phonograph-record

Voyager: The Golden Record

It’s the 1970s, and we’re about to send two spacecraft (Voyager 1 & 2) into space. These two spacecraft will eventually leave our solar system and become the most distant man-made objects…ever. How can we leave our mark on them in the case that other spacefarers find them in the distant future?

The Golden Record.

We placed an ambitious message aboard Voyager 1 and 2, a kind of time capsule, intended to communicate a story of our world to extraterrestrials. The Voyager message is carried by a phonograph record, a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk containing sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth.

The Golden Record Cover

The outward facing cover of the golden record carries instructions in case it is ever found. Detailing to its discoverers how to decipher its meaning.

In the upper left-hand corner is an easily recognized drawing of the phonograph record and the stylus carried with it. The stylus is in the correct position to play the record from the beginning. Written around it in binary arithmetic is the correct time of one rotation of the record. The drawing indicates that the record should be played from the outside in.

The information in the upper right-hand portion of the cover is designed to show how the pictures contained on the record are to be constructed from the recorded signals. The top drawing shows the typical signal that occurs at the start of the picture. The picture is made from this signal, which traces the picture as a series of vertical lines, similar to ordinary television. Immediately below shows how these lines are to be drawn vertically, with staggered “interlace” to give the correct picture rendition. Below that is a drawing of an entire picture raster, showing that there are 52 vertical lines in a complete picture.

Immediately below this is a replica of the first picture on the record to permit the recipients to verify that they are decoding the signals correctly. A circle was used in this picture to ensure that the recipients use the correct ratio of horizontal to vertical height in picture reconstruction.

The drawing in the lower left-hand corner of the cover is the pulsar map previously sent as part of the plaques on Pioneers 10 and 11. It shows the location of the solar system with respect to 14 pulsars, whose precise periods are given.

The drawing containing two circles in the lower right-hand corner is a drawing of the hydrogen atom in its two lowest states, with a connecting line and digit 1 to indicate that the time interval associated with the transition from one state to the other is to be used as the fundamental time scale, both for the time given on the cover and in the decoded pictures.

The Contents

The contents of the record were selected for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University and his associates. 

They assembled 115 images and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind and thunder, birds, whales and other animals. To this, they added musical selections from different cultures and eras, and spoken greetings from Earth-people in fifty-five languages, and printed messages from President Carter and U.N. Secretary General Waldheim.

Listen to some of the sounds of the Golden Record on our Soundcloud page:

Songs from Chuck Berry’s “Johnny B. Goode,” to Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony are included on the golden record. For a complete list of songs, visit: https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/golden-record/whats-on-the-record/music/

The 115 images included on the record, encoded in analog form, range from mathematical definitions to humans from around the globe. See the images here: https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/golden-record/whats-on-the-record/images/

Making the Golden Record

Many people were instrumental in the design, development and manufacturing of the golden record. 

Blank records were provided by the Pyral S.A. of Creteil, France. CBS Records contracted the JVC Cutting Center in Boulder, CO to cut the lacquer masters which were then sent to the James G. Lee Record Processing center in Gardena, CA to cut and gold plate eight Voyager records.

The record is constructed of gold-plated copper and is 12 inches in diameter. The record’s cover is aluminum and electroplated upon it is an ultra-pure sample of the isotope uranium-238. Uranium-238 has a half-life of 4.468 billion years.

Learn more about the golden record HERE.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

Voyager Turns 40

Today marks the 40th anniversary of the launch of Voyager 2, one of two spacecrafts that explored our outer solar system. It is now on an epic journey to explore the outermost edge of the Sun’s domain.

Despite traveling at about 34,000 mph, it will still take Voyager 2 about 40,000 years to come within 1.7 light years of a star called Ross 248. After that, it will continue to travel into the great unknown.

The Voyagers carry with them “Golden Records”, 12-inch gold-plated phonograph records containing sounds and images showcasing the diversity of life and culture on Earth in the slim chance that someone might find it. Acting as cosmic time capsules, they are destined to wander the Milky Way for eternity.

Watch my full tribute to Voyager HERE  

VO: Carl Sagan
Animation credit: PostPanic Production
Music Credit: Library Tapes
Can’t Go Back

Originally posted by justjensenanddean

This is for ma hoe @wayward-mirage​​​​ Rat Pack Challenge. I got the song ‘You’ll Never Know’-Frank Sinatra.

Characters: Y/n, Dean, Sam

Pairing: Dean x Y/n (GENDER NEUTRAL READER)

Warnings: Angst, argument, abandoned reader, regret, self hate. Just all angst.

Word Count: 1861

Summary: Dean finds himself back where he should be. But Y/n isn’t with him.

A/N: Ok, so some angst cos…this song just gave me a load of angst. I’m hoping it’s really angsty. I have no idea. Either way, hope u like it!!

Tagged Peeps: @waywardsons-imagines@whywhydoyouwantmetosaymyname@sallyp-53@salvatorexwinchester@helvonasche@notnaturalanahi@wayward-mirage@riversong-sam@nerdflash@miss-miep@impala-dreamer@mypeopleskillsarerusty0203@greek-geek481@chelsea072498@deals-with-demons@plaidstiel-wormstache@impalaimagining@deathtonormalcy56​ @scorpiongirl1 @the-latina-trickster@aingealcethlenn@squirels-angels-and-moose@meganwinchester1999@cubs2019-blog@lucifer-in-leather@p–trick​​ @straightestgay-voice@professsionalsinner

Masterlist


“No. No. NO!”

Dean frantically scratched at the floor, the doorway, anything he could get to, so he could get back to you.

He turned back to Sam, eyes pouring with tears, not caring who saw him.

“WHAT THE HELL DID YOU DO?”

Sam swallowed hard, his heart pounding as the rage poured out of Dean.

“I…I did what I had to”, he stuttered, knowing Dean wasn’t going to accept this. 

Not with you still there.

“You…yo-you…”

Dean choked on his words, his vision completely blurred as he felt his heart break.

Keep reading

It’s time for a musical World Record Wednesday! The “Golden Record,” created by NASA and placed on both Voyager spacecraft in 1977, is the phonographic recording to travel farthest. Currently hurtling through space at a distance of over 12 billion miles from Earth on Voyager I, the album is literally a “world record"—a collection of sounds, songs, and short speeches intended to represent the best of planet Earth and humanity. The tracks were carefully curated by NASA and a committee chaired by Carl Sagan, and include music from Bach, Beethoven, Stravinsky, Chuck Berry, Louis Armstrong, and others. (Fun fact: the producer of the Golden Record,“ Timothy Ferris, is an award-winning science author who wrote the script for the Museum’s Space Show “Dark Universe.”)

The Record also features musical recordings from Senegal, Russia, Japan, and other countries. Carl Sagan, who worked on the project, stated that "the spacecraft will be encountered and the record played only if there are advanced space-faring civilizations in interstellar space. But the launching of this ‘bottle’ into the cosmic 'ocean’ says something very hopeful about life on this planet.”

Listen to the album on the Museum’s first-ever Spotify playlist: https://goo.gl/mogYK6

Image: NASA

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The Voyager Golden Records are phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977. They contain sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth, and are intended for any intelligent extraterrestrial life form, or for future humans, who may find them. Neither Voyager spacecraft is heading toward any particular star, but Voyager 1 will pass within 1.6 light-years of the star Gliese 445, currently in the constellation Camelopardalis, in about 40,000 years. 

The Voyager Golden Record contains 115 images plus a calibration image and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind, and thunder, and animal sounds, including the songs of birds and whales. The record additionally features musical selections from different cultures and eras, spoken greetings in fifty-nine languages, and printed messages from President Jimmy Carter and U.N. Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim. The items were selected for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University.

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The Voyager Golden Records are phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977. They contain sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth, and are intended for any intelligent extraterrestrial lifeform, or for future humans, who may find them. Neither Voyager spacecraft is heading toward any particular star, but Voyager 1 will pass within 1.6 light-years of the star Gliese 445, currently in the constellation Camelopardalis, in about 40,000 years.

Noir Nocturne Part 1 Chapter 10 There’s No Place Like Home

Mrs. Bartlett led Dougal to the next room and pointed out the bathroom across the hall on the third floor before taking Murtagh and Angus to the attic. “If you find it too hot up here gents, let me know and I’ll bring a fan up. You are welcome to leave the windows open and be watching your heads if you don’t mind. Don’t want to have to pay the clinic for stitches.”

The room had a sharp inclined V roof but there was no chance they would hit their heads on it as it was well up from standing distance. Murtagh decided the woman must be having a laugh. “Is it always this warm than Mrs.?” He asked, tossing his hat onto one of the beds, and shrugging out of his jacket.

“Hah! This ain’t warm, it’s only 8 in the morning! It gets worse over the day and summer. No humidity to speak of though, and coolish at night. You boys let me know if there is anything ya need. I’ve left ya sheets and pillows and see ya have your own blankets. You can come down to the kitchen for coffee when you’re settled. But don’t be thinking I do that every day. Just cause your foreign and all don’t mean I can afford to spoil ya.” She shook her finger at them and left by the steep staircase.

The room held two single beds, a tall chest of drawers, hooks on the finished walls at the foot of each bed and a small round table with two straight backed chairs. The seating area was on the opposite end from the staircase along with trunks of varying sizes. The beds sat on a large round braided rug and tucked flush to the walls. There was no heat source that he could see. It did have double windows at each end though that had no curtains, so a goodish amount of light was being let in.

Angus made his bed and then started to rummage around the trunks. They were locked.

“Dinna break them ya wee bugger, Claire will hae your head. “

“As if tha could stop me.” He chuckled and pulled out his hidden dagger, “tis no great feat picking a lock ya great fool.”

Giving up, Murtagh took his time studying the pictures on the walls. They were the most realistic paintings he had ever seen, preserved somehow under glass. Men and Women in all sorts of fancy dress, standing next to the automobiles or sitting together in various poses. Several of them had To Rhea on them.

He heard someone coming up the steps, snapped his fingers at Angus to get his attention and put his hand behind on his dirk.  

“Murtagh, the light switch for the overhead is here by the steps. See?” Claire said as she stepped into the attic, turning on the light as she came in. “Oh, and you have two floor lamps as well, that’s nice. You pull the cord under the lampshade, like this, see? This metal looking box thing is a radiator, heat comes from it from a boiler in the basement I’m assuming.”

“Jamie, Dougal come up here please. We need to figure out our day and I need to call Father McDaniel as well.” She yelled down the steps. Turning to Angus, she frowned. “And just what are you doing over there? I doubt there is anything in those that you will be wanting or needing.”

Angus rolled his eyes and sat down at the table. “And how would you be knowing that?” He then proceeded to pick his nails with the dagger, while pretending not to care about whatever she was talking about.

Murtagh decided making his bed would give him something to do while Claire planned out their next moves. Jamie and Dougal seemed to be at ease, for now, so all was well there.

“Claire? Are these paintings?” Dougal said, standing with his nose right up to one.

“No, they’re photographs. Likenesses captured on film. You use a gadget called a camera. I can see we may need to take a trip to the library soon or I am going to be spending all my time instructing you on all the marvels of modern science.

I will go to the Clinic tomorrow, so we have time today to find the employment center, the barber, and perhaps a store and donation center for more needed items. You’ll need work clothes once you’re employed. I think it wise if you hide your weapons for now. We may need to pawn a few of them if our money runs out quickly. I think your and Jamie’s guns should bring a good sum Dougal. Collector’s items generally do. Besides, there are better guns now. Semi-Automatics that you don’t have to prime and load a shot at a time.

Not that I am recommending that. No one goes around with swords, dirks or daggers unless they are in the Military. If they are armed, they wear a holster and handgun likely, although switchblade knives exist now. 

Why in the world am I even telling you all this? You can’t just get into fights on the streets. The Police will haul you off to jail in a heartbeat. So, you are all going to have to learn to control your tempers.” She wound down as she sat down on Murtagh’s bed and sighed heavily.

That got their attentions Murtagh thought. Better weapons? She knew them well enough then. Smart to start with that today. His opinion of her went up another notch.

“Weel, how about we go have coffee with Mrs. Bartlett? She said we could, I think.” Angus interjected after tucking his weapons under his mattress. Murtagh noticed he keep the dagger though. “How old do you reckon the fat bessom is?” Angus leered and wiggled his brows at Dougal.

“Oh, for heaven’s sake Angus leave her be, I beg you.” Claire said standing again “Surely there are more important things on your mind!”

Murtagh, Jamie and Dougal exchanged a glance and then turned as one and headed down the steps.

“mmph” said Angus and followed behind.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Jamie hardly had time to scrutinize his room before Claire had called him upstairs. It seemed nice enough. It reminded him a bit of a guest room at Lallybroch. His first order of business was to push the beds together. He wasn’t going to give Claire a chance to get used to sleeping without him by her side.

It would have to wait until later though. He saw the layout he wanted instantly and filed it away for reference. There would be time after they had taken care of some more adaption business. He was happy to see that Murtagh seemed comfortable with the arrangements. He probably wanted the room next to him, but likely felt he was close enough to come running if needed.

They left the attic and headed down to the kitchen, taking note of what they could see of the second and first floors of the house. There were several closed doors on the second floor. Jamie’s curious nature had him wanting to open each one of them, but they likely led to rooms with other boarders. He didn’t think Claire or Mrs. Bartlett would appreciate him just heading into them so he took his time on the first floor instead.

To the left of the central staircase was a large seating room. Several comfortable looking chairs and two couches surrounded a wooden cabinet and a fireplace. There was a square table that sat four in once corner and two of the walls were covered in book shelves. The was an odd looking large horn atop another cabinet in one corner.

“Claire what’s that?” he pointed as he pulled her into the room by the elbow.

“Oh, it’s a phonograph. It plays records, which are recorded music or speaking.”

“Recorded? Like writing?”

“Something like that. That other cabinet contains a radio. You can listen to people from all over the world speaking. They tell stories, the news, commentary on the events of the day. There are also musical programs. Mainly it is for entertainment.” She chuckled as she caught the astonished look on his face. “I promise it’s not magic. It’s science.”

“I dinna ken yet if I believe ya or no, but as I believe you to be a woman of her word, and my wife at that, I’ll trust that ye are not making things up to laugh at me.” He stepped back to the hallway, reaching out for her hand as he went.

“Weel, tis easy enough to see that this is a dining room. Table seats twelve. Ye think we will meet the other boarders tonight then? I am a wee bit nervous about that if I’m honest.” He said, feeling like he was rambling on at her.

He felt stupid and sluggish. He knew he wasn’t, and that he was in fact quite clever. His tutors always said he was too bright for his own good and Jenny said it was too much of the Old Fox in his blood. That hurt, thinking of his family, better to push that all down inside for now.

“Are ye two coming or no? The kitchen’s this way.” Dougal said from a doorway across the room. He was frowning in their general direction.

“Aye, just takin our time about it.” Jamie said pulling Claire closer to his side and whispering down into her ear “He thinks he’s still the boss o’ me, ye ken?”

Claire laughed, smiled up at him and rolled her eyes, moving in front of him and turning to face his chest. “Was he ever?” she mouthed up at him with her back to Dougal.

“To hear him tell it, he’s been a Father, Brother, Uncle and Chieftain to me. Ye’ll note he never called himself my friend. The good news is he has no reason to want me dead now that I can see. The bad news is he’s still the same man who wanted it in the first place.” He spoke quietly to her while tucking one of her curls behind her ear.

She placed her hand on his waist, giving it a quick squeeze. “You will know how to handle him here. Just as you knew before. Besides, Murtagh would likely kill him before he got a chance to harm you again. Let’s see if Mrs. Bartlett will extend the coffee invitation to all of us. Then we can head out to the Barber Shop. I do hate that you will have to have your lovely hair chopped off, but am looking forward to seeing you all polished up.” She took up his hand again and crossed to the doorway Dougal had left.

“Aren’t Barbers about medicine? Leeches? Why would he want my hair in a shop?” Jamie shook his head and followed.

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The Voyager Golden Records are phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977.  The records contain sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth, and are intended for any intelligent extraterrestrial life form, or for future humans, who may find them.

Photos: NASA

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It was 40 years ago, on Aug. 20 and Sept. 5, 1977, that a pair of robots named Voyager were dispatched to explore the outer solar system and the vast darkness beyond.

The Voyager 1 probe is currently the farthest human made object from Earth. Voyager 1 has reached interstellar space, the region between stars where the galactic plasma is present.

Voyager 2 is currently in the “Heliosheath” – the outermost layer of the heliosphere where the solar wind is slowed by the pressure of interstellar gas.

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The Voyager spacecraft: 40 years in space, surreal solar system discoveries

In 1977, two NASA space probes destined to forever upend our view of the solar system launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

The identical spacecraft, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, took off in in August and September 40 years ago and were programmed to pass by Jupiter and Saturn on different paths. Voyager 2 went on to visit Uranus and Neptune, completing NASA’s “Grand Tour of the Solar System,” perhaps the most exhilarating interplanetary mission ever flown.

CU Boulder scientists, who designed and built identical instruments for Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, were as stunned as anyone when the spacecraft began sending back data to Earth.

Dazzling discoveries

The discoveries dazzled scientists and the public: 23 new planetary moons at Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune; active volcanoes on Jupiter’s moon, Io; Jupiter’s ring system; organic smog shrouding Saturn’s moon, Titan; the braided, intertwined structure of Saturn’s rings; the solar system’s fastest winds (on Neptune, about 1,200 mph); and nitrogen geysers spewing from Neptune’s moon, Triton.

“This was a really big deal,” says Professor Fran Bagenal of CU Boulder’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), a mission scientist who began working with Voyager data as a doctoral student at MIT. “The outer solar system went from being fuzzy planets with dots for moons to a whole set of new and amazing worlds.”

Forty years later, the two spacecraft are still traveling—about a million miles per day. Although both are still in contact with scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, which is managing the mission for NASA, Voyager 1 is roughly 13 billion miles away and has punched its way into interstellar space. Voyager 2 is not far behind but on a different trajectory that will soon take it out of the cosmic neighborhood.

Seeing the light

The LASP photopolarimeter subsystem (PPS), a telescope that measured the intensity and polarization of light at different wavelengths, was used for a variety of observations. It helped scientists distinguish between rock, dust, frost, ice and meteor material. It also observed the structure of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot and the properties of the clouds and atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, as well as Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.

Rendering of Voyager 2 approaching Neptune


The huge surprise at Jupiter’s moon, Io—that a moon the size of Earth’s could have 10 times the volcanic activity of our home planet—still astonishes scientists today.

“It was really the volcanoes on Io that set me on a path of 40 years of Voyager exploration,” Bagenal said. “And the first glimpse of the gas giants and their moons changed our view of the solar system and our understanding of how it may have formed.”

Mysteries of planetary rings

“Voyager was nothing less than spectacular,” says LASP Professor Larry Esposito, whose team used the PPS to watch stars dip behind the rings of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. “We were able to compare the rings of all the giant planets, looking at the structure and dynamic behavior.”

One of the intriguing discoveries involving the Voyager science team was the intricate structure of Saturn’s F ring—a ring Esposito discovered in 1979 using data from NASA’s Pioneer 11 mission. Scientists determined the faint F ring was made up of three separate ringlets that appeared to be braided together, and that the inner and outer limits of the ring were controlled by two small moons called “shepherd satellites.”

Esposito, who chaired the Voyager Rings Science Working Group from 1984 to 1989, said density waves—ripple-like features in the rings caused by the influence of Saturn’s moons—allowed the team to estimate the weight and age of Saturn’s rings. Careful study indicates they might be as old as the solar system itself, said Esposito, who also is the principal investigator on a $12 million CU Boulder instrument package aboard NASA’s Cassini mission to Saturn, launched in 1997, which is scheduled for a successful but fiery end Sept. 15.

A look back and forward

Charlie Hord, a former planetary scientist at LASP, remembers the heyday of Voyager. Hord, principal investigator for a time on the Voyager spacecraft LASP instruments, shook his head in wonder as he recalled some of the discoveries.

“All of the scientists were dazzled by the pictures of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn coming back,” recalls Hord, 79, who still lives in Boulder. “To finally look at them up close was the most remarkable thing I’ve ever seen in my life.”

In 1990, Voyager 1 turned around one last time and took a portrait of the solar system—a sequence of photos that revealed six of the nine planets in an orbital dance. From nearly 4 billion miles away, Earth took up only a single pixel.

Over its lifetime, the CU Boulder PPS science team also included LASP’s Karen Simmons and Robert West. Other CU Boulder scientists working with data from other instruments on Voyager include Professor Mihaly Horanyi, Associate Professor Nick Schneider and former faculty member David Grinspoon. The mission also involved contributions from a number of CU Boulder undergraduate and graduate students.

Voyager’s Golden Records

On the off chance either spacecraft encounters another civilization, each is carrying what are known as the Golden Records—gold-plated copper phonograph records with greetings in 54 languages; the sounds of surf, wind, thunder, birds and whales; analog photos of people and places on Earth; diagrams of DNA; and snippets of music ranging from Bach and Beethoven to Chuck Berry. Berry even played Johnny Be Goode on his guitar on the steps of JPL during the 1989 Voyager 2 Neptune encounter.

The spacecraft carries a stylus set up in the correct position so that aliens could immediately play the record, named “Murmurs from Earth” by the late Carl Sagan, who conceived the Golden Record effort.

In 40,000 years, Voyager 1 will float within 9.3 trillion miles of the star AC+793888 in the constellation Camelopardalis. In 296,000 years, Voyager 2 will pass within 25 trillion miles of Sirius, the brightest star in the sky. Perhaps on the way, the spacecraft will encounter some musically inclined aliens up for a little Bach, Beethoven or Berry.