The study examines a variety of factors that contribute to PhD completion and drop-out rates, including discipline, type of scholarship or appointment, gender, age, and nationality, and determines the time when degree-attainment and drop-out are most likely to occur.
The paper is freely accessible for a limited time.
Male executives who spoke more often than their peers were rewarded with 10 percent higher ratings of competence. When female executives spoke more than their peers, both men and women punished them with 14 percent lower ratings.
As this and other research shows, women who worry that talking “too much” will cause them to be disliked are not paranoid; they are often right.