pg k

I'll take today

Title: I’ll Take Today
Author: @diva-gonzo
Prompts: Cyanide; St. Mungo’s, 2:38 am; It’s all under control
Rating: SFW (K+, 12, PG-13)


“Hermione.” She shook and ignored the shaking. It’s just another nightmare, probably.

“Ron’s hurt. Throw your housecoat on, Hermione. We have to go. Move your ass!”

Hermione lifted her head from her pillow after hearing Ginny’s voice crashing through the curtains of her four-poster bed in their shared room at Hogwarts.

“What?” She parted the curtains to see Ginny standing there looking like a roman candle about to explode.

“Fine,” Ginny went to Hermione’s wardrobe and pulled out the navy blue housecoat and the fluffy slippers Hermione used while at school. “Since you slept through the summons, I’ll summarize. Ron and Harry are at St. Mungo’s. Some sod they were chasing knocked over a bunch of smuggled potions when they caught him. As a precaution, Harry, Ron and the rest were sent straightaway to St. Mungo’s.”

Hermione threw the housecoat on over her pyjamas before picking up her wand and her beaded bag – starting to show signs of hard use – and followed Ginny out of their room, through the Gryffindor Common room to exit their tower for McGonagall’s office.

“What time is it?”

“2:38 am.”

“No wonder why I am so tired.” Hermione had to walk fast to keep up with Ginny, who was almost running towards the Headmistress’s office. “Slow down. I can’t keep up.”

Ginny turned her head while keeping the pace. “I keep telling you to work out with me.”

“Running the bleachers of the Quidditch pitch isn’t my idea of fun. And then running back from them is even worse, with those hills!”

They made the last turn to the office and saw the gargoyle standing open and awaiting their arrival. They rode the ascending stairs upwards to the oaken door, also open for their arrival.  They hurried into the office and saw Professor McGonagall standing by the fireplace, talking with someone in the flames. “Ah, there you are. Molly, they’re here now.”

“Mum?” Ginny went over first and knelt down.

Her mum looked concerned. “I asked Minerva to send for you because of the seriousness of what happened.”

“What did happen?” Hermione asked over Ginny.

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10

Are Mass Extinctions Periodic, And Are We Due For One?

“If we start looking at the craters we find on Earth and the geological composition of the sedimentary rock, however, the idea falls apart completely. Of all the impacts that occur on Earth, less than one quarter of them come from objects originating from the Oort cloud. Even worse, of the boundaries between geological timescales (Triassic/Jurassic, Jurassic/Cretaceous, or the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary), and the geological records that correspond to extinction events, only the event from 65 million years ago shows the characteristic ash-and-dust layer that we associate with a major impact.”

65 million years ago, a catastrophic impact from outer space caused the last great mass extinction on Earth, destroying 30% of the species that lived on our world at the time. These mass extinction events happened many times in Earth’s past, and the Solar System also passes through denser stellar regions of space periodically, as determined by the orbit of the Sun and stars in the Milky Way. It’s a combination of facts that might make you wonder whether the extinction events are also periodic, and if so, whether periodic impacts are predictable. If so, then shouldn’t we be aware of whether we’re living in a time of increased risk, and prepare ourselves for that possibility accordingly? After all, the dinosaurs didn’t have a space program or the capability of deflecting a dangerous object like the one that wiped them out.

But before we go that route, we should take a good look at what the data shows. Are mass extinctions periodic? Are we due? Let’s find out!

anonymous asked:

Why do so many resources say that mammals are the dominate animals? Is there anyway bird superiority more prominent ?

This phrase is fairly difficult to define because, realistically, the dominant phylum is, and has been basically forever, the arthropods. With estimates of 1 to 10 million species and population numbers that are just staggering to think about, quantitatively they are the winners by several thousand landslides made up of primarily beetles.

But I digress. When we say the Cenozoic is the “Age of Mammals” or the Devonian is the “Age of Fishes”, it’s used more in terms of which clades exploded after the previous mass extinction (or, in earlier periods, diversified with massive geologic or climatic shifts) and took over a majority of the available ecological niches during that era/period/etc.

For example, after the Late Permian decided it preferred the Earth empty and told everyone to get rekt, the way was paved for the ancestors of dinosaurs to diversify and take over - hence the Mesozoic being known as the “Age of the Reptiles”. The same thing then happened with the K-Pg extinction event (with the exception being that the Cretaceous was generally less dramatic about the whole affair), opening up those niches for the mammals to expand into and diversify through the Cenozoic. 

To go off track for a hot second, it’s a very interesting cycle of extinction-diversification that happens repeatedly. The species that are most susceptible to extinction are those that are too specialized to adapt to change (looking directly at you, Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Conversely, those that are most able to survive and then take advantage of a sudden availability of niches following an extinction event are those that are generalists (in terms of range, habitat, feeding, and the like). Various populations of these generalists will then adapt into new species as they diverge from other populations in different niches, which eventually leads to each having a very specialized lifestyle as they evolve to further take advantage of the niche. This then puts them firmly in the category of “too specialized to adapt to change” and they are now susceptible to the next major shift. SUPER COOL, RIGHT???

Anyway, to get back on track, claiming any one class/phylum/order/species (Anthropocene, anyone?) of species is “dominant” during a period of geologic time is reductive, biased, and does paleontology as a whole a disservice. There are so many interesting clades that are left out when people assume the whole world at the time was populated by one small set of species (where are my extinct Ordovician hexacorallian fans at, amirite). We could just as easily call the Mesozoic the Age of Ammonites, or the Age of Conifers, and be just as accurate. 

anonymous asked:

got some questions: what is the species of dinosaurs that survived the extinction events and became birds? how close is the relationship between Mososaurs and komodos? i heard that the both of them came from the same ancestor a terrestrial reptile, which i believe it may be wrong.

The dinosaurs that survived the K-Pg extinction were… birds!

Birds already existed before that point. The earliest bird ancestors split off from other theropod dinosaurs way back in the mid-Jurassic, at least 160 million years ago – almost 100 million years before the extinction event.

Only a small number of bird species survived through the extinction, and those were the various ancestors of all the modern bird groups.

Quick diagram, not to scale and very simplified.


As for mosasaur relationships… that’s something I’ll be dealing with in a blog post later this month.

“Dog happy isn’t like human happy. Human happiness always has this little voice in the back of your mind going, ‘Don’t be too happy. Keep your guard up. Something bad could still happen.’ But dog happy is just pure, distilled essence of happiness.”

- Marco, Book #10: The Android, pg. 15 (by K.A. Applegate)

Okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay, okay. Y’know how with Voltron Adventure Time AUs Lance is normally Finn cause Jeremy, and if it’s Klance then Keith is Flame Princess? Well, what if Lance is Prince Gumball and Keith is Marshall? (Which would mean Keith would sing I’m Just Your Problem which is something I need to hear in my life) I haven’t watched Adventure Time in a while so I don’t know who everyone else would be, but I just had to say this cause the idea of Keith singing I’m Just Your Problem won’t leave my mind

Pollen samples & the 5h mass extinction event 🔬

In the center of this image, there is pollen (shaped like the Red Hot Chili Peppers logo!!!) from a plant that went extinct 66 million years ago. 75% of all species (including dinosaurs) vanished back then.

This was the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, a major transition in Earth’s history. The event can be observed in a layer of sediment around the world, called the K–Pg boundary. The samples allow to idenfity when the impact took place and how much it affected various species. 

In a summer school about impacts, we went through 12 palynological slides from the boundary section from North Dakota, USA for an exercise about biostratigraphical methods. The pollen appears red because the samples were stained for easier observation.

Below is an example of pollen from a plant that didn’t go extinct after the impact, also sporting a familiar shape:

Dino-killing asteroid could have thrust Earth into 2 years of darkness

Light-absorbing soot in the atmosphere had the potential to block photosynthesis


Tremendous amounts of soot, lofted into the air from global wildfires following a massive asteroid strike 66 million years ago, would have plunged Earth into darkness for nearly two years, new research finds.

This would have shut down photosynthesis, drastically cooled the planet, and contributed to the mass extinction that marked the end of the age of dinosaurs.

These new details about how the climate could have dramatically changed following the impact of a 10-kilometer-wide asteroid will be published Aug. 21 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The study, led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) with support from NASA and the University of Colorado Boulder, used a world-class computer model to paint a rich picture of how Earth’s conditions might have looked at the end of the Cretaceous Period, information that paleobiologists may be able to use to better understand why some species died, especially in the oceans, while others survived.

Scientists estimate that more than three-quarters of all species on Earth, including all non-avian dinosaurs, disappeared at the boundary of the Cretaceous-Paleogene periods, an event known as the K-Pg extinction. Evidence shows that the extinction occurred at the same time that a large asteroid hit Earth in what is now the Yucatán Peninsula. The collision would have triggered earthquakes, tsunamis, and even volcanic eruptions.

Scientists also calculate that the force of the impact would have launched vaporized rock high above Earth’s surface, where it would have condensed into small particles known as spherules. As the spherules fell back to Earth, they would have been heated by friction to temperatures high enough to spark global fires and broil Earth’s surface. A thin layer of spherules can be found worldwide in the geologic record.

“The extinction of many of the large animals on land could have been caused by the immediate aftermath of the impact, but animals that lived in the oceans or those that could burrow underground or slip underwater temporarily could have survived,” said NCAR scientist Charles Bardeen, who led the study. “Our study picks up the story after the initial effects – after the earthquakes and the tsunamis and the broiling.

We wanted to look at the long-term consequences of the amount of soot we think was created and what those consequences might have meant for the animals that were left.”

Other study co-authors are Rolando Garcia and Andrew Conley, both NCAR scientists, and Owen “Brian” Toon, a researcher at the University of Colorado Boulder.

A world without photosynthesis

In past studies, researchers have estimated the amount of soot that might have been produced by global wildfires by measuring soot deposits still preserved in the geologic record. For the new study, Bardeen and his colleagues used the NCAR-based Community Earth System Model (CESM) to simulate the effect of the soot on global climate going forward.

They used the most recent estimates of the amount of fine soot found in the layer of rock left after the impact (15,000 million tons), as well as larger and smaller amounts, to quantify the climate’s sensitivity to more or less extensive fires.

In the simulations, soot heated by the Sun was lofted higher and higher into the atmosphere, eventually forming a global barrier that blocked the vast majority of sunlight from reaching Earth’s surface. “At first it would have been about as dark as a moonlit night,” Toon said.

While the skies would have gradually brightened, photosynthesis would have been impossible for more than a year and a half, according to the simulations. Because many of the plants on land would have already been incinerated in the fires, the darkness would likely have had its greatest impact on phytoplankton, which underpin the ocean food chain.

The loss of these tiny organisms would have had a ripple effect through the ocean, eventually devastating many species of marine life.
The research team also found that photosynthesis would have been temporarily blocked even at much lower levels of soot. For example, in a simulation using only 5,000 million tons of soot – about a third of the best estimate from measurements – photosynthesis would still have been impossible for an entire year.

In the simulations, the loss of sunlight caused a steep decline in average temperatures at Earth’s surface, with a drop of 50 degrees Fahrenheit (28 degrees Celsius) over land and 20 degrees Fahrenheit (11 degrees Celsius) over the oceans.

While Earth’s surface cooled in the study scenarios, the atmosphere higher up in the stratosphere actually became much warmer as the soot absorbed light from the Sun. The warmer temperatures caused ozone destruction and allowed for large quantities of water vapor to be stored in the upper atmosphere. The water vapor then chemically reacted in the stratosphere to produce hydrogen compounds that led to further ozone destruction. The resulting ozone loss would have allowed damaging doses of ultraviolet light to reach Earth’s surface after the soot cleared.

The large reservoir of water in the upper atmosphere formed in the simulations also caused the layer of sunlight-blocking soot to be removed abruptly after lingering for years, a finding that surprised the research team. As the soot began to settle out of the stratosphere, the air began to cool. This cooling, in turn, caused water vapor to condense into ice particles, which washed even more soot out of the atmosphere. As a result of this feedback loop – cooling causing precipitation that caused more cooling – the thinning soot layer disappeared in just a few months.

Challenging the model

While the scientists think the new study gives a robust picture of how large injections of soot into the atmosphere can affect the climate, they also caution that the study has limitations.

For example, the simulations were run in a model of modern-day Earth, not a model representing what Earth looked like during the Cretaceous Period, when the continents were in slightly different locations. The atmosphere 66 million years ago also contained somewhat different concentrations of gases, including higher levels of carbon dioxide.

Additionally, the simulations did not try to account for volcanic eruptions or sulfur released from the Earth’s crust at the site of the asteroid impact, which would have resulted in an increase in light-reflecting sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere.

The study also challenged the limits of the computer model’s atmospheric component, known as the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM).

“An asteroid collision is a very large perturbation – not something you would normally see when modeling future climate scenarios,” Bardeen said. “So the model was not designed to handle this and, as we went along, we had to adjust the model so it could handle some of the event’s impacts, such as warming of the stratosphere by over 200 degrees Celsius.”

These improvements to WACCM could be useful for other types of studies, including modeling a “nuclear winter” scenario. Like global wildfires millions of years ago, the explosion of nuclear weapons could also inject large amounts of soot into the atmosphere, which could lead to a temporary global cooling.

“The amount of soot created by nuclear warfare would be much less than we saw during the K-Pg extinction,” Bardeen said. “But the soot would still alter the climate in similar ways, cooling the surface and heating the upper atmosphere, with potentially devastating effects.”

“I’ve always said you make a choice in this world. You can see the world as being tragic, or you can see it as being funny. Some things just flat-out aren’t funny, of course. But with very few exceptions, you can usually find the humor in life and in people. I guess if you want to see the world as being sad, terrible, unfair, boo-hoo boo-hoo, that’s fine. But man, what kind of life is that?”

- Marco, Megamorphs #2: In the Time of Dinosaurs, pg. 114 (by K.A. Applegate)

anonymous asked:

What is more likely to have survived the KT event in Antarctica: a non-avian dinosaur or an enantiornithe?

I don’t think we currently have any evidence of enantiornitheans in Antarctica. Although they are known from pretty much the entire rest of the world, so they probably were present there and we just haven’t found any fossils yet.

As for which could have made it through the extinction event? Enantiornitheans would probably be the better option, being birdy enough to potentially survive in the same way that a few of their avian relatives did. (Assuming avian-birds survived for reasons other than just pure luck, of course.)

But since the Cretaceous Antarctic (and southeast Australian) fauna was already well-adapted to surviving long periods of dark and cold during the polar winters, it would be the most likely place for non-avian dinosaurs to persist into the Cenozoic. This is actually a real hypothesis proposed at least as far back as 1993.

So, basically, if we’re already speculating… why not both?

Master List of Fanfiction (updated 10/15/17)

The Crown and the Flame

Kenna x Diavolos

All of These Lines (PG-13)
Argue (PG-13)*
Balance (PG-13)*
Can’t Stop (NSFW); Choices Creates Round 24 entry
Come Healing
(NSFW); follow up to Can’t Stop
Focused (NSFW)
Hideaway (NSFW)
Later On (PG-13)*
Loopy (PG-13)
On This Day (NSFW)*
Quiet (NSFW)
Strategize Part 1/5 (PG-13) 
Strategize Part 2/5 (NSFW) 
Strategize Part 3/5
(NSFW)
Strategize Part 4/5
(PG-13)
Strategize Part 5/5
(NSFW)
Tease
(NSFW)

You Give Me a Reason (PG-13); a follow up piece to Loopy*

The Freshman/The Sophomore

Chris x MC

Promise (NSFW)
Unexpected (NSFW); Choices Creates Round 31 entry*

The Royal Romance

Drake x MC

Burn (NSFW)
Days Go By
(PG-13)
     Sunday (NSFW)
     Monday (PG-13)  
Fix This (PG-13)
Nervous (PG-13)*
Stay (K+/PG-13)
Till We Meet Again (PG-13)
Together
(T/PG-13)

Prince Liam x MC

Aftermath (PG-13)
Convincing (NSFW)*
Distractions (PG-13)*
I Will Wait (NSFW)
In the Morning (NSFW); follow up to Aftermath
Losing Sleep (PG)
Must Be Something in the Water (T/PG-13); mostly Liam, with Liam x MC at the end; Choices Creates Round 19 entry
Not Yours (NSFW)*
Persuade Me
(M)
Should I Stay or Should I Go (PG-13)*
Tradition
(M)
Warm Whispers (NSFW)

Maxwell x MC

All I Want is Nothing More (PG-13); Choices Creates Round 30 entry
Begin Again (M)
Better (PG/K+)
Dare
(M)
Finally
(T/M, to be safe)
(I Think That I Should) Hold On
(M); Choices Creates Round 25 Entry
Soon (PG-13); a follow up piece of sorts to (I Think That I Should) Hold On*
Want
(NSFW); AU meeting of MC and Maxwell

Drabbles

“You’re not interested, are you?”; Maxwell x MC (PG)
“Do you really need all that candy?” and “ You can only suffer through my whining for so long until you get up and make me a sandwich.”
; Maxwell x MC (PG-13 for innuendo, and PG)
“I feel like I can’t breathe.”
; Zig x MC (PG)

Miscellaneous

Local Business Spotlight (NR, nothing naughty here); an interview style post with me and Drake

“<Something is way wrong here,> I said. <Volcanoes don’t just suddenly erupt. Besides, look how high that thing was. That takes hundreds of years of lava and ash building up.>

<How do you know anything about volcanoes?> Jake demanded. <Did we do volcanoes in school?>

<No it was…some other place,> I mumbled. But they all just waited. Waited to hear how I knew about volcanoes. <Oh, all right. It was the Magic School Bus, okay? They went into a volcano.>”

- Megamorphs #2: In the Time of Dinosaurs (Rachel), pg. 22 (by K.A. Applegate)

  • Coming in Pieces
    soulmate!au, pg-13, 2.7k | tumblr
    “Hi soulmate.” Taehyung grins, one that shows all his teeth. “You’re going to be stuck with me for a really, really long time.”
  • Sleep My Love
    terminal illness!au, pg-13, 1.7k | tumblr
    warning: mentions of death
    “Sweetheart,” He’ll say to me. “Try counting sheep.” 
  • Late Night Confessions
    roommates!au, pg-13, 1.8k | tumblr
    Jimin falls asleep in his arms and Taehyung is left to stare at the resounding darkness, wondering why his heart is beating like it’s on fire.
  • Dear Diary [coming soon]
    reincarnation!au, pg-13, ~k | ao3
    Jungkook searches the snow, hoping to find inspiration. Yet all he finds are memories of a past he should not have had. 
  • TV Etiquette
    roommates!au, R, 1k | tumblr
    One day, Taehyung and Jungkook fight childishly over the remote control. But when push comes to shove (literally), Taehyung ends up beneath Jungkook on the couch.
  • Paris Baguette
    pretend hate!au, pg-13, 1.5k | tumblr
    Jimin wants to curl up into a ball and combust, right there, in the middle of the bakery, and it’s all because of his hurricane of a crush—Min Yoongi.
  • Dear Hoseok
    terminal illness!au, pg-13, 1.2k | tumblr
    In which Yoongi has a billion things to be sorry for, a thousand fears to face, and one love to treasure till the end of time. 
  • Happily Ever After
    friends to lovers!au, pg-13, 2.8k | tumblr
    In which Yoongi learns the most about marriage from a lawyer who deals with divorce.
  • Wandering Wishes
    second chance!au, pg-13, 6k | ao3
    warning: mentions of suicide
    All Jungkook wishes for, is just one more chance to make things right.
  • Away 
    starcrossed lovers + interstellar!au, pg-13, 2.3k | tumblr
    Desperation sits next to Jimin like an old friend.
  • When You’re Away
    long distance!au, pg-13, 1.7k | tumblr
    Seoul isn’t always warm, but Seokjin’s voice may just be sunshine.
  • The Littlest Things
    single parent!au, pg-13, 2.2k | tumblr
    The first time Namjoon meets Hoseok, his hair is messy and he has toothpaste stains on his shirt.
  • Coffee?
    high school popular kid/nerd!au, pg-13, 1.8k | tumblr
    Namjoon only has 3 minutes and 27.5 seconds to decide if he should ask Hoseok out.
badboy!kihyun drabble

based on this moodboard
pairing: kihyun x gender-neutral reader
rating: like one mention of d*k, PG-13, slight angst if you squint

“It was as if he knew you would be here tonight, because the lyrics that poured out of his lips like sinful honey was telling you to run away, baby and get away, darling, as he grazed his eyes over your entire body like a dirty promise (the kind that only Yoo Kihyun knew how to make).”

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4

I redid the avians from this post.

They are from an oceanic planet, where endothermic, feathered flyers are one of the most successful land-based lifeforms. Since land is limited to a scattering of small islands, the feathered flyers can travel the distances between dry land more easily than flightless or exothermic creatures.

The evolutionary ancestors of the sapient genus of avians are tree climbing critters with grasping hands on both their fore and back limbs. In the sapients, the hindlimbs are specialized to a point where they are used almost entirely for grasping, tool manipulation, and launching into flight. The dramatic speciation of the sapient avians was caused by hundreds of thousands of years of separation by ocean, and fostered by a lack of traumatic events like Earth’s ice age or K-Pg asteroid impact to wipe any of them out. Besides the five major species, there are many subspecies that can successfully breed with one or more of the major species.

The avians are a technologically advanced genus. After the industrial revolution, aggressive colonization by the skimmer species, and the globalization of information, the avian genus achieved interstellar flight. The first aliens they made contact with were the ferrets, then later humans (after the ferrets found us.)

Note: Despite the fact I drew all of them naked, avians have very strict decency standards (well, the skimmers do, but they have forced their cultural standards upon the others) and they wear quite a lot of clothing; usually covering as much as they can without restricting flight. They are like little space Victorians.