personal pronouns(dual)

shinigami24  asked:

Hello :-) could you please make a table with all personal pronouns? I don't get them in my mind... Thank you :-)

From your Tumblr, I’m guessing you mean Trigedasleng, but you’ve got to say which languages! I do a bunch. Anyway, here are the pronouns (obligatory cursing of Tumblr for not doing tables):

SINGULAR INDEPENDENT PRONOUNS

  • First Person: ai
  • Second Person: yu
  • Third Person: em, du

PLURAL INDEPENDENT PRONOUNS

  • First Person: oso, osir
  • Second Person: yo
  • Third Person: emo


SINGULAR POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

  • First Person: ai/oma
  • Second Person: yu/oyu
  • Third Person: em/om

PLURAL POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

  • First Person: oso, osir
  • Second Person: yo/oyo
  • Third Person: emo/omo


SINGULAR POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

  • First Person: ain/omon
  • Second Person: yun/oyun
  • Third Person: emon/omon

PLURAL POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

  • First Person: oson
  • Second Person: yon/oyon
  • Third Person: emon/omon

**********************************************************************************************

Some notes on the system above. In the first “table” (stupid Tumblr), there’s a split in the third person singular pronouns between em, the usual third person singular pronoun, and du, the pejorative third person pronoun. You use the latter when you dislike or don’t respect the person you’re talking about. It got quite a bit of use in the second season. Then in the first person plural cell, there’s a split between osir and oso. This has been discussed before, but oso is the pronoun you use when you want to include the person you’re talking to. Osir is the one you use when you do not want to include the person you’re talking to. The first is called an inclusive first person plural pronoun, and the second is called an exclusive first person plural pronoun.

The next “table” is for possessive adjectives. Thus if you want to say “my spear” or “his shirt” or “our boats”, this is the set you use. Notice that these are identical to the independent pronouns, for the most part. The only difference is that each of the pronouns except the first person plural pronouns has an alternate form. This alternate form is used when the possessed article is plural. Thus:

  • Daunde laik ai java. “That’s my javelin.”
  • Daunde laik oma java. “Those are my javelins.”

Please note the distinction between pronouns above separated by a comma and those separated by a slash. The slash indicates a distinction between the plurality of the possessed items. A pronoun indicates that there are two separate members of the column (i.e. their semantics differ in some crucial way).

The last “table” is for possessive pronouns. These are entire noun phrases on their own. They’re the equivalent of “mine” and “hers” and “yours”, etc. Just like the possessive adjectives, these display a split depending on whether they refer to a singular or plural entity. Take a look at the first person plural column again, though. Notice that there’s only one entry here. Plural possessive pronouns do not distinguish between first person singular inclusive and first person singular exclusive—or between the plurality of the referent. Thus, the sentence below can have many different meanings:

  • Daunde laik oson. “That is ours (i.e. it belongs to us, not you).”
  • Daunde laik oson. “That is ours (i.e. it belongs to all of us).”
  • Daunde laik oson. “Those are ours (i.e. they belong to us, not you).”
  • Daunde laik oson. “Those are ours (i.e. they belong to all of us).”

There’s also a lot of homophony in the third and first person forms. The second person forms are fairly standard, though:

  • Daunde laik yun. “That’s yours.”
  • Daunde laik oyun. “Those are yours.”
  • Daunde laik yon. “That’s y’all’s.”
  • Daunde laik oyon. “Those are y’all’s.”

That’s just about everything you need to know about pronouns in Trigedasleng. I think I may have also used the pronoun yumi at one point. That’d be a first person dual inclusive pronoun (i.e. it’d mean “you and me” or “you and I”). It wouldn’t have possessive forms, though. For that you’d just use the other first person plural forms.

Thanks for the ask! Sorry about the lack of tables.

Tumblr.