Pallas Athena/Minerva with her aegis. Roman mosaic (3rd cent. CE), surrounded by a modern (18th century) mosaic depicting celestial bodies and geometrical patterns. Now in the Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican City.
Alexander The Great in front of the tomb of Achilles.
This painting in the Louvre Museum is a work of Hubert Robert (1733 -1808) done around 1754.
The subject taken from the Greek rhetorician Claudius Aelianius or Aelian (Varia Historia, XII, 7), writing in the second century CE, and shows the Macedonian king having the tomb of Achilles opened in order to pay a homage to the Greek hero of the Trojan War.
Achilles’ relationship with Patroclus is a key aspect of his myth. Its
exact nature has been a subject of dispute in both the classical period
and modern times. Thus in 5th-century BCE Athens, the relationship was
commonly interpreted as pederastic. Nowadays some see it as a love
relationship of an egalitarian homosexual couple. It is the same case as
the relationship between Alexander the Great and Hephaestion. The
relationship between the Macedonian king and his dearest and closest
friend and confidant, lasted their whole lives, and was compared, by
others as well as themselves, to that of Achilles and Patroclus.
Hephaestion and Alexander grew up in a time and place where homosexual
affairs were seen as perfectly normal. Roman and later writers, taking
the Athenian pattern as their example, have tended to assume either,
that their sexual relationship belonged to their adolescence, after
which they left it behind, or that one of them was older, the lover
(erastes) and the other was the beloved (eromenos). Claudius Aelianus
takes the latter view when he uses just such an expression when
describing the visit to Troy: “Alexander laid a garland on Achilles’
tomb and Hephaestion on Patroclus’, indicating that he was Alexander’s
eromenos, as Patroclus was of Achilles.” No other circumstance shows
better the nature and length of their relationship than Alexander’s
overwhelming grief at Hephaestion’s death. The many and varied ways,
both spontaneous and planned, by which Alexander poured out his grief
are overwhelming. In the context of the nature of their relationship
however, one stands out as remarkable. Lucius Flavius Arrianus
“Xenophon” (Arrian of Nicomedia, ca. 86 – 160), in his work Ἀλεξάνδρου
ἀνάβασις says that Alexander “… flung himself on the body of his friend
and lay there nearly all day long in tears, and refused to be parted
from him until he was dragged away by force by his Companions.
This painting by Robert (known as Robert des Ruines) is close to Panini,
who was his teacher during his long stay of 11 years in Rome, and it is
considered to be one of the first productions of the French artist in
that city. In the painting by the French vedutista, an architectural
fantasy, we see a pyramid similar to that of Caius Cestius in Rome, the
ruins of a temple with Ionic columns inspired by the temple of Saturn in
the Roman Forum and a round temple, after the Roman temple of Vesta, or
the temple of the Sybile in Tivoli. The statue standing at the
left-hand side of the canvas is the so-called Antinous of the Belvedere,
or Antinous Admirandus, the famous statue in the Pio-Clementino Museum
of the Vatican. This statue, correctly identified as a Hermes in the
19th century, was long taken to be a depiction of the beautiful
Bythinian lover of Emperor Hadrian, one of the great “eromenos-erastes”
relationship of the antiquity.
~ Statue in armor with portrait of Lucius Verus.
Date: A.D. 2nd century
Provenance: Rome, Vatican Museums, Pius-Clementine Museum, Gallery of statues, 1
(Musei Vaticani, Museo Pio-Clementino, Galleria delle statue)
Marble bust of the Greco-Egyptian deity Serapis. Roman copy after a Greek original (4th cent. BCE) made by the sculptor Bryaxis for the Serapeum in Alexandria. Now in the Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican City.
~ Statue of Livia praying.
Date: second half of the A.D. 1st century
Provenance: Rome, Vatican Museums, Pius-Clementine Museum, Gallery of the Busts, 52
(Musei Vaticani, Museo Pio-Clementino)
Antisthenes of Athens (ca. 445-365 BCE), disciple of Socrates, sometimes credited with founding the Cynic school of philosophy. Roman copy of a Hellenistic original, found at the Villa of Cassius, Tivoli; now in the Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican City. Photo credit: Marie-Lan Nguyen.
~ A portrait of a Roman in toga (with a head from a different statue).
Date: A.D. 130-140; Head: 30-20 B.C.
Provenance: Rome, Vatican Museums, Pius-Clementine Museum, Room of the Biga, 11
(Musei Vaticani, Museo Pio-Clementino, Sala della Biga, 11)