Dust devils, like fire tornadoes and waterspouts, form from warm, rising air. As the sun heats the ground to temperatures hotter than the surrounding atmosphere, hot air will begin to rise. When it rises, that air leaves behind a region of lower pressure that draws in nearby air. Any vorticity in that air gets intensified as it gets pulled toward the low pressure area. It will start to spin faster, exactly like a spinning ice skater who pulls in his arms. The result is a spinning vortex of air driven by buoyant convection. On Earth, dust devils are typically no more than a few meters in size and can only pick up light objects like leaves or hay. On Mars, dust devils can be hundreds of meters tall, and, though they’re too weak to do much damage, they have helpfully cleaned off the solar panels of some of our rovers! (Image credit: T. Bargman, source; via Gizmodo)

Please go check revisingigcse.com (link in the bio). We (Jasmine + Sherry) put a lot of effort into this so I hope you can all check it out and show some support. The website is about igcse. It includes all our personal notes + resources + tips and more!! Hopefully it will help some of you through igcse/gcse!!

The nature of the future is completely different from the nature of the past. When quantum effects are significant, the future shows all the signs of quantum weirdness, including duality, uncertainty, and entanglement. With the passage of time, after the time-irreversible process of state-vector reduction has taken place, the past emerges, with the previous quantum uncertainty replaced by the classical certainty of definite particle identities and states. The present time is where this transition largely takes place, but the process does not take place uniformly: evidence from delayed choice and related experiments shows that isolated patches of quantum indeterminacy remain, and that their transition from probability to certainty only takes place later. Thus, when quantum effects are significant, the picture of a classical Evolving Block Universe (‘EBU’) cedes place to one of a Crystallizing Block Universe (‘CBU’), which reflects this quantum transition from indeterminacy to certainty, while nevertheless resembling the EBU on large enough scales.
—  George F. R. Ellis & Tony Rothman, Time and Spacetime: The Crystallizing Block Universe

Cloudy with a Chance of Solar Flares

It is time to talk about my favorite celestial object: THE SUN! Although it looks like a uniform glowing orb in the sky, the sun actually is very dynamic and very violent. You may have heard that Earth’s magnetic field protects us from solar weather and you might have thought WAIT what exactly is that? Are there thunderstorms on the Sun? How does it get here? Well, no, there are no thunderstorms on the Sun, but what is actually going on there is much more intense.

quick note: for those of you who are just reblogging and not visiting the post (no worries I am not judging), the images above are of CMEs not Solar Flares… I talk about both in the post!



Please note that I have included the descriptions of the planets on the pictures, so that you don’t have to keep scrolling up and down. All you have to do is click on them to read the description.

1. J1407b - Although it physically resembles Saturn, J1407b is much smaller than Saturn is, and has a much larger ring system.

2. TrEs-2b - Also known as the Dark Planet, TrEs-2b is officially the darkest planet in the known universe. It reflects less than 1% of light, and they say that it is so dark that even coal seems brighter than it. 

3. 55 Cancri E - Also known as the Planet of Diamonds, at twice the size of Earth 55 Cancri E is so dense and carbon-heavy that the carbon has been compressed into a diamond.

4. Gliese 436b - Although the planet is similar in size to Neptune, it is too dense to be composed largely of hydrogen (as most gas giants are). Scientists believe that instead it is made up of a large concentrate of hot water ice (also known as “Ice-x”).

5. WASP-12b - This planet rotates so close to its parent star that it only has about another ten million years before it’s completely devoured. 

6. Titan - This one isn’t a planet; it isn’t even outside of our Solar System. Titan is the largest moon that orbits Saturn, and is the only place outside of Earth where clear evidence of liquid has been found. The difference is that while the liquid on Earth is mostly composed of water, the liquid on Titan is actually methane. 

7. Gliese 1214b - Scientists have nicknamed this planet ‘Waterworld’ due to it being the most likely contender outside of our Solar System to contain liquid water. 

8. TrES-4b - Aside from WASP-12b, TrES-4b is one of the largest exoplanets ever found - this is a size comparison of TrES-4b to Jupiter.

9. HD 188753 - Also known as “Hot Jupiter”, this exoplanet is so hot and so large that it has actually challenged the currently accepted theory of gas planet formation. According to prevailing scientific theories, a gas planet this hot should not be able to exist.

10. HD 189733b - A gas giant with a daytime temperature of about 2,000 degrees Farenheit (1093 C), according to NASA, HD 189733b rains liquid glass sideways amid 4,500 mph winds.