pharyngeal jaw

anonymous asked:

So in regards to the dragon have lips post how would Sahrotaar speak? I love your art ❤❤

(post in question)
OUHH MY GOD i have thought about this and I love serpentine dragons most of all but MAN they have gotta work on their dental 

Sahrotaar speaks by simply moving his jaw; there’s no skin movement at all in the model. This is likely an oversight on whoever remodeled the dragon face (on the same vein as Gatorclaws dropping fully-clawed recoloured deathclaw hands), but I’ll make do with what I’ve got.

They’re actually not that difficult once you look at their model! Their upper jaw actually tilts down, while their lower jaw is underslung and tilts up. This means the lower lip connects easily with the jaw, and there’s a lot of excess skin up around the eye, which seems to be hitched up all the time. This is probably resting position, but they can move it down when speaking (albeit with a little bit of difficulty). 

Their skin is likely a lot tougher than regular dragons due to having lighter scales, so speaking might be a problem due to restricted lip mobility. 

Of course serpentine dragons are also designed around eels, which have pharyngeal jaws in their throat, so I couldn’t resist

raccoonskulls  asked:

Hey there! I was wondering, since you are an eel-keeper, do you ever find Noodles' teeth in her substrate? Like do they ever fall out? I collect animal bones and would love to add eel teeth to my collection! Sorry I know this is a really strange ask lmao

This is a really good question omg. I wish i had a better answer for you!!
I’m not actually sure if noodle’s teeth fall out :o
(I think goldfish loose their teeth sometimes? I know people who collect those so it wouldn’t surprise me if eels lose teeth too)

Although if noodle did lose teeth i’d probably never find them
Her teeth are pretty darn small. Like… probably the size of large sand grains.

Here’s a gif showing her teeth

and here’s a link to a video showing how big she is compared to my finger

So her teeth are pretty dang small 

Also she has around 3-4 inches of sand in her tank and she digs (with her face ? ???) all the time
So if she lost teeth they’d probably just get buried…. :<

If i had her in a barebottom tank i’d probably be able to find them…. but she would miss the sand lol

Now i wish i had some eel teeth! Or a skull… or a whole skeleton…. That would be awesome! 

Moray eels have really cool skeletons because of their pharyngeal jaws (Second set of jaws which move forward to grab food and pull it back into the throat. basically really weird swallowing.)

so I would love to have an eel skeleton that included the pharyngeal jaws like this one


Sorry I can’t answer the teeth question!! :< 

If you ever get eel bones/teeth you should totally tag me! I’d love to see them!

blooshirt  asked:


21. Favorite fish fact?


(image from wikipedia)

To swallow, moray eels have extra jaws in the back of their throat which come forward to bite prey and pull it back into the mouth!!! Pharyngeal jaws inspired the tongue-mouth that the alien from the Alien movies has!  

Noodle has one of these! I get to think about it every time i feed her! 

Moray by detierraysal Moray close up shot. Like the monster in Alien (1979), morays attack their victims with a hidden set of chomps. Inside the gullet are pair of concealed pharyngeal jaws that help ensnare its prey. First, the outer jaws firmly grasp the target. Next, their pharyngeal set shoots forwards, bites the unfortunate victim, and pulls it into the throat.

i had a nightmare about a whale-sized albino crocodile with rainbow crystal teeth and back/tail spikes, who could fly and control the weather. her name was fusuke and despite this she had a human disguise of a fat older white woman wearing a white sweater with a pastel rainbow unicorn on it. fusuke also had pharyngeal jaws. fusuke also had a score to settle. fusuke was fucking terrifying, y’all.

Geophagus surinamensis –When a Second Set of Teeth isn’t Scary

The moray eel got a lot of press several years ago when it was discovered that it had a second set of jaws in its throat that it could shoot out of its mouth to grab prey. Everyone freaked out and said it reminded them of the Alien xenomorph’s mouth, but far fewer realized that in fact, most fish have these extra pairs of jaws. And in many cases, they’re not really all that scary, but a fascinating evolutionary innovation.

If you’ve ever swam over a sandy bottom, you’ve seen how even the slightest movement can displace solid particles in the water column. This makes it hard for fish to grab food, as when they move towards it, the water they displace ends up pushing the food away. To solve this problem, fish have mouths that consist of bones that collapse on each other, like a folding lawn chair. When they open their mouths, the bones unfold, and let the fish project its mouth outwards. This allows fish to grab food without moving their body, or even to suck the food into their mouth. Unfortunately, having a jaw like this precludes the use of big teeth and powerful jaw muscles so you can chew your food. This is where the second set of jaws comes in.

Fish evolved pharyngeal jaws so that they could have the best of both worlds. They can both grab/suck in their food with the regular (oral) jaws, and chew their food with the throat (pharyngeal) jaws. This has allowed fish to specialize in a wide variety of foods, one of the most interesting being the Geophagus species in the cichlid family. They feed on invertebrates, algae, and detritus buried in river bottoms. Their oral jaws are like a basket that scoops up sand and pebbles, and as the oral jaws shuffle the gravel around in their mouth, the pharyngeal jaws can be used to pick out food particles and chew them. 

Shown above is my late Geophagus surinamensis Earthshaker. He loved peas, carrots, and green beans. The way he ate a carrot slice was always fascinating. He’d open his mouth and suck the carrot slice whole into his throat. Then, he’d use his pharyngeal jaws to chew the carrot. It looked really weird, like the cheeks of a person when chewing their food, but it was the sides of his throat, not his cheeks.

Unfortunately, Earthshaker loved to eat a bit too much, and died after he ate all of the medicated food I had intended for all the fish in the tank to share (some of them were skinny and I wanted to make sure none had any parasites). I don’t know if he overdosed, or the food was contaminated, but within minutes he was bloated and lying on the bottom of the tank, and the next day he was dead. He was perfectly healthy until he ate that food. 

It is for this reason I really wish fish vets were more widely available. Without the ability to make a proper diagnoses and use medicines made consistently in a pharmacy, medicating fish is risky.


Most fishes feed using suction, rapidly gaping their maws to create a vacuum that sucks in prey  

Moray eels, though, are conspicuously thin, an adaptation to a life spent hiding in crevices waiting for prey, and are therefore unable to generate this vacuum. In addition, they hunt large prey–some morays can reach 10 feet–and swallow them whole. For this, though, suction feeding is inadequate.

By adapting its pharyngeal jaws into mobilized graspers, the moray doesn’t need a vacuum to get prey to the back of its throat.  It’s an innovation that may have helped morays ascend the throne of the coral reef food chain.

Source  Video


Imagine going to the aquarium and seeing a young English woman get excited about all the fish while the curly-haired Scotsman accompanying her smiles and watches.

requested by Anon (gifs not mine)

Going to the aquarium is starting to get really boring for you. Your little sister loves to come here though, so there is no escaping it. You don’t understand what is so interesting about seeing the exact same fish over and over again.

You are in a great big room with a huge round pool in the middle of it. The pool is set down into the floor so that the surface of the water is about ten feet lower than the railing surrounding it. From here, people can look down at the animals swimming below. There are multiple signs stationed at intervals around the edge, detailing all the fish within. 

You stand back and let your sister lean over the edge a little, as she always does. You keep your hand on her back though, lest she fall in head first.

A little further along the railing, you find a similar scene. A young English woman is leaning over the railing, excitedly pointing out all the fish. The curly-haired Scotsman behind her looks too worried about her falling in to be paying much attention.

“And look! That’s a giant moray, the Gymnothorax javanicus!  It reaches up to 3 meters in length. And it’s the only animal to use its pharyngeal jaws to actively capture and restrain prey!”

“Oh, and that big one there is an Istiophoridae but I can’t remember which one it is… Fitz, which one is it?”

“I don’t know Simmons. You’re biochem, not me, remember?” the Scotsman sighs.

But when the woman turns around and starts to ramble on again you see him smile at her. You know that type of smile. It’s the one that means you would do anything – anything at all - for the person receiving it.


When the woman is finally ready to go on to the next room, you hear the guy ask “Can we go to the zoo next time, Simmons?”

The woman laughs and says “Of course, Fitz! We’ll go see the monkeys next time.”


I took a video of Sasha eating!

She’s eating Solea solea soaked in vitachem.

The “choking” movements you see are actually her using her pharyngeal jaws to grab the food from her main jaws and drag it back. I didn’t say that in the video because I worried I’d butcher the pronunciation lmao.

Gymnothorax fimbriatus

reptiglo submitted: Hey! I found this at a beach on Lake Ontario and I was wondering what it could be from? This piece is fairy small, only about 2-3”

Awesome find! That’s actually one of my favorite bones! It’s a pharyngeal jawbone (and teeth) from a carp fish, most likely black carp. Those jawbones basically sit in a fish’s throat and help them process food. Pretty much all fish have them, from goldfish to moray eels. In fact, Moray Eels and their freaky extra set of jaws helped inspire the creature design for H. R. Giger’s Aliens!

Here’s some that I have in my own collection. Top right is a black carp, similar to yours and there are also grass carp (top middle) and silver carp pictured. 

Thanks for the submission! And congrats again on the awesome find!

nightpool  asked:

John as court dragon slayer in training and Karkat as the damsel in eldritch-weirdness-related distress.

Jade kicks at the log and, when she’s satisfied it only shakes a *little*, she starts drawing a wide circle around it with a stick. “This is my fortress!” she announces, and then continues by drawing a second circle around the first. “And this is my moat!”

John is sitting cross-legged in the gravel, teetering vaguely from one hip to the other like a recovering wobble doll. “Cool,” he says.

“And I’m an ifestiovore! Which means…?”

“Uhh… lava eater?”

“Yeah! But the name sucks, because I don’t actually *eat* lava. I just swallow it and spit it back–”

“–at anyone riding in to rescue your captive princesses at your dragony mercy–”

“Uh-huh. So you’d better ride in *fast*, mister shiny pants! Do you remember my weakness?”

“The eyes, right? Because you don’t keep them open under the lava, so they are not protected.”

“Yep! Aaaand… cutie patootie princesses in ruffly pajamas, obviously!”


“All right, that’s it, halt. I am calling a time out until we clarify one *particular* item of procedure for this incipient clusterfuck.” Karkat says. “Why does Jade get to be the monster?”

“I called dibs!”

“She totally called dibs, bro.”

“Yeah? So when the fuck did these alleged ‘dibs’ happen? She just got here!”

Jade says, “Last time, remember? We were arguing about it, again, and I called dibs times infinity. Is infinity *over*, Karkat?”

“Every time I have to listen to the din from your buck toothed wordhole a subjective infinity passes before me. Atoms fall to chaos, then silence, and then the angels come and dance a writhing and disturbingly sensual apocalypse waltz.  A new universe, rebirthed from a childhood god’s forgotten lunch meat, crawls itself to stinky bologna sentience. Jade Harley opens her mouth for a second word.”

John laughs. “I don’t know, Karkat. I think we should trust Jade on the mathy stuff. Besides, she’s a more convincing monster.”

“What?! No, she’s not!” His words had begun to echo, but now they crackle and fall apart completely: a chanting choir of voices carried through midwinters’ night on the buzzing of flies: I am Ka'arktavh'ntas, summoned forth from the underdarkness to consume your souls and feed your destinies to your enemies. Your blood will turn to a river of ants under your skin, your thoughts to hornets, your screams to razors in your throats. Your suffering will last ten thousand thousand millennia, until the last human is extinguished while cursing your names.

Shadows from nearby trees twist from their axes. They seep over the gravel towards him, like thick ink towards a gravitational centre.

John rocks over too far, until his temple hits one of Karkat’s shoulders. He gives the tentacle a fond pat. “We knoooow. You are very terrifying, I promise.” Karkat’s closest eye narrows at him in suspicion; John offers it a winsome grin and barely any giggles whatsoever. “But in the mean while, do you want to help me practice for the knight exam, or do you want to complain some more?”

“The second one, obviously!”

“That’s fine!” Jade comes over and pops a cone of gold construction paper on top of him, balancing it in the space between a few fanged mouths. She - literally - ruffles some of his feathers, to hold the princess hat in place, and Karkat buzzes at her half-heartedly but doesn’t smooth them back. “Just do your complaining from the top of my fortified dragon stronghold, okay?”

Karkat lets Jade guide him towards the log, although he carries himself with pointed primness over each of the inscribed circles. “I don’t know why you’re so gung ho about this fighting thing anyway,” he says to John. “You’re a fragile meat balloon whose only talents are as banshee bait, and you swing your sword like it’s a gong mallet and you’re trying to summon the Vast Shut The Fuck Up.”

“Thanks, buddy!” John calls. “All this stuff is great and helpful feedback!”

“Here,” Jade says, once Karkat’s clambered up. “Since you won’t be moving around….”

She tosses him the glamour orb. Karkat extends a tentacle and snaps the orb safely in a set of pharyngeal jaws, but the movement makes him warble on the log. “I can tell you how this scenario is going to end already. It will be me tumbling down to a soft landing in flesh-broiling lava.”

“No, it won’t!” John says. “Don’t worry, it will be my job to catch you.”

“How is that supposed to reassure me!?”

“Aurgh.” Jade flicks a piece of gravel at Karkat and then, perhaps in the interest of fairness, flicks another at John. “Turn it on already!”

Karkat rolls every single one of his eyes in unimpressed synchronicity. He twists the orb, and glamour waves suffuse the clearing. Reality warbles and shifts: the log Karkat’s balanced on shoots up, rocks flying in and mortaring themselves into a wall. John is pushed out and away as the clearing expands into a harsh, ashy tundra. And Jade screams - then screeches - with the unfurling of her scaled, crimson and orange tail. The gravel underneath her sizzles and turns soft between her claws.

When the world settles, Karkat has been blocked into a small room. He walks to the window and looks out; John is trotting his way down a path towards them, small in the distance. As a novelty, Karkat offers him a rude gesture with one of his temporary hands, five fingered and grey below golden sleeves. John waves happily back.

[part 2]

a few days ago i had my best and simultaneously most terrifying idea in a long time 8^D so: ya know how dragons can always speak human speech in stories? but their mouths aren’t really cut out for it. therefore, consider this: dragons with a set of pharyngeal jaws made for talking!!! and creepy transparent lips ‘cause saying b’s and p’s and m’s and stuff is hard when you’ve got an alligator face