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Irregular conjugation

Irregular conjugation occurs when words are not conjugated the usual way. 

*Examples are conjugated into present tense 아요/어요/해요

ㅂ irregular

If the last letter of the word stem is ㅂ, then the ㅂ is dropped and 우 or 오 is added if the conjugation/addition starts with a vowel, if it starts with a consonant then the ㅂ is left:

If the vowel before ㅂ is 오, you add 오
If it’s any other vowel before ㅂ you add 우

  • 아름답다 - To be beautiful 
    The the ㅂ is dropped and 우 is added making it 아름다우 then once conjugated to present tense it becomes 아름다워요
    (It becomes 아름다워요 instead of 아름다우어요 because of vowel contraction)
  •  귀엽다 - To be cute 
    ↳ 귀여워요 
  • 춥다 - To be cold (weather) 
    ↳ 추워요 
  • 돕다 - To help (final vowel is 오) 
    ↳도와요 

This rule is mainly applied to adjectives, there are very few verbs ending in ㅂ that the rule is applied to.

ㅅ Irregular

If the last letter of the word stem is ㅅ, then the ㅅ is dropped when adding a vowel, if adding a consonant the ㅅ is left:

  • 붓다 - To pour, to swell
    The ㅅ is dropped making it 부, then once conjugated to present tense it becomes 부어요 
  • 낫다 - To heal/recover
    ↳ 나아요 
  • 짓다 - To build
    ↳ 지어요 

Note that if the word stem has ㅅ as the fourth consonant (e.g. 없다 - to not exist), the irregular does not apply 

Here are some common words this rule does not apply to:

  • 웃다 - to laugh
  • 벗다 - to take off clothes 
  • 씻다 - to wash

ㄷ irregular

If the last letter of the verb stem is ㄷ, the ㄷ is dropped and replaced with ㄹ when adding a conjugation/addition that begins with a vowel:

  • 듣다 - To listen 
    The ㄷ is replaced with ㄹ as the verb is being conjugated with 어요 which starts with a vowel, therefore becoming 들어요
  • 걷다 - To walk
    ↳ 걸어요

Note there is no ㄷ irregular adjectives 

ㅡ Irregular

If a word stem ends in ㅡ, when adding ~아/어 you can’t tell which one should be used (because which one you use if based on the final vowel) therefore when deciding which should be used you have to look at the vowel used in the second to last syllable:

  • 예쁘다 - To be pretty 
     Because it ends in ㅡ, you look at the syllable before to determine if you use 아 or 어. 예 is the second to last syllable so you use 어, therefore becoming 예뻐요
  • 바쁘다 - To be busy
    ↳ 바빠요

르 Irregular

If a word stem ends in 르 and ~아/어 is being added, ㄹ is added as the final consonant to the syllable that came before 르, and 르 changes to either 러 or 라  depending on if you are adding 어 or 아:

  • 다르다 - Different 
    ㄹ is added to the syllable coming before 르, so 다 becomes 달, then 라요 is added making it 달라요
  • 자르다 - To cut 
    ↳ 잘라요

A&R

Originally posted by zechs

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