A Brief Timeline of the Universe - The Photon Epoch [Part II]
When we last left off, the universe was a mere second old and everything was brand new. Now we’re moving on towards more familiar horizons (and comprehensible timescales), and on to….
The Photon Epoch.
10 Seconds Old- Leptons and antileptons (such as electrons and positrons) annihilate each other, leaving a small amount of leptons left over. Radiation and photons now dominate the universe, and they couple with matter, forming a Photon-Baryon fluid. It resembles a dense, glowing, opaque fog.
3 Minutes Old - Nucleosynthesis begins- the universe is now cool enough to start forming the first lithium, helium, and deuterium nuclei via fusion.
20 Minutes Old - Fusion stops. The universe contains approximately ¾ hydroden, ¼ helium.
70,000 Years Old - Photon and matter densities are about the same. Matter now dominates the universe, and the universe’s expansion rate slows. Small structures and perturbations begin forming.
The universe is several thousand years old now, but still doesn’t look like the universe we know and love today. It’s full of ionized plasma and glowing; photons can’t travel very far at all without being scattered by an electron. All of the hydrogen that will ever exist in the universe has been created.
Stay tuned- next we’ll be moving forward a few million years at a time, and on to bigger and better structures!
A Brief Timeline of the Universe - The First Second [Part I]
We know where we are roughly in the universe- Earth, Solar System, Milky Way Galaxy- but when are we in the universe? “13.8 billion years!” I hear some of you saying. You’re right. But what’s happened in those billions of years; what led us to the universe we know today?
Let’s take a quick trip through a timeline of the universe as we know it, beginning with…
The first second of the universe.
0 Seconds Old | Planck Epoch- The universe is tiny, tiny, tiny. Every known particle, every possible bit of energy, is condensed into one unimaginably dense, hot point known as a singularity. Its physics are thought to be dominated by a unified theory which brings quantum mechanics and gravity together.
10−43 Seconds Old | Grand Unification Epoch - The universe cools to 1032 Kelvin, and gravity separates from the other forces collectively known as the electronuclear force.
10−32 Seconds Old | Electroweak Epoch - The universe expands in a brief but intense period of inflation, becoming 1026 times bigger and cooling to 1022 kelvin. The Strong Force separates from the Electroweak Force.
10−12 Seconds Old | Quark Epoch - The four forces - the Weak, Strong, Electromagnetic, and Gravitational Force- are now separated and distinct. It is still too hot for quarks to form into anything other than a quark-gluon plasma.
10−6 Seconds Old | Hadron Epoch - The universe cools to 1010 Kelvin, cool enough for quarks to form hadrons (such as protons and neutrons).
1 Seconds Old | Lepton Epoch - At 109 Kelvin now, many hadrons and anti-hadrons collide with and annihilate one another, with most Leptons (such as electrons and muons) and anti-Leptons left behind. Neutrinos stop interacting with matter, and gravity begins determining the expansion of the universe.
In short, the universe got a lot done in its first second of existence- separating forces, cooling, expanding, birthing new particles and quickly annihilating them, and whatnot. There’s more to come of course, and a more familiar universe will emerge from this timeline soon.
This has been my EDC dump lately. I’m pretty much late to the game unlike most people here but it doesn’t stop me from improving my carry as I discover new ones along the way. Thanks for letting me share my picture here!
The Maxpedition, S-Biner Keyrack and Ipad Mini 3 go into my messenger bag or knapsack. The rest goes in my pockets. I usually only have the Parabellum case, as I always have one or the other pair of glasses on. I have included one very important item that I almost never see in the carries here. My Kent FOT Comb.
The Photon is a very popular light, its compact, it works reliably, its simple and has very few parts to make it go wrong. So when I saw the IR version while making some orders the other day, I knew it would make sense to grab one and try it.
What can you say, when you need IR light that simply illuminates like a white LED does. It really does exceed. The NVG on its own was fine, dont get me wrong its a nice unit, its just that it needs a little boost now and then. Throw the Photon II IR into the mix and the whole illumination situation gets clarity. For such a compact unit, with long battery life and no other visible signs of life from the unit to the human eye other than a very faint red glow at the back of the LED when viewed face on.
If you like the Photon you will without doubt love the IR version. The price is not cheap, I know that, so I’ll look at getting some more on the next order if people want them. As a means of improving NVG for a distance that really does surprise you, its a must have and one that has made my EDC kit. For signalling rescue, its a must have, Search and Rescue should have these, survival kits or on your vest at all times.
If you want them to be stocked, let me know Law66@Live.co.uk
Once again, thank you for your patience!! I think I’ll post when I have 2 or 3 done, rather than on a weekly basis
because it’s just easier to work with. Again if there’s something relatively minor I’ve messed up on, please let me know and I’ll fix it up!