peripheral nervous system

I’ll Always Support You // Conor Maynard

— Heyy! Can you don an imagine where y/n isn’t famous (or a youtuber) and she’s dating conor? Thanks! —

I turned off my computer after I finished watching a video of my uni lecturer talking nonstop about the peripheral nervous system. I had enough time to do my makeup and get dressed before leaving to go to the boy’s flat which was just a couple minute walk from mine. Today, Conor is performing at Wembley stadium for the Rays of Sunshine concert.

We’ve been dating for a couple months now, but we pretty much have kept out relationship out of the spotlight. My social media accounts were private, so no one outside my friends and family really knew anything about my life. At the beginning, I wasn’t comfortable exposing my life to his fanbase because I liked my privacy. But obviously, since him and his friends are constantly in front of a camera, recording all aspects of their lives, it’s only natural that his fans found out about me. Conor and I met at a small party, my friend who’s dating one of his mates had invited me. We spoke all night at that party, he asked for my phone number before I left, and we’ve been inseparable ever since.

I left my house, makeup and hair done, dressed in an off the shoulder short dress and ankle boots and walked a small distance to the apartment he shared with his friend and brother. I buzzed their intercom to let me through the gates and made my way to their door. I knocked on their front door and was embraced in a hug from Anna, his little sister. She had come down from Brighton to see Conor perform. I had recently met his entire family, to which they welcomed me with open arms.

“Y/N, I love the way you did your makeup!” Anna complimented. We got very close, we treated each other as if we were each others sisters.

“I was just going to say the same about yours”, I laughed.

“Yo, Y/N!”, Jack walked into the room and high fived me then hugged me. “What you been up to?”

“Just been forcing myself to study all morning, the usual”, I sighed. “You vlogging today?”

“Oh yeah!” Just as I mentioned that, he pulled out his camera. “Good morning guys, hope you’re all doing well. I’ve got special guests with me today, Y/N, Anna, be nice and say hello”.

I waved to his camera and poked my tongue out. Just a couple days ago, I gave him permission for me to be in this vlog. I walked off as he continued to talk about the concert to go find Conor. I found him in his room blow drying his hair. “Hey babe”, I hugged him from behind as I watched him from the mirror in front of us.

He smiled widely and turned off the blow dryer. “Hey beautiful. You look amazing today”, he then pulled me into a hug and kissed my lips, letting his lips linger on mine.

“So the superstar is in here, getting – ooh bad timing” I heard Jack from the doorway with the camera in his hands, recording us but catching us at a bad time. He then left, causing us to laugh.

“How’ve you been my love”, Conor asked.

“Not too bad, are you nervous for today?” I let go of Conor to let him finish getting ready so I sat on his bed.

“Nah, I think I’ll be fine”, he responded.

“Yeah, I know you will. You’re very good at what you do”, I smiled at him. As he was finishing getting ready, I was scrolling on my phone for about half an hour. “Babe, its ten past twelve, what time do we need to be there?” I asked.

“Shoot. We should be leaving soon, so I have time to rehearse and do those interviews”, he said checking his watch.

“Conor, the uber is here!” I heard Anna yell from the living room. We all then left and arrived at Wembley stadium.

“Y/N, how you feeling? You look worried” Jack laughed, sticking the camera in my face as we walked to Conor’s dressing room.

I laughed. “I don’t know why I’m nervous. I know he’ll do amazingly well tonight, as he always does”, I looked at Conor and kissed his cheek as he put his arms around me.

“Ew”, Jack joked around, He then turned the camera off.

“Will you guys be okay by yourselves?” Conor asked.

“We’re big kids, we’ll be fine”, Jack said.

“Don’t worry, we’ll keep an eye on Jack”, I said to Conor, Anna laughed and Jack then rolled his eyes. “Good luck baby. Love you”.

“Love you too”, Conor kissed me before leaving to do interviews then rehearse on stage.

We kept ourselves busy for the next couple of hours by eating and giving ourselves a little tour. I checked the time and it was a quarter past five, the show would be starting soon. Jack, Anna and myself were then escorted by two security guards to a closed of section in the arena, giving us a perfect view of the stage. Anna and I were really excited, seeing all these artists live for the first time. We danced to each performance, singing all the popular hits along with them. We were given breaks after each performance. The stadium lights then went off, and Conor popped up on stage, causing the crowd to go wild. Conor then performed some covers and his original songs, Anna and I were dancing our butts off while Jack was vlogging for his channel. We all got into the shot of his camera, mouthing the lyrics to the song Conor was singing. As Jack was filming Anna and I dancing, I looked up to see Conor right at the edge of the stage, looking directly at me. Whilst he was singing as I mouthed ‘I love you’ to my boyfriend.

“I love you too baby”, Conor said into the microphone right in the middle of his song, then the whole crowd went more wild, if that was even possible.

After Conor finished, the security guards then took us backstage, Jack still vlogging everything. All the lucky winners who won backstage passes then started screaming as we were passing them. A lot of the winners were then yelling for Jack, and some even asking me and Anna to take photos with them, to which we did.

“Oh my god, Y/N you’re so pretty!”, one of the girls yelled, I thanked her. I took a bunch of selfies with different people, even though I wasn’t famous at all, I guess being the girlfriend of a famous person does put me into the public’s eye, whether I like it or not. As soon as Conor walked into the room, the attention then diverted to him and everyone started screaming. I watched him have his mini meet and greet, his face genuinely lighting up as he met everyone, it melted my heart. I took a couple of sneaky pictures as I watched him chat with his fans. As soon as the night was done, I was so exhausted that I fell asleep on Conor’s shoulders during the ride home.

“Y/N, baby, wake up”, he whispered into my ears, I groaned but got up anyway.

We all walked into their flat, Anna and Jack going straight to bed. I made my way to Conor’s bathroom to brush my teeth with a toothbrush I keep here. I took off my makeup and went to Conor’s drawer to steal a tshirt to wear to bed. I sat on Conor’s bed going through the videos and photos I took of tonight, smiling to myself. Conor jumped into bed behind me and pulled me down with him by my waist. I showed him the photos I took of today and he asked me to send them to him.

“Thank you so much for coming and supporting me tonight”, Conor said as he kissed my hands.

“Are you crazy? I will always support you, till the end. You make me so proud”, I kissed his cheeks then his lips.

“I know things can sometimes get a little crazy being with me, but still thank you”, he smiled

“A little crazy?”, I joked around.

“You know what I mean. But I guess our relationship is a little more out into the open now”, he said.

“I don’t mind it anymore, I don’t want to try and hide our love. It’s too stressful. From now on things will be different, especially since I’m going to be in Jack’s new vlog. Not just in the background anymore”, I said, my hands slightly rubbing his cheeks.

“Good, now I can flaunt my sexy girlfriend to the whole world, and make everyone jealous”, he laughed and kissed me on my lips. We then fell asleep in each other’s arms. For Conor, I would sacrifice anything for him, even if that means giving up some parts of my private life. I don’t care anymore, I would do anything for this boy. And I wouldn’t have it any other way.

So this is my first published little short fic! thank you to the person who requested this. I really hope you all enjoyed it. Sorry if im not too good haha, let me know what needs improving or let me know if you enjoyed it. please feel free to message me any requests!

Cranial Nerves

Nerves supplying the body can be divided in to cranial and spinal. Cranial nerves emerge from the brain or brain stem and spinal from the spinal chord. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. They are components of the peripheral nervous system, with the exception of the optic nerve, as their axons extend beyond the brain to supply other parts of the body. They are named numerically from region of the nose (rostral) to back of the head (caudal). Here’s a brief overview of all twelve nerves and their basic functions.

I – The Olfactory Nerve. The cells of this nerve arise from the olfactory membrane of the nasal mucosa. The dendrites of the nerve cells project in to the olfactory mucosa. The axons of these cells combine to form the olfactory nerve. They join the brain at the olfactory bulb, located at the end nearest the nose. The fibres are short and lie deep and protected from casual injury. It is often found that loss or interference of sense of smell is due to blockage of the air passage leading to the olfactory mucosa, not due to nerve damage.

II – The Optic Nerve. This nerve connects the retina to the diencephalon of the brain. It is the only cranial nerve considered to be part of the central nervous system. This means the fibres are incapable of regeneration, hence why damage to the optic nerve produces irreversible blindness. Interestingly the eye's blind spot is a result of the absence of photoreceptor cells in the area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye. I find the optic nerves easy to spot when looking at the brain from below as they form the optic chiasm. This is the point at which they cross and forms a clear ‘x’.

III- The Oculomotor Nerve. This nerve controls most of the eye’s movements including the constriction of the pupil and levitation of the eyelid. Damage to the nerve can cause double vision and inability to open the eye. A symptom of damage to this nerve is tilting of the head.

IV – The Trochlear Nerve. This nerve is a small somatic motor nerve and innervates the dorsal oblique muscle of the eye, responsible for allowing the eye to look down and up as well as internal rotations. Damage to the nerve can cause one eye to drift upwards in relation to the undamaged eye, meaning patients tilt their heads down to compensate.

V – The Trigeminal Nerve. This is the largest cranial nerve and is so called as it has three major divisions. It is sensory to the skin and deeper tissue of the face and motor to certain facial muscles, playing a large role in mastication.

VI – The Abducent Nerve. This nerve controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. It also plays a role in eye retraction for protection. Injury produces the inability to deviate the eyeball away from the midline of the body.

VII – The Facial Nerve. This nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression. It also functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the front two thirds of the tongue. As well as this it can increase saliva flow through certain salivary glands.

VIII – The Vestibulocochlear Nerve. This nerve is named after the vestibular and cochlear components of the inner ear. It transmits information on sound and balance. Damage can lead to deafness, impaired balance and dizziness.

IX – The Glossopharyngeal Nerve. This nerve has any roles including the innervation of certain muscles of the palate of the mouth, certain salivary glands and the sensory mucosa of the root of the tongue, palate and pharynx. Damage can lead to difficulty swallowing as well as the loss of ability to taste bitter and sour things in humans.

X – The Vagus Nerve. This is a very important nerve and one frequently discussed when considering many important systems within the body. It is the longest of all cranial nerves and extends to supply the pancreas, spleen, kidneys, adrenals, and intestine. It has parasympathetic control of the heart and digestive tract as well as certain glands and involuntary muscles.

XI – The Accessory Nerve. This plays a role in neck turning and elevation of the scapula (shoulder). Muscle atrophy of the shoulder region indicates damage to this nerve.

XII – The Hypoglossal Nerve. This nerve’s name relates to the fact that is runs under the tongue, innervating the tongue’s internal and external musculature. It has important roles in speech, food manipulation and swallowing.


The nervous system includes all the nervous tissue in the body + the sensory organs (such as the eyes and ears). 

Nervous tissue is composed of 2 kinds of cells:

  1. neurons which transmit nervous system messages
  2. glial cells which support neurons and modify their signaling.

There are 2 major divisions of the human nervous system:

  1. the central nervous system (CNS) which consists of the brain and spinal cord
  2. the peripheral nervous system (PNS) which includes all the neural tissue outside the CNS plus the sensory organs.

The PNS has 2 divisions:

  1. afferent division which brings sensory information to the CNS
  2. efferent division which carries action (motor) commands away from the CNS to the body’s ‘effectors’ (muscles and glands).

Within the PNS’s efferent division are 2 subsystems:

  1. the somatic nervous system which provides voluntary control over skeletal muscles.
  2. the autonomic nervous system which provides involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands.

The autonomic system is further divided into:

  1. sympathetic division (or 'fight or flight’ response) which generally has stimulatory effects (like adrenaline).
  2. parasympathetic division (or 'rest and digest’) which generally facilitates routine maintenance activities (like digestion).

There are 3 types of neurons (cells):

  1. sensory neurons. Sensory neurons sense conditions both inside and outside the body. They convey information relating to said conditions to neurons inside the CNS.
  2. interneurons. Interneurons are located entirely within the CNS and interconnect other neurons.
  3. motor neurons. Motor neurons carry instructions from the CNS to effectors (e.g. muscles or glands).

Each neuron has multiple dendrites (through which signals travel to the neuron cell body) and a single axon (that carries signals away from the cell body to the synaptic terminals).

Glial cells produce the fat-rich myelin, which can surround neural axons and increase the speed of neural signals.

A nerve is a bundle of axons in the PNS that transmits information to/from the CNS.

Nervous system communication can be conceptualized as working through a 2-step process.

  1. signal movement goes down a neuron’s axons
  2. signal movement (from said axon) goes to a second cell across a structure known as a synapse.

A nerve signal moves from one neuron to another across a synapse. Synapse includes: 

  • a 'sending’ neuron
  • a 'receiving’ neuron
  • a synaptic cleft - a tiny gap between the two cells

A chemical called a neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft from the sending neuron to the receiving neuron. It binds with receptors on the receiving neuron, keeping the signal going.

The spinal cord can receive input from sensory neurons (and instruct motor neurons to respond) with no input from the brain. The spinal cord also channels sensory impulses to the brain.

The spinal cord has a darker (gray matter) H-shaped central area composed mostly of the cell bodies of neurons. The lighter (white matter) peripheral area is mostly composed of axons.

The central canal of the spinal cord is filled with cerebrospinal fluid that provides the spinal cord with nutrients. Spinal nerves extend from the spinal cord to the majority of areas of the body.

  • Sensory neurons, which transmit information to the spinal cord, have their cell bodies outside the spinal cord (in the dorsal root ganglia).
  • Spinal cord motor neurons have cell bodies that lie within (the gray matter of) the spinal cord. The axons of these neurons leave the spinal cord through its ventral roots.

The dorsal and ventral roots come together (like fibers being joined in a cable) to form a spinal nerve.

Reflexes are automatic nervous system responses (triggered by specific stimuli) that help us avoid danger or preserve a stable physical state (physical equilibrium).

The neural wiring of a single reflex (called a reflex arc) start with a sensory receptor that’s run through the spinal cord to a motor neuron. This proceeds back out to an effector (once again, a muscle or gland). The brain is not involved in the reflex arc.

The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is often called the fight-or-flight system because it generally prepares the body to deal with emergencies.

What does it do?

  • dilates pupils 
  • inhibits salivation 
  • accelerates the heart 
  • facilitates breathing
  • inhibits digestion
  • stimulates the release of glucose
  • secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline
  • relaxes the bladder
  • inhibits sex organs

The parasympathetic division is often called the rest-and-digest system because it conserves energy and promotes digestive activities.

What does it do?

  • constricts pupils 
  • stimulates salivation 
  • slows the heart 
  • constricts breathing 
  • stimulates digestion 
  • stimulates the gallbladder 
  • contracts the bladder 
  • stimulates sex organs

Most organs receive input from both systems.

There are 7 major regions in the adult brain:

1. Cerebrum.  The cerebrum has a thin outer layer of gray matter - the cerebral cortex - that surrounds a much larger area of cerebral white matter.

Differing portions of the cerebral cortex play a central role in processing sensory information and in carrying out almost all of our conscious mental activities.

2. Cerebellum. The cerebellum refines bodily movement and balance, based on sensory inputs. 

3. Thalamus. The thalamus receives most of the body’s sensory information and then transfers it to different regions of the cerebral cortex (for processing). 

4. Hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is integral to regulating drives and maintaining homeostasis - partly through its regulation of hormonal release.

The brainstem is a collective term containing:

  • 5. Midbrain. The midbrain helps maintain muscle tone and posture.
  • 6. Pons. The pons primarily relays messages between the cerebrum and the cerebellum.
  • 7. Medulla oblongata. The medulla oblongata helps regulate involuntary functions such as breathing and digestion. When people are ‘braindead’, only their medulla oblongata is left functioning.

All human senses operate through cells called sensory receptors. Sensory receptors respond to stimuli (changes in the cells environment).

The sensory receptors transform the responses into stimuli - electrical signals - that travel through action potentials.

Signals from every sense (except smell!) are routed through the brain’s thalamus and then to specific areas of the cerebral cortex.

The sense of touch works through a variety of sensory receptors that distinguish qualities such as light or heavy pressure, new or ongoing contact, texture, etc.

In some sensory cells, the stretching of their outer membrane prompts an influx of ions that results in the initiation of a nerve signal.

Our sense of smell (or olfaction) works through a set of sensory receptors whose dendrites extend into the nasal passages.

Odorants - which are molecules that have identifiable smells - bind with hair-like extensions (cilia) of dendrites, resulting in a nerve signal to the brain.

The higher processing centers of the brain distinguish these odorants by sensing unique groups of neurons that fire in connection with given odorants.

  • humans have 340 - 380 different receptors.
  • dogs have about 1000 different receptors.
  • rats have about 1, 500 different receptors.

Our sense of taste works through a group of taste cells, located in taste buds near the surface of the tongue. The taste cells have receptors that bind to ‘tastants’ or molecules of food that elicit different tastes.

A given taste cell can respond through any 4 to 6 chemical signaling routes that correspond to the basic tastes of sweet, sour, salty, bitter and the possible fifth and sixth tastes of umami and calcium.

The neurons that receive input from taste cells vary in their response to different tastants. The brain makes sense of the pattern of input it gets from these neurons, thus yielding the large number of tastes we experience.

Our sense of hearing is based on the fact that vibrations result in 'waves’ of air molecules that are more (and less) compressed than the ambient air around them.

These waves of compression bump up against our eardrums (or tympanic membranes) which in turn vibrate; this initiates a chain of vibrations that ends in the fluid-filled cochlea of the inner ear.

'Hair cells’ in the cochlea have ion channels that open and close in response to this vibration, resulting in nerve signals to the brain.

In vision, light enters the eye through the cornea and then passes through the lens on its way to the retina (at the back of the eye).

Light is bent (or refracted) by the cornea and the lens in such a way that it ends up as a tiny, sharply focused image on the retina.

Light signals are converted to nervous system signals by cells in the retina called photoreceptors, which come in 2 varieties: 

  1. rods.  Rods function in dim light but are not sensitive to color.
  2. cones.  Cones function best in bright light but are sensitive to color.

These photoreceptors have pigments embedded in membranes within them.

Vision signals travel from photoreceptors through two sets of adjoining cells (the latter of which have axons that come together to form the body’s optic nerves).

When light strikes a pigment, it changes the pigment shape in a way that prompts a cascade of chemical reactions that result in neurotransmitter release being inhibited between the rod or cone and its adjoining connecting cell. The lack of release sends the signal: ‘photoreceptor stimulated here’.

The brain doesn’t passively record visual information; it constructs images as much as it records them.

The visual perception operates through a series of genetically based 'rules’ that allow us to quickly make sense of what we perceive.

  • central nervous system 中枢神経系 ちゅうすうしんけいけい
  • peripheral nervous system 末梢神経系 まっしょうしんけいけい
  • stroke 発作 ほっさ
  • Broca’s area ブローカ野 ぶろーかや
  • Broca’s aphasia ブローカ失語症 ぶろーかしつごしょう
  • brain のう
  • spinal cord 脊髄 せきずい
  • meninges 髄膜 ずいまく
  • cerebrospinal fluid 脳脊髄液 のうせきずいえき
  • neural tube 神経管 しんけいかん
  • prosencephalon or forebrain 前脳  ぜんのう
  • mesencephalon or midbrain 中脳 ちゅうのう
  • rhombencephalon or hindbrain 菱脳 りょうのう
  • telencephalon 終脳 しゅうのう
  • diencephalon or interbrain 間脳 かんのう
  • metencephalon 後脳 こうのう
  • myelencephalon 髄脳 ずいのう
  • brain stem 脳幹 のうかん
  • cerebellum 小脳 しょうのう
  • cerebral hemispheres 大脳半球 だいのうはんきゅう
  • cerebrum 大脳 だいのう
  • pons 脳橋 のうきょう or  きょう
  • medulla oblongata 延髄 えんずい
  • thalamus 視床 ししょう
  • epithalamus 視床上部 ししょうじょうぶ
  • hypothalamus 視床下部 ししょうかぶ
  • mammillary body 乳頭体  にゅうとうたい
  • limbic system 大脳辺縁系 だいのうへんえんけい or 辺縁系 へんえんけい
  • reptilian brain 爬虫類脳 はちゅうるいのう
  • cerebral cortex 大脳皮質 だいのうひしつ
  • gyrus  かい
  • sulcus 脳溝 のうこう or  みぞ
  • corpus callosum 脳梁 のうりょう
  • lobe よう
  • frontal lobe 前頭葉 ぜんとうよう
  • occipital lobe 後頭葉 こうとうよう
  • parietal lobe 頭頂葉 とうちょうよう
  • temporal lobe 側頭葉 そくとうよう
  • Wernicke’s area ウェルニッケ野 うぇるにっけや
  • hippocampus 海馬 かいば
  • amygdala 扁桃体 へんとうたい
Zodiac ruling body parts
  • <p> <b></b> ♈Aries♈ Rules the head, brain, skull, face, lower jaw, eyes, and ears<p/><b></b> ♉Taurus♉ Rules the throat, neck, trachea, vocal chords, and thyroid gland<p/><b></b> ♊Gemini♊ Rules the hands, fingers, shoulders, arms, collarbones, nerve fibers, and respiratory system<p/><b></b> ♋Cancer♋ Rules the chest, breasts, digestive system, elbows, blood serum, and liver<p/><b></b> ♌Leo♌ Rules the back, spinal chord, pulmonary artery, liver metabolism, anterior and superior Vena cava<p/><b></b> ♍Virgo♍ Rules the abdomen, ribs, portal veins, hands, carpal bones, and the respiratory system.<p/><b></b> ♎Libra♎ Rules the lower back, kidneys, the skin, and vasomoter system<p/><b></b> ♏Scorpio♏ Rules the reprodutove organs, genitals, ovaries, lower stomach, nasal bones, and thyroid glands<p/><b></b> ♐Sagittarius♐ Rules the hips, upper thighs, iliac arteries, pelvic bone, and motor nerves<p/><b></b> ♑Capricorn♑ Rules the knees, joints, teeth, hair, peripheral nervous system, and the abdomen<p/><b></b> ♒Aquarius♒ Rules the ankles, calf's, tibia, the veins, respiratory system, and skin<p/><b></b> ♓Pisces♓ Rules the feet, lymphatic system, nasal bones, and the synovical glands<p/></p>


The peripheral and central nervous systems are functionally
integrated regarding the consequences of a nerve injury: a
peripheral nerve lesion always results in profound and long lasting
central modifications and reorganization. (Kaas, 1991)
Does there need to be a lesion though ? A functional lesion will force changes just like an ablative lesion. Altered gait that persists from a sprained ankle or a painful knee will force central modifications and reorganization. This is why resolution of pain and aberrant function is critical. If you rehab to 80% you leave 20% on the table and that gets rewired into the system as the new norm. Remember, the entire system is watching, learning, adapting and rewiring all the time. This is why you must have a team in place to resolve all, if possible, of your client’s deficits. If you leave 20% of a problem on the table, and add endurance and strength to the “80%resolved:20%remaining”, you reorganize the central nervous system with that as the assumed norm moving forward. From this point forward, this is the architecture that all new patterns and forms are built from.  This sets up for long term rewiring of all of the connected parts, from motor, sensory, visual, gait, proprioceptive, vestibular and the list goes on and on. If you have ever wondered how a client can have so many areas of pain and dysfunction you might want to go back into their history and ask them if there was a single injury or event that occurred after which all their new problems started to stack up. 

If you are a gait analysis junkie, remember this principle above. All of the things you see in a person’s gait are not unconnected in many cases.  Much of what you see is a compensation around their problems, not the actual problem. 

Remember this principle: the peripheral nervous system attempts to repair by regrowth, the central nervous system attempts to repair by re-routing and reorganizing.

Dr. Shawn Allen