plant matter.

Plant matter is really tough to break down! Meat, on the other hand, digests quickly. Carnivores and herbivores have differently structured digestive tracts that work with their diets. Let’s look at a rabbit’s digestive tract and a dog’s.

See how a rabbit has a functional cecum, while the dog’s is just a little snub of a thing? The cecum is an organ that plays a really important role in non-ruminant herbivore digestion. It’s a large pouch where cellulose and tough fibers in plant-based food get broken down. Dogs, like humans, don’t have one that’s functional for digestion. 

In addition, herbivores like rabbits have very long, complicated digestive tracts. Their food sits in there and breaks down over a long period of time. An average adult rabbit (with a body of about 40 centimeters long, we’re not talking the giant breeds or the dwarf breeds here) has about three meters of small intestine. In American units, that’s a 15 inch animal with almost 10 feet of intestines. A dog, on the other hand, has a small intestine that’s about two and a half times the length of its body- so for instance, a dog that’s two feet long would have about five feet of small intestine. There’s neither enough time nor space in the canine alimentary canal for dogs to fully extract the nutrients they need to survive. 

2. Dog drool doesn’t have amylase.

Amylase an enzyme that converts plant starch and glycogen into simple sugars. Herbivores and omnivores typically have amylase in the saliva, which starts to break down those starches immediately. This means by the time the starches hit the intestine, they’ve already started to convert into something that’s actually useful. Dogs, however, only produce it in the pancreas. There’s no salivary amylase in dogs or any other carnivore. This means that digesting plants and converting their energy into something that’s actually useful is really inefficient for dogs; they can only get something like half of the energy and nutrients they’d get from a comparable amount of meat. It also means that to digest plant material, dogs’ pancreases have to go into overtime to make enough amylase, which can lead to severe pancreatic strain.

3. Dogs can’t digest cellulose.

While the dog pancreas makes amylase, something it doesn’t make is cellulase. Granted, herbivores don’t make it either- in fact, very few animals do. Termites are one of the only animals that make their own cellulase. Herbivore digestive tracts have a reservoir of symbiotic bacteria that produce plenty of cellulase. We’ve actually talked about it- it’s what goes on in the cecum! The bacteria in carnivore ceca, however, is linked to the lymphatic system, not the digestive system. 

There’s also the issue of their teeth not being adapted for a plant-based diet or even the way they eat being good at taking in plants- but the same is true for anything that’s not animal carcasses, including kibble and wet dog food. That’s just evidence that defines them as opportunistic carnivores; what makes a vegan diet so bad for dogs is their digestive biology.

There is one exception to this rule, and that is when a vet prescribes a vegan diet for an animal with significant food allergies or other dietary issues. This is not something vets do unless it’s the best course of treatment for the animal. 

Veganism isn’t the same thing as being an herbivore. Herbivores don’t have a choice; their bodies aren’t built for eating meat. While they might take in animal protein on occasion (deer, for instance, will eat birds sometimes), their teeth, their digestive systems, and their metabolisms all work together to make eating plants the best way for them to survive. A rabbit’s not a vegan- it’s an herbivore. Only humans can be vegans. To be a vegan is to make a choice; it’s to evaluate your place in the world around you and to renegotiate your relationship with all sorts of things- your own body, the food industry, the people around you, and of course the animals you don’t eat. Responsible vegans understand that humans can thrive on an all-vegetable diet; they know that we evolved to be really, really flexible when it comes to the source of our nutrition. While humans are biologically omnivores, we can make that choice.

A dog can’t, and it’s not humanity’s place to force that on them. There are some pets that thrive on an all-vegetable diet. Rabbits, tortoises, finches, hamsters, snails- but not dogs. 

If you’d like more information, this is a fantastic write-up, complete with sources! This is a good, short article written by a vet. This is a blog post that talks about some of the other nutritional deficiencies, particularly involving D3. This is another great writeup with diagrams!

PSA: Glitter is Bad for the Environment

Hello, folks!

I’ve been reading a lot of blogs where people incorporate glitter into their spellwork. And glitter is 100% magickal, but it is also 100% MADE OF PLASTIC. Plastic, as you may know, takes 100s to 1,000s of years to decompose.

The cheap glitter you buy in those little tubes? It’s made of tiny pieces of plastic.

BUT THERE ARE AMAZING ALTERNATIVES!!
- Mica glitter is made of crushed up rocks! That’s right, ROCKS! What could be better for spellwork! You know what’s even better, depending on where you live? Mica can easily be found outside and it is super easy to MAKE YOUR OWN MICA GLITTER FOR FREE! Ever wonder what makes makeup so shimmery? It’s mica powder.
- Edible Glitter is made from plant starches and plant material. Meaning, it’s great for the environment. Bonus: YOU CAN EAN IT! Great for kitchen witchcraft!!

So, before you buy a tiny, sparkly tube of cheap, plastic glitter, please think about where it came from. And, also, think about where all of that glitter is going to end up.

I used to love glitter before I found out it was made of plastic. Now, I collect mica and make my own mica glitter! When the weather warms and there isn’t a blizzard going on, maybe I can do a tutorial to show what I do. It’s super easy and fun!

Aim to do something witchy each day!

• cleanse your space
• tend your garden
• collect storm/rain/snow water
• meditate!
• pick herbs/plants
• charge materials
• walk in nature
• top up your supplies
• light a candle
• make a fruit offering to the wild
• practice divination
• read a book on craft
• plant a plant
• clean and collect jars
• go shopping
• read a prayer
• put a wandering bug or a spider friend back outside
• curl up with a cup of tea and scroll through witchy blogs

Decided to crank this out in order to better show the anatomy I’ve been describing for griffins.

Top image is your average griffin (Gryps orientalis), once widespread across southwestern Asia and possibly as far west as Greece, though now limited in range to remote parts of Iran. While capable of flight, it is much more inclined to run down prey and dispatch it with a powerful bite. The single spur on each forelimb, often likened to an eagle’s talon, is used in territorial disputes and is much longer on males. Like all western dragons, they possess pseudo-mammalian ears, which have no muscle attachments and cannot move independently of the head. The beak is composed of large flat scales, more like a turtle’s than a bird’s. They make their nests high in the mountains, out of shallow depressions in the soil lined with plant material, and guard their 1 to 3 softball sized eggs viciously.
The male builds the nest, first surrounding it with shining trinkets to attract the female. Thus originated the belief that gold could be found in or near griffin nests. Nowadays, it is more likely bits of colorful plastic or glass.

Below the griffin is the Hippogriff (Gryps hippogryphus), a cousin to the griffin found in parts of Southern Europe. Its lanky stature, feathered hindlimbs, and the long hair on its ears have all contributed to its likeness to the horse. However, even when raised in captivity, nearly all attempts to mount one have resulted in a swift and painful strike with the spurs, and is heavily discouraged.

Herbal Medicine: What is an Electuary?

An Electuary is a medicinal paste created with something sweet, such as honey or jam. Thick electuaries can be rolled into little balls for children to take with some juice, and thinner electuaries can be mixed with beverages such as hot tea. At its essence, an electuary is an herb infused honey.

According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary the first known use of an Electuary dates back to the 14th century. ‘Electuarie’ is a Middle English word derived most likely from the Greek ‘Ekleikton’ or ‘Ekleichein’ meaning to lick up. After all, a spoon full of sugar helps the medicine go down, am I right? ;-)

The common kitchen witch (and herbalist) will already be familiar with the process of herbal infusions, such as making tea blends, but making and storing electuaries can really kick your magic crafting up a notch. The primary use is medicinal but you can expand this into everyday spellcraft as well. Below are just a few examples of both medicinal and magical electuaries and how to create them.

Medicinal

Chamomile – Mildly sedative and soothing for stress relief.

Mint – Soothes digestive track to help with heartburn, nausea, and indigestion.

Raspberry Leaf – Especially beneficial for women by balancing hormones and helping with painful menses.

Elderberry, Echinacea, Licorice Root – This blend is a good immune supporter and very helpful for viral respiratory infections and treating the symptoms accompanied by the flu.

Magical (individual ingredients or blend to your tastes)

Love – Rose Petals, Lavender Flowers, Lemon Verbena, Apple, Cardamom

Money – Cinnamon, Clove, Nutmeg, Almond, Orange

Protection – Anise, Elder Flower, Fennel, Basil, Blackberry

Purification – Rosemary, Bay, Lemon, Chamomile, Nettle, Turmeric

How to make an Electuary

The best results come from using dried herbs or flowers and local raw honey. The dried plant material allows you to store your electuary longer because it has little to no water in it, where fresh plant material will thin the honey and require refrigeration to prevent mold. Raw honey from your local area is also best because it will contain traces of pollen from the trees and flowers in your area which assist with preventing seasonal allergies.

The process is to create a double-boiler system by putting a pot with some water on to boil, then placing a slightly larger metal bowl in it so that it sits snuggly (but not too tight) without touching the water. The gentle steam will warm the metal bowl enough to melt your honey without boiling it directly. Once your double-boiler is assembled put in your desired amount of honey and dried plant material. You can use herbs from your kitchen, ground spices, dried flowers, etc. I would recommend finding food grade if you’re buying online or at a local shop. Organic would be the best of course (pesticides don’t make good electuaries!). The amount of honey to plant material is up to you depending on how strong you want the infusion to be. Let your plant material simmer for an hour in the honey over your double-boiler.

*Alternative* You could infuse your honey and herbs using a small crock pot if you wanted to so you could simmer for 2-3 hours.

If you want your electuary to be a thick paste, finely grind your herbs prior to infusing using a spice grinder (or mortar and pestle if you have that kind of patience). Alternatively you could just use store bought ground herbs/spices. You will want to use more of an equal ratio of plant material to honey to make sure it stays thick. Please note that this will make the honey taste strongly of the herbs you use so be mindful of taste when you’re choosing herbs to blend, or just plan to roll into more of a “plant pill” to be swallowed. After infusing, store in a clean dry jar with a lid.

If you prefer a thinner electuary that can be mixed by the spoonful with a cup of hot water or tea, then you can use any kind of plant material in any amount you’d like with your honey to control strength and flavor. After infusing, strain it into a clean dry jar with lid for storage. Straining a combination of leaves, roots, bark, and ground spices will allow the smaller particles to stay within the electuary while removing the larger more undesirable pieces. This seems to be the most popular method.

You can now use your electuary however you’d like! Medicinal, Magical, with tea, in your cooking, the possibilities are endless so experiment!

Brightest Blessings,

Thalya /|\

Originally posted on my druid page, DruidDaydreams

2

Can we all just take the time to appreciate what a good food 4Health is

First off it’s cheap. Oh my god it’s cheap. It’s around the same price as a can of Friskies but five times the quality. It’s species appropriate, no excessive use of plant material. It’s low in ash and minerals, which combined with the moisture and protein, is perfect for a healthy UT and cats with FLUTD/cystitis/prone to blockage

And if you don’t live near a Tractor Supply you can just order a can online. That’s right, they sell single cans as opposed to other websites that force you to buy cases. This lets you see if your cat likes it first before investing in big bunches.

Thank you Tractor Supply

How To Make And Prepare Herbs

Since the effectiveness and the value of most herbs are greatest when the plants are fresh, the best preparations are usually those that you make yourself from freshly gather herbs. And what a satisfying feeling to be able to identify your remedy in the field and to extract natures healing elements and put them to use, all through your own efforts! (Some plants, however, should be used only dried or in professional preparations to avoid or minimize the detrimental effects.)

But even the best plant materials can be ruined if you use the wrong kind of process in preparing your remedies. The choice depends primarily on the identity of the plant, the plant parts being used, the elements to be extracted, the form in which the remedy will be taken or applied, and the effect to be achieved. A little experimentation will soon indicate the adjustments that need to be made to suit you or someone else’s needs.

Don’t be impatient, though, if you don’t get immediate results from the preparations. Herbs are not one-shot wonder drugs in the modern sense; rather, their effectiveness is based on gradual action to restore the natural balance of bodily functions that constitutes health. Very few plant remedies produce lasting beneficial effects after only one or two doses; most treatments involve taking the remedy daily for at least several weeks of this is also greatly helped or hindered by your overall lifestyle, especially your diet. A healthful  diet and sufficient exercise to keep your body in good condition are valuable for both preventing much illness and for helping to overcome it when it does strike.

The only prepared remedies that can be kept for any length of time are ointments and those made with alcohol. The alcohol will preserve the latter, and a little gum benzoin or tincture or benzoin(a drop per ounce of fat) will preserve selves or ornaments made with a perishable base. Make infusions, decoctions, cold extracts, juice, poultices, and fomentations fresh each time. Whenever you do store any plant preparations, sterilize the containers before putting the preparations in them.

The following types of preparations are those most commonly and conveniently used in herbal medicine. The doses given our four average adult use and must be adjusted for age and condition for children and weak or elderly people, or when using very potent plants, use 130 to 2/3 the adult dose.

INFUSION

An infusion is a beverage made like tea, by combining boiling water with plants, usually the green parts or the flowers, and steeping to extract their active ingredients. The relatively short exposure to heat in this method of preparation minimizes the loss of volatile elements. The usual amount is about 1/2oz to 1oz to a pint of water. Most often the water is poured over the plants, but some recipes require that the plants be added to boiling water, the pot then being immediately removed from the heat. Use an enamel, porcelain, or glass pot to steep the plants for about 10 minutes; then cover the pot with a tight-fitting lid to minimize evaporation. For drinking, strain the infusion into a cup or glass. Sometimes sugar or honey is added to improve the taste. For most purposes, take the infusion luke warm or cool; but to induce sweating and to break up a cold or a cough, take it hot. Most herbal teas are taking over a period of time in small, regular doses ranging from a teaspoon to a mouthful. The cumulative daily dose usually ranges from 1 to 4 cups, depending on the severity of the problem and the potency of the plant.

DECOCTION

When you want to extract primarily the mineral salts and the bitter principles of plans, rather than the vitamins on volatile ingredients, decoction is your method of preparation. Hard materials such as wood, roots, bark, and seeds, also generally require boiling to extract their active ingredients. Boil about a half ounce plant parts per cup of water in it and I’m old or nonmetallic pot. Green plant parts can be added to cold water, brought to a boil,and boiled for 3 to 4 minutes; or they can be added to boiling water and then boiled for the same time. The mixture then steeps with a cover on the pot for 2 to 3 minutes. Hard materials need boiling for about 10 minutes the longer steeping to extract their ingredients. Strain of the plant parts before drinking or using the decoction. Directions for taking decoctions are the same as for infusions.

COLD EXTRACT

Preparation with cold water effectively preserve the most volatile ingredients and extract only minor amounts of mineral salts and bitter principles. Add about double the amount of plant material used for an infusion to cold water in and enamelled or nonmetallic pot. Let the mixture stand for 8 to 12 hours, strain, and the drink is ready. Directions for taking are the same as for infusions.  (Korach: I’ve had luck using oil and alcohol for Cold Extracts. My favorite being minced garlic in olive oil, I use it primarily for cooking)

JUICE

Chop fresh plants or plant parts up into small pieces and press to squeeze out the juice. Add a  little water to the pressed material and press again to get the rest. This is a good method for extracting water-soluble constituents, especially those sensitive to heat. It is excellent for getting vitamins and miinerals from the plant; but the juice must be taken within a short time after pressing, since a vitamin content declines rapidly after fermentation sets in.(Korach: Of course we also have Juicers & Cold Presses to do this)

POWDER

Grind dried plant parts with the mortar and pestle and or other implements until you have a powder. Powder can be taken with water, milk, or soup; sprinkled on food; or swallowed in gelatin capsules. A number 0 capsule holds about 10 grains; number 00 holds about 15 grains. The most common dose for powders is the amount that you can pick up on the tip of a dinner knife.

SYRUP

A basic syrup to which you can add medicine ingredients can be made by simply boiling 3lbs  of raw or brown sugar in a pint of water until it reaches the right consistency. Or you can boil the plant materials in honey or store-bought syrup and then strain through cheesecloth. Syrup is especially useful for administering medicines to children.

TINCTURE

Combine 1oz to 4oz powdered herb(the amount depends on the plant’s potency) with 8 to 12 ounces of alcohol. Add water to make a 50% alcohol solution(you have to know what percent alcohol you started). Let stand for two weeks, shaking once or twice a day; then strain and pour the liquid into a bottle suitable for storage. Like other alcoholic extracts tinctures will keep for a long time. Homeopaths use very dilute tinctures as their basic medicinal preparations.

ESSENCE

Dissolve an ounce of the herb’s essential oil in a pint of alcohol. This is a good way to preserve the volatile essential oils of many plants, which are generally not suitable in water.

OINTMENT

Mix well one part of the remedy in powdered form with four parts hot petroleum jelly, lard, or similar substance. For purists, an old method is to boil the ingredients in water until the desired properties are extracted. Strain the liquid add the decoction to olive or other vegetable oil, and simmer until the water has completely evaporated. Add beeswax as needed to get a firm consistency. Melt the mixture by heating slowly, and stir until completely blended. I was pointed out above, a little gum benzoin or a drop of tincture of benzoin per ounce of fat(when a Percival fat is used as a base) will help to preserve the ointment.

POULTICE

The poultice, or cataplasm, is used to apply a remedy to a skin area with moist heat. To prepair, bruise or crush the medicinal parts of the plant to a pulp mass and heat. If using dried plants(or if needed even with fresh plants), moisten the materials by mixing with a hot, soft, adhesive substance, such as moist flour or corn meal, or a mixture of bread and milk. Apply directly to the skin. A good way is to spread the pace or pulp on a wet, hot cloth, apply, and wrap the cloth around to help retain moisture and heat. Moisten the cloth with hot water periodically as necessary. Where the irritant plants are involved(as in a Mustard “plaster”), keep the pace between the two pieces of cloth to prevent direct contact with the skin; after removing the poultice, wash the area well with water or herb tea(especially camomile or mugwort) to remove any residue that may have gotten on the skin. You can use the poultice to soothe, to irritate, or to draw impurities from the body depending on which plant or plants you use.

FOMENTATION

Sook cloth or towel in an infusion or decoction, ring out the excess, and apply as hot as possible to the affected area. A fomentation has about the same applications as a poultice but is generally less active and its effect.

COLD COMPRESS

Soak cloth or towel in an infusion or decoction that has been cooled, wring out the excess, and apply to the affected area. Leave on until it is warmed by body heat, usually 15 to 20 minutes. Repeat application with a fresh cool compress. Continue until relieved.

HYDROTHERAPY: The Herb Bath

Hydrotherapy – the use of water for treatment of illness – is particularly popular in Europe, where health spas have elaborate facilities for all types of “water cures.” Often these include the use of mineral water or of mineral and herbal bath additives to enhance the natural healing power of the water or to produce particular effects on the body. But you don’t have to go to a European health resort to take healing baths: with a few simple supplies, you can enjoy the benefits right at home.

Full or partial herb baths come in all shapes and sizes, from the bathtub to the eyecup. Basically they are baths to which plant decoctions or infusions have been added. Depending on the plants used and the temperature, such baths can calm or stimulate the mind and body; open or close pores; relieve inflammation, itching, or pain; and exert various other beneficial effects.

—The Ultimate Guide to Marijuana Extracts

Been browsing GreenRush menus and getting confused by all the talk about hash, BHO, crumble, tinctures and waxes? In this post we take a detailed look at the different kinds of marijuana extracts currently available on the market and what makes them unique.

So whether you’re already a fan of cannabis concentrates or you’re a newbie looking to find out what all the hype is about, read on to find out all you need to know. And remember, sign up to GreenRush today and get cannabis delivered from the best dispensaries in your area in minutes.

•What are Marijuana Extracts?

The term “marijuana extracts” basically refers to any product that is made by extracting desirable compounds (such as cannabinoids and terpenes) from the cannabis plant and combining them in a concentrated form.

In cannabis, the compounds manufacturers are looking to extract are cannabinoids (such as THC, CBD, CBN, etc) and terpenes (such as pinene, limonene, etc). Cannabinoids are unique compounds that give cannabis its medicinal properties, while terpenes are mainly known for giving cannabis the aromas and tastes that we all treasure, although they also have medicinal properties of their own.

By extracting and concentrating these compounds, manufacturers are all striving towards one common goal; to create a pure product with high concentrations of the chemicals that give cannabis its distinct effects.

The process of extracting and concentrating these compounds, however, isn’t easy. The purity and quality of the end product is governed by countless variables, including everything from the chemical profile of the strain and the particular extraction method being used.

•It’s All About The Trichomes

All marijuana extracts are made by separating the trichomes (those sticky, hair-like crystals on your buds) from the plant matter. These trichomes contain the highest concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes in the cannabis plant, meaning they also harness the plant’s maximum medicinal potential.

Many plants have trichomes, such as The Venus Fly Trap, which uses them to sense prey on the inside of it’s leaves, or the tomato plant, which uses them to sense predators, such as caterpillars.

Scientists hypothesize that the trichomes found on cannabis work similarly, as a defense mechanism.

•Different Forms of Cannabis Extraction

There are a variety of ways to extract cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant. The various methods are usually categorized by whether or not they use a solvent to separate the trichomes from the plant matter:

-Solventless Extraction Methods:

Different Forms of Cannabis Extraction

There are a variety of ways to extract cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant. The various methods are usually categorized by whether or not they use a solvent to separate the trichomes from the plant matter:

Solventless Extraction Methods:

Although the term “solventless” technically refers to a concentrate that is made using an extraction method that doesn’t rely on any kind of solvent, the term is generally used by the industry to refer to products that are made without the use of chemical solvents such as butane or alcohol.

The most common solventless extraction methods include:

Dry sifting: Literally sifting cannabis flowers through various sieves to separate the trichomes from the flower. Dry ice is often used to produce kief or hash.
Cold water extraction: Cannabis plant matter is combined with ice and water and then agitated to separate the trichomes from the plant. The mixture is then filtered to remove the water and leave behind a relatively pure concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes. This method is used to produce ice-water hash.
Heat and pressure extraction: Most commonly used to make rosin, this method uses heat and pressure to press cannabis flowers and extract a thick, golden oil that contains high concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes. This method is used to create rosin.
CO2 extraction: A complex extraction method that works by turning CO2 gas into a supercritical liquid and using that liquid as a solvent to extract the desired compounds from cannabis plant material. This method is used to create CO2 Oil.

•Solvent-based Extraction Methods

Technically, the term “solvent-based extract/extraction” refers to any product which is made using a solvent, in which case any marijuana extracts made using CO2 or water extraction methods would fall under this heading.

However, the cannabis industry generally uses this term to refer to cannabis extracts made using chemical solvents such as butane and ethanol. The most common solvent-based extraction methods include:

Butane extraction: As the name implies, this method uses butane as a solvent to extract the key cannabinoids and terpenes from plant material. This is usually done by packing cannabis plant matter into a container with a small opening and ‘blasting’ or pouring liquid butane over the flower to extract the good stuff from the plant. The resulting mixture is then heated to remove as much of the solvent as possible, resulting in a concentrate that is rich in cannabinoids and terpenes. This method is used to create a type of hash oil known as BHO (Butane Hash/Honey Oil) which is often referred to by names like Shatter, Crumble or Wax, depending on the consistency and appearance of the final product.
Alcohol extraction: This method is similar to butane extraction, but uses alcohol (most commonly isopropyl alcohol or ethanol) as the solvent to extract the key compounds from the plant. Most commonly, plant material is soaked in alcohol for short amounts of time, before the mixture is filtered and occasionally heated in order to remove as much of the solvent as possible. This method is used to create tinctures and hash oil, the latter of which may be sold under a variety of names describing the texture of the oil or the alcohol it was made with.

•Types of Marijuana Extracts

There are a variety of cannabis concentrates currently available on the market. Here’s a simple guide to help you understand the differences between them:

-Kief and Hash

Kief is the oldest form of cannabis extract and is the main ingredient used to make hash. Using a dry sifting technique, frozen flower is sifted through fine mesh screens to separate the trichomes from the plant matter. The end product is a fine powder with a high concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes.

Regular flower, for example, tends to reach a maximum THC concentration of 25-30%, while good quality kief can reach up to 60%.

Kief is often heated and compressed into big blocks, popularly known as hash. The color of the kief or hash will often speak for its purity; a high-quality concentrate is usually golden, while lower quality products will have a greenish tinge, which indicates that it is contaminated with more plant matter.

-Ice Water Hash

Ice water hash is, you guessed it, a type of hash. The term refers to hash that is made using a ice-water extraction method.

Frozen cannabis trimmings are combined with cold water and ice and agitated (either shaken or stirred) in order to separate the brittle trichomes from the plant matter. The mixture is then sifted through various fine sieves and dried to form a granular concentrated that can be pressed or molded by hand.

-Rosin

Rosin is a cannabis concentrate made using a heat and pressure extraction method which can be easily done at home. Cannabis flower is placed inside parchment paper and pressed between two hot sheets of metal (such as the panels of a hair straightener) to release a sticky, golden oil that’s very similar to shatter.

-CO2 Oil

CO2 oil is the end product of CO2 extraction, or supercritical fluid extraction. This method, relying on complex and very expensive equipment allows for one of the purest extractions of cannabis compounds currently available on the market. CO2 oil is a beautiful amber/gold color and is jam-packed full of cannabinoids and terpenes.

The oil is mixed with food grade propylene glycol or glycerin to keep it liquid at room temperature and is most commonly vaporized in vape pens, although it can also be frozen and dabbed using a regular dab rig.

-Hash Oil

Hash oil is arguably the most popular marijuana extract currently on the market and is most commonly made using the butane extraction method we described earlier.

Hash oil is available in various consistencies which are determined by minute factors in how the cannabinoids and terpenes were extracted from the plant.

Here are some of the most common types of hash oil and how they differ from one another:

–Shatter

Shatter refers to hash oil that has a similar texture to glass and commonly shatters when it is dropped or manipulated. It is clear and usually amber or golden in color and can have a potency of up to 80% THC. Due to its transparency, many mistake shatter as being the purest type of cannabis concentrates.

However, shatter simply owes its transparency to the fact that it’s molecules have been left undisturbed and not agitated like the molecules in wax, crumble, or bubble hash.

During the manufacturing process, shatter is purged of butane by heating it (often under a vacuum) until the butane evaporates. Because the product isn’t agitated, it’s molecules are undisturbed, making for a transparent concentrate.

The consistency of hash oil is governed by factors such as the heat it was exposed to during manufacturing, whether it has been decarboxylated, and it’s terpene contents. Here are some different names applied to concentrates like shatter but with different consistencies:

Pull-and-snap: A concentrate similar to shatter but with a more taffy-like consistency which can be pulled, manipulated, and snapped apart, unlike glass-like shatter.
Sap: A runnier, sticky concentrate that resembles tree sap or honey. This stuff usually can’t be manipulated by hand and you’ll need some kind of tool to load it into a dab rig without making a mess.

–Wax

Cannabis wax has a sticky texture which, much like shatter, can differ in consistency. The most obvious difference between shatter and wax is that wax isn’t transparent. Instead, it can have a creamy white color, similar to honey when it solidifies.

Wax is opaque because, unlike shatter, its molecules have been agitated. While shatter is just heated during the purging process, waxes are usually whipped. The agitation from the whipping is what creates this non-transparent concentrate.

Like shatter, wax is available in a variety of consistencies which are referred to by various names. These include:

Crumble: A concentrate with a slightly granular texture that can be pressed or molded by hand. As it’s name suggests, it has a similar texture to the topping on an apple crumble dessert.
Honeycomb: Honeycomb waxes are usually hard and very brittle, much like the honeycomb centres in some snack bars.
Budder: Budder has a very rich, creamy, and soft texture similar to peanut butter.

•Tinctures

Tinctures are marijuana extracts made by soaking cannabis trimmings in alcohol. The finished product is a potent extract which is usually applied in drops and administered orally. According to Leafly, tinctures were the most common form of medical cannabis prior to prohibition in 1937.

Charm Making 101

Making your own charm is as easy as baking a cake, with no baking.

First let’s explore what makes a charm a charm. 

charm [CHärm] n. 

      a collection of materials placed into a color specific bag used to send and receive specific vibrations from the universe. A satellite dish if you will. Carrying these little bundles of magic with you everywhere you go is one of the easiest ways to communicate your wants and needs with the universe.

Step One: Figuring out your intentions

Every charm has a specific intent behind it. Without one, it’s just a bag of rocks and dirt. Figure out what you need the most in your life right now. This could be anything from romantic love to quick cash to even inner peace

Step Two: Understanding the skeleton

What in the world do skeletons have to do with charms? Well, the skeleton of a charm is essentially the building blocks you need. All of the really powerful charms I have made have come equipped with a leafy green, a flower, a base, a bag, and a mineral. 

Leafy Green.

The leafy green is a plant material. This can be dried herbs or simple green foliage from a specific plant that gives off good vibrations through its leaves.

The Flower.

The flower is there to work with the other leafy green and encompass a specific property all in one bundle.

The Mineral

The mineral is there to push out the signal. Incorporating crystals and rocks add an antenna to your satellite dish.

The Bag.

The bag is a little string draw satchel that is a specific color depending on what your intentions are (green for money, pink for love, etc). Every little satchel is just a method for energy to be carried around. The longer you are with it, the more energy and intention you put into it.

The Base.

Now last but not least is the base. This is something that can absorb any negative energy but can also add a little substance to your charm bag. The base is tricky but very versatile. A majority of the time rice is a really good base but things like garden or graveyard dirt can be used.

Step Three: Research

I’ve found the easiest way to accomplish this step it to work backwards. Instead of looking for a specific material that you need for a charm, figure out what the materials you have already do and see if they apply. You’d be surprised how versatile a lot of materials are. A lot of good resources can be found on the internet if you look up “(Material name)’s magical properties”. Just those three words can give you a solid amount of websites to read. On top of that, you can check out the WiccanInk page. If you’re not on mobile, there are links at the top labeled “Herbs”, “Color Magic”, and “Stones” (conveniently hyperlinked here for you as well).

Step Four: Cleansing and charging

This is arguably one of the most important steps in this process. You can have the best material combination in the world but if your crystal isn’t charged, then it isn’t going to work. Take the time to purify and charge all materials before adding them to any magic work, let alone charm work. Here are some good cleansing methods and the best way to charge any item it to leave it out in the sun for a full day.

Step Five: Putting it all together

At this stage you have gathered all your materials, cleansed everything, and charged it with your intent. You can now add the ingredients to the bag. The order I like to use is base, mineral, leafy green, then flower. You can do it anyway you like but I’ve found that this method just looks prettier. When you are adding all the ingredients be sure to visualize yourself succeeding in whatever part of your life you want to improve. Do this work in front of your altar and away from the rest of the world. Find a quiet spot in your head so you can really focus on your life needs.

Take your time. Work with your charm. After a little bit you will be able to feel the energy it is giving off and you will realize every charm has it’s own personality. At the end, tie three knots in the cord to tie up the bag and with each knot think about what you already have. For example if you’re working on a charm to improve your wealth, think about three instances where you are wealthy enough. Thank the universe for the instances and understand that you can still receive more.

Following these steps will hopefully lead you to successful charm work. Take your time and remember everything needs practice.

Blessed Be

-Alerisa

Betta Care Guide: All About Bettas!

The “Betta Basics”
-2.5+ gallon tank
-heater (76-82F)
-thermometer
-low-flow filter
-1+ hide
-decor
-silk/live plants
-quality food

A More Comprehensive Guide

***Tank Size***

2.5 gallons:
The absolute minimum, I do not recommend keeping a betta in anything less than this because even in a cycled 2.5, keeping a *stable* cycle is very difficult, and requires more frequent water changes. In a tank this small, you’ll most likely need to buy an adjustable heater as well, since the smallest (trustworthy) heaters on the market are 7-7.5 watts, and depending on where you live or how hot/cold you keep your house/room, the heat will fluctuate too often, or be too hot or too cold since the volume of water is quite small. A 2.5 gallon betta tank is doable.

5 gallons:
A great median for those who want to give their bettas a wonderful environment, but may be cramped on space, move around often, or whose living arrangements have aquarium-related restrictions. A cycled 5 gallon tank with a betta generally requires a water change 1x a week. A 5 gallon is also easier to heat and keep a stable cycle with a 5 gallon than a 2.5 gallon. I still recommend an adjustable heater (I’ll always recommend an adjustable heater), though, as I’ve found that even with an appropriately-sized preset heater/non-adjustable heater, the temperature fluctuates too often and by too much. A 5 gallon is a perfectly good choice!

10 gallons:
A palace! Your new betta would love to have a 10+ gallon tank! They’ll swim over every inch of it, I promise its not too big. A fantastic choice for those that have the space and can afford to set up a 10 gallon or larger with all the bells and whistles (décor, filter, heater, etc.).

note: If you feel you can’t give your betta a 10+ gallon tank, and you can only afford a 2.5 or 5 gallon setup (or something in between), that DOES NOT mean I (or anyone else) think you’re a bad fish parent ❤ as long as you can provide the basic necessities your fish requires and keep on top of water quality, then do what you can when you can! Maybe it’ll be a few months before you can buy your fish that new hide or a few extra plants, or maybe you’ll have to wait ‘til xmas or your bday to be able to afford a larger tank if that’s what you want, and that’s okay. As long as you do the best within your means (provided your animal’s basic needs are met), that’s all your fish would ask of you ❤

***Temperature***
Bettas are tropical fish! That means they require temperatures of 76-82F.

Why do they need this temperature range, though? Well, fish are ectothermic (“cold-blooded”) meaning that they depend on their surrounding environment (the water) to regulate their body temperatures! Your human body also requires a certain body temperature to optimize all those bodily functions it performs. Think about frostbite (affects circulation) or hypothermia (affects body temperature and bodily function). Your fish can suffer similar effects when its water is kept too cold. A cold betta will be more prone to fin rot/melt (the tips of the fins become necrotic) because their circulation is affected. A colder fish will also have a slower digestive process and slower metabolism, meaning that it will become lethargic because it’s organs can’t work fast enough to produce energy it needs to be healthy and active. You wanna see a bright colorful active betta? Give them a heated tank! 😃

***Thermometer***
Even if you have an adjustable heater, you should invest in a thermometer (1.50$, glass, Walmart)! I personally use an adjustable thermometer, which has an internal thermostat which tells it when to shut off/on, but when I set the heater to 79, my tanks stay around 82F, but I wouldn’t know that unless I had a thermometer to let me know what the actual tank temperature is! I definitely recommend spending the extra buck for one :)

Also, those sticker ones that go on the outside of the tank are not reliable, seeing as they go on the outside of the tank, and show a range of temperatures more or less. They cost about the same as a glass one (which is much more accurate), so I recommend either glass or digital, but not the stickers.

Filtration:
Bettas aren’t fond of tons of flow, which can present some challenges to your friendly neighborhood aquarist. Luckily, there are plenty of options when it comes to betta-safe filtration.

HOBs:
Hang-On-Back style filters. Some have an intake pipe, which should be covered with a sponge to keep your bettas fins (or the betta itself) from being sucked up and shredded/injured. You can search for “pre-filter sponge” or “intake filter sponge” on amazon, google, or find a fluval prefilter sponge at your local petsmart/Petco. You can also DIY one out of cut-to-size filter foam/sponge. HOB filters can also have a strong out-flow. Some have spray bars, some have spickets, and some just have a wide-mouth waterfall-style opening. If you find that the flow is pushing your betta around, or your betta is struggling to swim against the current, you can baffle it! Some common techniques for baffling filters are the “water-bottle baffle”, using a shower loofa/pouf, covering the out-flow opening with filter sponge/floss, or an intake sponge. I have the fluval spec v and I use an intake sponge on the out-spout since it’s a short spigot.

Sponge Filters:
These are block sponges which usually sit on the bottom of the aquarium and are hooked up to an airline tube and air pump. They push air through the sponge, creating a vacuum and pulling water through. The air bubbles that come out of the top of the sponge don’t create much horizontal flow that pushes bettas around, but instead the water flow is directed upwards. The bubbles provide oxygenation and surface agitation as well.

***Décor***

Hides:
Bettas like to feel safe (as do all fish and other pets) and giving them at least one cave to retreat to will give your fish that sense of security. You can buy something from the fish store, a local pet store, or a pet chain store. Besides the pre-made ones (logs, rock caves, skulls, etc.), you can buy terra cotta pots for around a 1$ or so. Just make sure that the pots aren’t just painted brown, but that they’re a terra cotta material all the way through. Fish have also gotten stuck in the small drainage holes at the bottom of these pots, so be sure to plug it up with some aquarium-safe silicone or something. Also, be sure to make sure that your hides don’t have sharp edges your betta could tear his/her fins on, and that the hide doesn’t have holes that your betta may get stuck in. Usually you can sand down rough edges though :)

Plants:
Plastic plants are generally a no-no, as they can tear your bettas fins. Usually, if they pass the “panty-hose” test they are deemed “betta-safe” but it’s still better not to chance it when there are plenty of gorgeous silk plants out there! “silk” plants are made from material (not necessarily silk) instead of plastic. Silk plants may have plastic stems, but that’s ok so long as there aren’t any sharp seams; the silk leaves are what’s important here!

Live plants are also an option. Anubias, anacharis, java fern, moss, and banana plants are all low-light plants which require no CO2 and no special substrate. However, this is not a plant guide so you’ll have to research how you can plant them or add them to your tank on your own.

***Food***
There are lots of food which is marked specially for bettas, but don’t fall for marketing gimmicks! Know what’s in your pet’s food before you buy. If the first few ingredients are “meal”s (fish meal, wheat meal, etc.) or the first few ingredients are plant-based, then this is not the food for your betta.
What you want to look for is whole ingredients, or specifically-named ingredients (whole fish, halibut, salmon, krill, etc.). New Life Spectrum and Omega One are good brands to check out. Hikari is ok, but their ingredients are not as quality as they used to be, and if you read the ingredients on their current “Betta Bio-Gold” you’ll see what I mean. Foods with fillers/freeze-dried foods don’t have a lot of nutritional value, and while a freeze-dried food may make a tasty treat, it shouldn’t be your fish’s staple diet. You can also feed frozen/live blood worms, mysis shrimp, etc. Bettas are insectivores, and cannot digest plant matter, so they should not be given any type of algae wafer or vegetables (this includes peas; an alternative to feeding peas for bloat is to feed daphnia!!).

***Tankmates***
I’ll preface this section by stating that bettas don’t need tankmates! :) Tankmates are more for you than for your fish, and should be chosen carefully.

Tankmates in General:
-please remember to make sure that your tank is suitable for the tank mates you wish to house; you wouldn’t keep your betta in a 1 gallon unfiltered/unheated tank, so don’t do the equivalent to your betta’s tankmates  your fish are all equal, so please, please, please make sure that you put in the same amount of research and care for the tankmates that you do for your betta! make sure your tank mates have the same requirements are your betta, and their temperament won’t put your betta at risk.
-ALWAYS DO RESEARCH ON THE SPECIES YOURE CONSIDERING BEFORE PURCHASING!! :)
-always have a backup plan in case your tankmates don’t get along with your betta, or your betta doesn’t get along with his tankmates 
-a 20 gallon is the best minimum choice for a community-style betta tank, as it opens up more options and gives your betta and his/her tankmates plenty of space!
-be prepared to separate/rehome/etc. “problem fish” or a “problem betta”. if your betta isn’t really the community type, don’t try to force him/her to be; it won’t work out well for anyone. Get that betta an individual setup as soon as possible, or if your tank is large enough, divide it so that your betta has his/her own space. 

Good Tank Mates:

 Corydoras:
shoaling, 6+ to a group - keeping them in groups smaller than this will stress them to death…literally sometimes
10+ gallons (dwarf/pygmy), 20+ gallons (regular)
tropical, lots of species to choose from
sand/barebottom is a MUST - p they have soft bellies and sensitive barbels, and gravel can scratch up their bellies (which leads to stress or infection) or damage their barbels o.o also, they sift through sand to find little bits of food naturally, so sand lets them display this natural behavior and you get to see it too!

Rasboras:
schooling, 6+ to a school – keeping them in schools smaller than this will stress out the fish
10-15+ gallons – depending on the species
tropical, lots of species to choose from
note: “galaxy rasboras” are NOT rasboras (rasboras belong to the boraras genus). Galaxy rasboras are actually a species of danio (other common name: celestial pearl danio) and are not tropical.

Snails:
under 10 gallons: nerites, ramshorns, horned nerites, and other small snails
10+ gallons: mystery snails & other snails listed above – mystery snails get quite large and have a bioload as large, if not larger, than your betta’s, so a mystery snail is more suited to living in a 10 gallon tank than in something smaller

shrimp:
not all bettas are “shrimp-safe”, meaning that if you want to try shrimp, you should be prepared for the worst case scenario: your betta eats them! if youre okay with the possibility that you may lose some shrimp, then i suggest starting out with a few shrimp.
Amano shrimp are larger, great for algae, should be kept in groups of at least 3-5
cherry shrimp (and other neocardinia sp.) are hardy, but small (most likely to be a tasty snack), colorful/many variations to choose from!
ghost shrimp can actually be nippy, so I’d recommend against them, even though they’re pretty cheap~
putting shrimp in a 2.5 gallon tank is doable, but a 5 gallon tank would be much better

otocinclus:
do best in groups, 3+ - they’re not traditional shoaling or schooling fish, but are still social
20+ gallons - otos are sensitive to water quality
if your tank doesn’t have a ton of algae for them to eat, then I suggest supplementing their diet with cucumbers/zucchini/algae wafers/etc.  

plecos:
tank size depends completely on the species your considering, there are a ton!!
I suggest supplementing their diet with cucumbers/zucchini/algae wafers/etc. 

ember tetras:
schooling, 6+ to a school – keeping the in schools smaller than this will stress out the fish
10+ gallons – they do ok in a 10, but would prefer a 15 (long) or a 20 gallon! 😊

Bad Tank Mates:
danios:
NOT tropical (max temp is like 74F), they’re schooling (6+ fish in a group), and are insanely active! this means they need at least a 20 gallon, and need to be with other cooler/temperate water fish like other danios and minnows :) Also, even if they could do ok in a heated 10 gallon, their active nature tends to stress bettas out :/

White Cloud Mountain Minnows (or any other minnows):
NOT tropical (max temp is around 74F), they’re schooling (6+ fish in a group), and are insanely active! They’re smaller, around 1”, but they need at least a 10 gallon, and should only be housed with other cooler/temperate water fish such as other danios and minnows :) Also, even if they could do ok in a heated 10 gallon, their active nature tends to stress bettas out :/

Neon Tetras:
they’re tropical, could do ok in a 10 (but would do better in a 20). Enough people have had fin-nipping/aggression issues that they’ve made this list. Not everyone who houses bettas with neon tetras will have these issues, but if there’s a possibility of putting your fish’s health and wellbeing at risk, why take the risk? There are plenty of other safer, more suitable tank mates out there 😊

all other tetras not mentioned:
tetras tend to be nippy in general (black skirt tetras, for example) and there are safer options out there; dont risk it! <3

mollies:
get too large to be housed safely with bettas
can be aggressive/attack/bully your betta

platies:
some peoples bettas seem to do ok, some do not, as they can be nippy or aggressive towards your betta

Guppies/endlers:
their flowing tails and bright colors also tend to bring out aggression, and since they have such pretty tails, they may be nipped at by your betta, or vice versa

/*Thanks for giving that book a read! If you feel as though I’ve provided inaccurate information, could make an improement, or have an addition to suggest, feel free to let me know! :3*/

HAPPY FISHKEEPING

2

So @ramseyringnecks often has to remind people that you can’t feed pigeons leafy greens, vegetables, or fruits, and this is why:

The cecum is an organ that’s responsible for breaking down leafy greens, vegetables, fruits, and fibrous plant material.

Chickens are omnivores that naturally eat bugs, fruits, small animals, grasses, leaves, and just about anything they can find. As you can see above, they’re so adept at grazing on plants that they have two caeca (cecum plural), and they’re BIG. Every so often they expel a brown slimy excrement that is them clearing out a cecum.

Pigeons on the other hand are pure grain and seed eaters. They have a cecum…but much like a dog it’s a little itty bitty blip of an organ near their rectum. They can’t extract hardly any nutrients from leaves or fruits, and attempting to is just hard on their body and wastes energy. They are designed to efficiently break down grains and seeds and shouldn’t eat anything else. A healthy diet for a pigeon consists of a variety of 5 or more seeds and grains, the more of a variety the better but ONLY seeds or grains (with grit and oyster/egg shell of course). In fact, pigeons aren’t grazers like chickens, so another big difference is that they shouldn’t have free choice of food; they should eat in meals unless they’re young and learning to eat on their own or sick.

anonymous asked:

What do you think of V-dog pet food? Is it fine to feed my German Shepherd?

So, dogs are what they call “opportunistic omnivores”. Wolves are carnivores, but as dogs became domesticated and scavenged around with humans, their bodies adapted to digesting plant material.

Now, “being able to digest something” and “requiring something” are two different things. Dogs need meat to thrive and be a happy, healthy animal. They can “survive” on a plant based diet, but I’m not sure why you’d choose to just “keep your dog alive” versus giving them the proper nutrition. Even your dog’s anatomy is designed to eat meat. Their teeth, the way they eat, and their digestive system are all designed for meat.

Here is a more in depth article from @why-animals-do-the-thing

http://www.whyanimalsdothething.com/posts/carnivores-and-vegan-pet-food

3

Eight Forms of Creating Potions

Yes, this is from a Hogwarts text, however, the information contained therein is accurate and relevant and certainly worth sharing on this blog, if only to fully expand upon the type of material I hope to cover here.

Infusions

An infusion is a form of water based potion, similar to a tea, and best suited for immediate ingestion of delicate ingredients such leaves or petals. To make a magical infusion: pour boiling water over your ingredients in goblet and leave to infuse for 5-10 minutes, stirring frequently. Strain before drinking if necessary. The leaves in an infusion need to steep longer than your average herbal tea, to allow enough time to release their phytochemicals, which are the active ingredients of the potion.

Decoctions

A decoction is another water based potion designed for immediate ingestion. However, it is a more concentrated brew than an infusion and is usually reserved for tougher ingredients such as roots or bark – where prolonged stewing is needed to release the phytochemicals.  A decoction can also be reduced, which is to say, it can be made more concentrated by prolonged simmering which evaporates the water. To make a decoction: simmer your ingredients in water in a cauldron over low heat for 10-30 minutes; then strain. Reduce if necessary with further simmering over a low heat.

Tinctures

A tincture is an alcohol based potion. It fulfills the same function as an infusion or decoction but with the added advantage that it will keep for up to a year. A tincture is suitable for both delicate leaves and tougher materials such as bark as the alcohol releases the chemicals very effectively and in a similar way to the prolonged simmering of a decoction. To make a tincture: steep your ingredients in vodka or another spirit for a week. This allows time for the alcohol to release the active elements in your plant materials. After a week, strain off the liquid into a vial and store for up to a year. Administer sparingly, a tablespoon at a time.

Vinegars

A vinegar fulfils the same purpose as a tincture except that vinegar is used instead of alcohol. Prepare your vinegar in the same manner as a tincture and store for up to a year. A vinegar is useful in the case of alcohol intolerance or where the herb used is particularly bitter as the vinegar will mask it to a great extent.

Syrups

A syrup is the most palatable form of potion. Here magical ingredients are preserved in a sugar solution. A syrup is another potion that will keep for up to a year. It is best suited for occasional use at it is very sweet and could cause tooth decay if taken regularly. A syrup can be taken by the spoonful or alternatively diluter in water in a similar manner to a fruit squash. To make a syrup: first make an infusion or decoction of your ingredients and reduce if necessary. Strain and add sugar to the potion, stirring frequently, until the brew won’t dissolve any more sugar and resembles a syrup. Store in an airtight bottle in a cool, dark place.

Poultices

A poultice is a wad of chopped plant material that is held in place directly over a wound by a bandage. To prepare a poultice: chop your fresh herb and apply directly to a wound or infection. Hold in place over the wound with a bandage. If using chopped dried herbs rehydrate them with some water first. If the herb is tough and hard to handle, try adding some vinegar diluter in water to your poultice.

Fomentations

Fomentations or compresses are cloths that have been dipped in an herbal solution – such as an infusion, decoction, or a tincture – and then are applied to a wound. To prepare a fomentation: first create the required infusion, decoction, or tincture. Then dip your cloth into the liquid, quite liberally, and apply. It is important to use a very clean cloth to prevent the spread of infection.

Salves

A salve is very similar to a lotion or a cream. Magical ingredients are mixed in base of oils or fats for external application to the skin.

ultimate list of herbs/plants

In relation to my second blog: The School of Magick. ⛥

Acacia: Blessing, raising of vibration, and protection via spiritual elevation.
Agrimony (cocklebur): Helps to overcome fear, dispel negative emotions, and overcome inner blockages.
Allspice: Adds strength to will and gives determination and perseverance. Gives added vitality and energy. Also good for social gatherings: increases harmony, sympathy, and cooperation between people and stimulates friendly interaction and conversation.
Almond: Attracts money. Promotes alertness and wakefulness.
Aloe: Promotes patience, persistence, and resolve. Also inner healing and overcoming blockages.
Amber: Mental clarity and focus. Protection from harm, outside influences, and psychic attack.
Ambergris: Strengthens the effect of anything it is added to or used with. By itself, gives strength and vitality (substitute: cypress and patchouli mix)
Anise: Psychic opening and clairvoyance. Opens third eye. Aids in perception of and connection to the Divine.
Aphrodisia: Passion, sexuality, and romance.
Apple or Apple Blossom: Promotes peace of mind, contentment, happiness, and success in all undertakings.
Apricot: Encourages sexuality and sensual passion. An aphrodisiac.
Asafoetida: Protection and banishing negativity.
Azalea: Encourages light spirits, happiness, and gaiety.
Banana: Helps overcome serious blockages or obstacles.
Basil: Promotes sympathy, financial prosperity, peace, and understanding. Helps to avoid arguments and clashes. 
Bayberry: Good fortune, blessing, and money and prosperity.
Bay Leaf (laurel): Protection and purification. Repels negativity. Promotes good fortune, success, and victory.
Benzoin: Used for cleansing and purification. Helps to remove blockages. Promotes strength, confidence, and willpower. Strengthens the effect of anything it is added to or used with.
Bergamot: Protection and prosperity. Combined with mint to work faster.
Birch: Spiritual and psychic opening, connecting with spirit helpers. Promotes balance, harmony, in connection to others.
Camphor: Increases one’s persuasiveness and personal influence. Adds strength to any mixture it is a part of. Also used for purification.

Keep reading

Types of potions
  • • Philtre: Water-based, delicate ingredients
  • • Infusion: Water-based, delicate ingredients
  • • Decoction: For immediate ingestion, concentrated, sturdy ingredients, reduce to remove excess water
  • • Tincture: alcohol-based, keeps for up to a year, time needed for preparation, highly concentrated, dilute
  • • Vinegar: vinegar-based, masks ingredients, highly concentrated
  • • Syropp: ingredients preserved in sugar solution, very sweet
  • • Poultice: Chopped plant material, compress, can be infused with potions
  • • Formentation: clothes dipped in potion, compress
  • • Salve: Oil or fat-based, thick and creamy, for external application
  • • Elixir: alcohol-based, very pure
  • • Tisane: Hot water-based, herbal extract
  • • Macerate: cold water-based, plant infusion, requires up to 12 hours
  • • Essential oils: Diluted extracts
  • • Inhalation: vapor from a potion
flickr

Untitled by Yttria Ariwahjoedi
Via Flickr:
Canon AF-7.

Landscaping Tutorial: Awkwardly Placed Villagers

I was asked to do a tutorial on how I would landscape around villagers who plotted in either an awkward or just downright horrible place, and thankfully I had just the villager to use to do this. Hopefully this helps! As always, all information will be under the cut!

Keep reading