phrenic nerve

Requested by @keeganwj

Bewear the Ides of March!

Julius Caesar was stabbed by the Roman Senators, not hugged. Yet, if the ancient senators were actually Bewears, hugging Caesar would have been equally effective as a method of assassination. According to the Pokédex, Bewear has a habit of hugging its trainers…to death. So today, let’s figure out how this might happen.

The human spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a vital part of our skeleton and nervous system. It is made up of 33 different bones called vertebrae, separated from each other with intervertebral discs. The first seven (colored in red) are called cervical vertebrae and are located in your neck. The middle twelve bones in your back (in blue) are called the thoracic vertebrae. The lower back (in yellow) consists of the lumbar vertebrae. The last 9 vertebrae (5 in green / 4 in pink) are fused together and form the sacrum and the coccyx, or your tailbone.

It’s not easy to break a spine; the discs between each vertebrae are made of squishy cartilage that is specifically designed to absorb shock and prevent your back from breaking. The segmented nature of the vertebrae allows the back to bend in several directions, also to avoid breaking by being flexible. Not to mention the walls of muscle that surround it. 

For death to occur, the individual vertebrae need to shift dramatically so they damage the nerve that runs through the middle of them. Typically, spinal-injury deaths are related to the phrenic nerve, which connects your brain to your lungs and allows breathing to happen. Several arteries also run through the vertebral column, and if they are pinched or crushed it can result in a stroke.

Of course, how much force needed to break a spine depends on whose spine you are crushing: children have more delicate spines than adults, and so on. However, it also depends on where on the spine you are crushing. The neck (cervical spine), for example, requires a force of 3,000 Newtons (roughly 700 pounds) to fracture. But Bewear doesn’t strangle its victims, it hugs them – so Bewear is attacking the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Various studies find the absolute limit for lumbar vertebrae to be about 1600 Newtons (360 pounds) of force.

This is surprisingly reasonable. Boxers and professional martial artists’ punches have been documented over 4,000 Newtons (900 pounds), and kicks can exceed 9,000 Newtons (2,000 pounds). Squeezing is a little different, since it is pure muscle work instead of a forward thrust, and human grip strength at its strongest is about 150 pounds. So you might not be able to crush a spine with your bare hands, but can Bewear crush a spine with its bear hands?

Probably. This shouldn’t come as a surprise, but most animals are stronger than humans in terms of muscle exertion. Some chimpanzees have been shown to be eight times stronger than humans. This is mostly because of the way we use our muscles: humans have developed a lot of control. We can finely tune our muscles, precisely control our finger movements, only using certain muscle fibers at one time. This saves us energy in many ways: you don’t have to use your entire bicep to lift up a pencil, like you might when you’re lifting weights. Other animals don’t have this control: It’s all or nothing for them. Physically, the way their muscles activate prevents them from having the fine control that we have. In other words, Bewear is incapable of giving a small hug. It can only give big, spine crushing squeezes.

Bewear’s hugs must deliver a force of 1600 Newtons (360 pounds) in order to break a trainer’s vertebral column.

Anatomy Mnemonics

Below are some old Anatomy Mnemonics someone once gave me that I found in my hard drive. Hopefully they’ll come in handy for someone else.



BONES

6 cranial bones

Old People From Texas Eat Spiders.

Parietal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Temporal, Occipital, Frontal.



Leg Bones

TIBia is the Thick Inner Bone, and Fibula is Finer, Fluted, and Lateral.



8 facial bones

Common Love gone Zip?(Abbr. CMMNLVZP)

conchae, mandible, maxilla, nasal, lacrimal, vomer, zygomaticus, palatine.



*Applying the first-3-letters rule to the facial bones, I came up with

Con Man

Max and Pal



Bones of the Wrist

Some Lovers Try Positions That They Cannot Handle

Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate



Never Lower Tillie’s Pants, Mama Might Come Home.

navicular, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, greater and lesser multangular, capitate, and hamate.



*To remember that the carpals are bones of the wrist and not the foot, Lunate, Triquetrum, remember that CARPenters use their hands.



7 types of bone fractures

C3-PO Breaks his Bones


Greenstick, Open, Complete, Closed, Comminuted, Partial, and Others.



MUSCLES

Muscles in gluteal region: from top to bottom: P-GO-GO-Q

 Piriformis

 Gemellus superior

 Obturator internus

 Gemellus inferior

 Obturator externus

 Quadratus femoris


Muscles whose tendons attach at the pes anserinus (medial tibia): SGT
(“Sargent”)

 Sartorius

 Gracilis
semiTendinosus



Four abdominal muscles –

TIRE: (deepest to most superficial)

Transversus abdominis, Internal abdominal oblique, Rectus abdominis, and External abdominal oblique



Functions of the Interossei muscles

 PAD – Palmar ADduct

 DAB – Dorsal ABduct



Attachments of Pectoralis Major, Teres Major and Latissimus Dorsi

 A lady between two majors.

 Pectoralis major attaches to lateral lip of bicipital groove.

 Teres major attaches to medial lip of bicipital groove.

 Latissimus dorsi attaches to the floor of bicipital groove.

 The “lati” is between two “majors.“

 A lady between two majors.



Four muscles which control the mandible

masseter, temporal, lateral and medial pterygoids

form the letters MTPP, which could be read as "Empty Peepee” which could be construed as a command (or wish) to empty one’s peepee via…oh we’d better not say it.



Four abdominal muscles
Spare TIRE

transversus, internal oblique, rectus, and external oblique


 
On the floor of the mouth are two muscles
Doctor on the Floor?

mylohyoid and digastric – MD.


Muscles which regulate breathing

You Will DIE! If you don’t have'em

Diaphragm, Inner costal, and External costal



The SITS muscles make up the rotator cuff:

 Supraspinatus

 Infraspinatus

 Teres Minor

 Subscapularis



NERVES

Radial n. innervates the BEST!!!!

 Brachioradialis

 Extensors

 Supinator

 Triceps



Hand muscles innervated by the Median nerve

LOAF

 Lumbricals 1 + 2

 Opponens pollicis

 Abductor pollicis brevis

 Flexor pollicis brevis 


Innervation of phrenic nerve
 c345 keeps the phrenic alive 
 c345 keep the diaphragm alive

Innervation of the penis:

 Parasympathetic puts it up; sympathetic spurts it out

 Point , Shoot, Score! (erection, emmision ,ejaculation)

 Parasympathetic, Sympathetic ,Somatomotor


 
Innervation of the penis by branches of the pudental nerve

"S2, 3, 4 keep the penis off the floor”, derived from spinal cord levels
S2-4


 
Long thoracic nerve innervates serratus anterior 
 c5-6-7 raise your arms to heaven



Lateral and Medial Pectoral Nerve

Lateral is less, medial is more.

Lateral pectoral nerves goes through pectoralis major while medial pn goes though both pectoral major and minor.



12 Facial Nerves

"At the OIL FACTORY, the OPTICIAN looked for the OCCUPANT of the TRUCK. He
was searching because 3 GEMS had been ABDUCTED by a man who was hiding his FACE and EARS. A GLOSSY PHOTOGRAPH has been taken of him, but it was too VAGUE to use. He appeared to be SPINELESS and HYPOCRITICAL.“


In order, the oil factory is the olfactory nerve; the optician is the optical nerve; the occupant is the occulomotor nerve; the truck represents the trochlear nerve; the 3 gems are the trigeminal nerve; abducted is really the abducens;
face is facial; ears really means auditory; glossy photograph is glosso-pharyngeal; spineless relates to the spinal
accessory nerve; and hypocritical is the hypoglossal nerve.



Wrist Nerves and Prohibition

RUM, for radial, ulnar, and medial symptoms of nerve troubles are wrist drop, claw hand, and tunnel syndrome …

represented by the letters WCT (Women’s Christian Temperance Union).



Cranial Nerves

I-Optic

II-Olfactory

III-Oculomotor

IV-Trochlear

V-Trigeminal,

VI-Abducens

VII-Facial

VIII-Acoustic (Vestibulocochlear),

IX-Glossophrayngeal,

X-Vagus,

XI-Spinal Accessory,

XII-Hypoglossal

On Old Olympus Towering Tops, A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops 


Branches of the Facial Nerve (CN VII):

To Zanzibar by Motor Car

Ten Zebras Bought My Car

Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal,
Masseteric,Cervical 


Brachial Plexus:

Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, Branches
Robert Taylor Drinks Cold Beer. (or Richard Tucker Drinks Cheap Beer :-) )



Innervation of Extraocularmotor Muscles: LR6 SO4 Others 3

 LR6–Lateral rectus - VI abductens

 SO4–Superior Oblique - IV Trochlear

 Others 3–The remaining 4 eyeball movers = III Oculomotor


For the order of nerves that pass through the superior orbital fissure:

"Lazy French Tarts Lie Naked in Anticipation.” 
(Lacrimal, Frontal, Trochlear, Lateral, Nosociliary, Internal, Abducens)


9 branches of the abdominal portion of the aorta

"Celia Smith’s Supra Rams Green Impala Past Stop Light"

Celiac, Supra mesenteric, Supra-renal, Renal, Gonadal, Inferior mesenteric, Phrenic, Sacral, and Lumbar.



VESSELS
Structures passing posterior to the medial malleolus of the foot:

 Tom, Dick, And Harry

Tibialis posterior tendon, flexor Digitorum longus tendon, post. tibial Artery and tibial nerve, and 
flexor Hallucis longus tendon. (i.e. Tibialis, Digitorum, Artery & nerve, and Hallucis) 



Carotid Sheath– VAN

 Internal Jugular Vein

 Common carotid Artery

 Vagus Nerve



Arteries as they come off the external carotid:

Superior thyroid, Ascending pharyngeal, Lingual, Facial, Occipital, Post Auricular, Superficial temporal, Maxillary

Some Angry Lady Figured out PMS



ABC’S of the aortic arch!

Aortic arch gives off the Brachiocephalic trunk, the left Common Carotid, and Left Subclavian artery



Branches of the aorta artery in the lower torso

Transsexuals Remember the Aorta

"Come on In Ex-Female, Pop And Prance Past Doors and Planters".

Common iliac, Internal iliac, External iliac, Femoral, Popliteal, Anterior tibia, Posterior tibia, Peroneal, Dorsalis, medial and lateral Plantars.



Branches of the axillary artery

 Sally Thompson Loves Sex And Pot pie 
Superior Thoracic, Thoracoacromial, Lateral thoracic, Subscapular, Anterior circumflex humeral, Posterior circumflex humeral, and Profunda brachii.



Arteries off the External Carotid

They are buried in the phrase Some Loser F*cked My Sister

Superior Thyroid, Lingual, Facial, Maxillary, Superficial Temporal 



Vessels joining the inferior vena cava

"He Commonly Lumbers in the Viet Cong ReGion".

A Vietnamese Lumberjack’s Heart:

 Hepatic, Common iliac, Lumbar, Vena Cava, Renals, Gonadals.


Stroke versus Aneurysm

STRoke is caused by arterial reSTRiction, and aneurysm is AN Erupting artery.



MISCELLANEOUS

checklist of factors causing back troubles

Dr. O. VESALIUS

O - Osteomyelitis

V - Vertebral fracture

E - Extraspinal tumour

S - Spondylolisthesis

A - Ankylosing spondylitis

L - Lumbar disk disease

I - Intraspinal tumour

U - Unhappiness

S - Stress

Cranial sutures

cranial sutures have CLASS!

Coronal, Lambdoid, Squamous, Sagittal.


five visceral sensors

Low TEMPeratures have BARe-CHEsted cOSMO-girls kNOCking.
temperature, barometric, chemical, osmotic, nociceptors



Femoral Sheath (lateral to medial) order of things in thigh

NAVEL

 Femoral Nerve,

 Femoral Artery,

 Femoral Vein,

 Empty Space,

 Lymphatics (or Lacunar Ligament)


 
Pelvic Diaphragm – PICOLO(A) -Posterior to anterior

 PIriformis

 COccygeus

 Levator Ani


 
Location of Thoracic duct:

The duck is between two gooses (duck = thoracic duct)

2 gooses = azyGOUS and esophaGOUS


Structures perforating the diaphragm

 “At T8 you see, perforates the IVC” (inferior Vena Cava) the “EsoVagus” pierce T10 (esophagus, vagus nerve) 
 T12 - red, white and blue (aorta,thoracic duct,azygous vein)


Course of Ureters

Water runs under the bridge (uterine a. and ductus deferens)




instagram

THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME SERIES - SCALENE ANTERIOR SYNDROME
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Regarding my yesterday’s post about the Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) I wanted to show some treatment techniques on how to solve the SCALENE ANTERIOR SYNDROME ➡️ MYOFASCIAL RELEASE OF THE SCALENE MUSCLES AND STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID MUSCLE
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Anatomy:
The fibres of the brachial plexus and the subclavian artery must pass through a narrow aperture between anterior and middle scalene muscle. ➡️ If this aperture makes a problem it can lead to paresthesia or weakness in the upper limb.
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The fibres of the subclavian vein, the suprascapular vein, the transverse cervical vein and the phrenic nerve must pass through a narrow aperture between the anterior scalene muscle and the sternocleidomastoid muscle. ➡️ If this aperture makes a problem it can lead to edema in the hands/fingers and also to problems with the thoracic diaphragm.
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The fibres of the long thoracic nerve must pass through a narrow aperture between middle and posterior scalene muscle. ➡️ If this aperture makes a problem it can lead to a problem with the serratus anterior muscle.
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Any increased tone in one of these muscles (usually scalene anterior), will provide enough compression to produce symptoms. Scarring and adhesions from injuries can be causes of compression, particularly if found at the attachments of the scalenes. Dysfunction or misalignent of the cervical spine may also be a contributing factor to this syndrome.
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Active trigger points in the scalene muscles can mimic a TOS and initiate similar symptoms, often characterized by numbness or tingling in the thumb or index finger.
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On the picture you can see several myofascial release techniques for the scalene muscles as well as for the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
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The mediastinum, a central chest compartment located between the lungs, houses the heart. Immediately to the right of the heart is the aorta, the largest artery of the body. To the right of the aorta are groups of blood vessels (one artery and two companion veins) that run between the ribs to distribute blood through the body. The phrenic nerve, which sends messages to the diaphragm to breath, is visible as it crosses the heart vertically.