Roman Republican Architecture 509-27 BCE
Imagine classical Greek architecture and Etruscan architecture had a baby- the Temple of Portunus. Built in 75 BCE in Rome, this temple is half Greek and half Etruscan. The plan is Etruscan; the only entrance into the temple is the front entrance. Although the columns are Ionic, the freestanding columns are placed on the porch. There are engaged Ionic columns on the sides and in the back, in an attempt to imitate a peripteral Greek temple. Another factor of imitation is the material of the temple. The temple is stone, but it was overlaid with stucco to emulate white marble Greek temples. This mixture of Etruscan tradition and Greek imitation defines Roman Republican Architecture.
The Temple of Vesta, constructed in the early first century BCE in Tivoli, is a sibling of the Temple of Portunus. The Temple of Vesta was inspired by the Greek tholos temples; the front of the temple is circular, with the Corinthian columns on the porch. However, unlike the Greek tholos, the stairs are placed only in the front. The most significant aspect of the Temple of Vesta is its medium: concrete.