periodic table of astronomy

10

The Scientific Story Of How Each Element Was Made

“Neutron star mergers create the greatest heavy element abundances of all, including gold, mercury, and platinum. Meanwhile, cosmic rays blast nuclei apart, creating the Universe’s lithium, beryllium, and boron. Finally, the heaviest, unstable elements are made in terrestrial laboratories. The result is the rich, diverse Universe we inhabit today.”

When the Big Bang first occurred, the Universe was filled with all the various particles and antiparticles making up the Standard Model, and perhaps still others yet to be discovered. But missing from the list were protons, neutrons, or any of the atomic nuclei key to the life-giving elements in our Universe today. Yet the Universe expanded, cooled, antimatter annihilated away, and the first elements began to take shape. After billions of years of cosmic evolution, we arrived at a Universe recognizable today: full of stars, planets, and the full complement of elements populating the periodic table. More than 100 elements are known today, 91 of which are found to occur naturally on Earth. Some were formed in the Big Bang, others were formed in stars, still others were formed in violent cosmic cataclysms or collisions. Yet every one has an origin whose story is now known, giving rise to all we interact with today.

Come get the full story behind how all the elements were made in some fantastic pictures, visuals, and no more than 200 words on this edition of Mostly Mute Monday!

All-Encompassing School Resources Masterpost

Science

  • Astronomy

  • Learn About Stars

  • Interactive Galaxy

  • Psychology

  • Minute Physics

  • Periodic Table Song

  • Interactive Periodic Table

  • Chemical Equation Balancer

  • Cool Science

  • Hard Science Words

  • Learn Science Easily

  • Science Translated to English

Math

  • Online ruler

  • Mathematical Formulas

  • Math problem solvers [More 1] [More 2] [More 3]

  • Math Training

  • Video Math Tutor

  • Multiply Big Numbers

  • Calculator [Square Roots] [Cube Roots]

  • Microecon and Macroecon

History

  • Greek Gods Family Tree

  • Roman Empire

Writing [School Resources Masterpost] [Grand Writing Masterpost]

Geography [More 1]

Learn a Language [More 1] [101] [BBC] [Anki] [FSI] [DW] [Ukger] [Lingq] [Busuu] [Babbel] [Korean] [FluentU] [Memrise] [Textfugu] [Lingualia] [OmniGlot] [Duolingo][Translator][Enochian] [Babadum] [OpenCulture] [Radiolingua] [Conjugator] [Livemocha] [Languagetool] [MyLanguages] [AmericanDialect] [LearnALanguage] [SurfaceLanguages]

Computers and Programming

  • Codecademy

  • Programmr

  • GA Dash

  • CodeHS

  • w3schools

  • Code Avengers

  • Codelearn

  • The Code Player

  • Code School

  • Code.org

  • ProgrammingMother

  • Bento

  • Bucky’s room

  • WiBit

  • Learn Code the Hard Way

  • Mozilla Developer Network

  • Microsoft Virtual Academy

Photography and Film

  • Exposure Guide

  • The Bastards Book of Photography

  • Cambridge in Color

  • Best Photo Lessons

  • Photography Course

  • Production Now

  • nyvs

  • Learn About Film

  • Film School Online

Homework Help

  • CrashCourse

  • Khan Academy

  • SparkNotes

  • Cliffnotes

  • Sparknotes

  • World Factbook

  • Mahalo

  • Luminosity

  • YouTube Edu

  • Whiteboard

  • Homework Help [More 1] [More 2] [More 3]

  • Educational Websites [More 1]

  • Things to Remember [More 1] [More 2]

  • Finish That Assignment [More 1]

  • Tumblr and High Grades

  • No Homework Excuses

  • How Stuff Works

  • Final Grade Calculator

Free Online Courses [Alison] [Coursera] [FutureLearn] [Open2study] [edX] [P2PU] [Reddit] [Saylor] [AcademicEarth] [iversity] [Stanford] [MIT] [Yale] [BBC] [OpenLearn] [CarnegieMellon]

Self Control [chrome] [firefox] [mac] [self control] [Pomodoro] [ColdTurkey] [FocalFilter] [Freedom] [InternetOff] [Keepmeout] [Nanny] [ProductivityOwl] [RescueTime] [SelfControl] [SelfRestraint] [SimpleBlocker] [StayFocused] [StrictWorkflow] [TimeDoctor] [WasteNoTime] [WebsiteBlocker] [MarinaTimer]

Effective Time Management

  • Sleep Calculator

  • Falling Asleep Tips

  • How to Wake Up in the Morning [More 1]

  • How Long to Nap [More 1]

  • Time Management [App]

  • Pull an All-Nighter [More 1]

Anxiety and Disorders

  • Anxiety & Panic [More 1] [More 2] [More 3] [More 4] [More 5][More 6] [More 7] [App]

  • Depression [More 1] [Bipolar Disorder]

  • Suicide Hotlines [More 1] [More 2] [More 3] [More 4] [More 5][More 6] [More 7]

  • Talking to Someone with Depression [More 1]

  • Alternatives to Cutting [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

  • Recovery Resources [Emotional Trauma] [Self injury] [Depression] [More 1]

  • How to Deal with Mental Illness [More 1] [More 2] [More 3]

  • Upset? [More 1] [More 2] [More 3] [More 4] [More 5] [More 6] [More 7]

  • Cheap Stress Help [More Help]

Coping Skills & Distractions

  • Venting [More 1] [More 2] [More 3] [More 4] [More 5]

  • Reading Body Language

  • Know What Your Emotion is

  • Guided Relaxation[More 1] [More 2] [More 3] [More 4] [More 5]

  • Breathing Exercises [More 1]

Calm Happy Things

  • Compliments [More 1] [More 2] [More 3]

  • Confidence [More 1] [More 2] [More 3] [More 4] [More 5]

  • When You Are Sad [More 1] [More 2] [More 3] [More 4] [More 5]

  • Yoga [More 1] [More 2] [More 3] [More 4] [More 5]

  • Trekkie Care Package

  • Reasons to Live [More 1]

  • Make a Comfort Box

  • Calm [More 1] [More 2] [More 3]

  • Help Others [More 1]

  • Happy Nice Things [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]

  • Cute Animals [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

White Noise

  • Fireplace [More 1]

  • Coffee Shop [More 1] [More 2]

  • Rainy Mood [More 1] [More 2]

  • Ambient Sounds [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

Find Music

  • Music Theory

  • Listen to Music [More 1]

  • 100 Years of Rock

  • Download from 8tracks

  • Convert Youtube Videos to mp3

  • Find mp3 files for any song

  • Explore Music and Artists Similar to What You Like

  • Find a Song by it’s Tune

  • Find Facts about Songs

Make Music

  • Music Matrix

  • Make Some Music

  • Make an Acapella Band

  • Voice Recorder

  • Old Sounds Archive

  • Make Music on itunes Sound Great

  • Create iphone Ringtones From Your itunes

  • Music Theory Classes [More 1] [More 2] [More 3] [More 4] [More 5]

  • Make Music with Balloons

  • Learn to Play the Guitar [More 1] [More 2] [Bass]

  • Play Piano [More 1] [More 2]

Playlists [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

Calming Playlists [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

Study Playlists [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31] [32][33][34][35][36][37] [38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50] [51][52][53][53][54][55] [56][57][58][59]

Artist Playlists [Avatar] [Broadway] [Album Covers] [Daft Punk] [Nirvana] [Panic! at the Disco] [Ed Sheeran] [Amy Winehouse][Paramore] [blink-182] [All Time Low] [Katy Perry] [Punk goes …] [Fall out boy] [Sleeping with Sirens] [Imagine Dragons] [Darren Criss][Greenday] [Ke$ha] [Vitamin String Quartet]

Study Help

  • Get Motivated [More 1]

  • Tips For a Productive Study Break

  • Study Masterpost [More 1] [More 2] [More 3] [More 4]

  • Study Skills [More 1] [More 2] [More 3] [More 4]

  • Remember More [More 1] [Focus] [More 1]

  • Let’s Study Like College Kids

  • Memorizing and Testing

  • Exam survival [More 1] [More 2] [More 3] [More 4] [More 5] [More 6] [More 7] [More 8]

  • Keep Your Energy Up Without Caffeine

  • Public Speaking

  • Multiple Choice Test Strategies

Studying Tips and Tricks

  • Studying in a blue room relaxes your mood and makes you more productive, which is great for finishing up assignments and homework.

  • Spray an unfamiliar scent, and chew an unfamiliar flavor of gum while you’re having a study session.

  • Before you start your exam, write down the things you think you might need while they’re still fresh in your head at the top of the page such as formulas and vocabulary words.

  • ‘Times New Roman’ is the easiest and fastest font to read.

  • When writing an essay, add the opposing point of view to make the read look at both sides.

  • When you’re taking notes, pretend you’re writing them for some else, preferably someone you care about, and imagine them not knowing anything when it comes to the class you’re writing notes in.

  • Using colors when writing your notes helps you remember faster, avoid using only one color as it might dull out important information.

  • Change your font from 12pt to 14pt when writing essays, it looks the same but increases the number of pages by 1-2.

  • Cinnamon flavored gum helps you stay awake, use it for your morning classes.

  • Speaking something out loud helps your remember, so always read your notes aloud when you’re studying.

  • Reading the first and last paragraphs and only running over the middle has the same outcome as reading all of it.

  • Chocolate has the ability to improve your math skills.

  • Always have an alternative email, you never know when it might come in handy.

  • Cold showers over coffee anyway. It keeps you fresh the entire day, and also helps you stay focused and less tired throughout the day.

  • Reward yourself with 15-20 minutes of free time with every 45 minutes of studying.

  • If you’re pulling an all nighter, sleeping the 20 minutes before the sun comes up helps your body relax and you’ll be less tired.

  • Replace the color tube of your red pen with the blue one. No one steals a red pen, and no one wants it.

  • Always say yes to extra credit, no matter what your grade is. It can make a huge different seeing as it has the ability to change one percent which can change an entire grade letter.

  • ALWAYS DATE YOUR NOTES // ASSIGNMENTS.

  • Writing something down is an equivalent of saying something 7 times.

  • No matter how much time you have left, do it earlier. You’ll be glad you did.

  • Be friends with your teachers, you never know what can happen during the school year.

    Have a study group, you’ll have friends to explain things to you and vice versa, also you can share notes and finish up homework without feeling like time is passing by slow.

  • Do not pay for your textbooks if you don’t have to. Even if you aren’t down with illegally downloading your books, you can waste hundreds of dollars on textbooks you will never open. Wait until your professor says that you’ll need it or if material from the book will be on an exam.

  • Try and have one friend in each class so if you miss a class, you have someone to tell you what you missed and let you copy notes.

  • If you’re in a productive mood, take advantage of it.

  • You are more important than anything in the world. Don’t ever put yourself in a bad situation for any reason ever, even if that means taking a day off for yourself

  • If there is anyone in your life who doesn’t think of you as highly as kayne thinks of himself then that person doesn’t deserve to be in your life you don’t need them

  • Try your best. not everyone can get all As, and getting all As does not make you better than everyone else. just do the best you can and be the best person you can be.

  • Don’t tick off your teacher, follow the rules to an extent, get to class on time, respect your classmates and teachers. you know, just be a decent person.

  • Find which clubs look interesting and go to their first meetings- there’s never an obligation to join, but you might meet a lot of new friends.

  • Get advice from other students on if your classes/teachers are difficult and figure out which ones you’ll need to work the hardest in.

  • Goals. When you sit down to study, write down everything you’re going to do and do it.

  • Tea and coffee - if not for the caffeine, then for the feeling of cozying up with your text books and feeling studious.

  • A place to study. it doesn’t matter if it’s in a coffee house, a library, or your kitchen table. as long as your bed’s not in sight and tempting you into a nap, you’re good.

  • Your mental health is more important than your grades/school work

10

What Is The Universe’s Third Most Common Element?

“But there’s one killer move that stars have that makes carbon a loser in the cosmic equation: when a star is massive enough to initiate carbon fusion – a requirement for generating a type II supernova – the process that turns carbon into oxygen goes almost to full completion, creating significantly more oxygen than carbon by time the star is ready to explode.”

When the Universe was first born, all we had was hydrogen and helium, with a trace amount of lithium and absolutely nothing else. 13.8 billion years later, hydrogen is still #1 in the Universe and helium is still #2, but lithium isn’t close to #3 anymore: more than two dozen elements have passed it. The key? Stars! Over billions of years, nuclear fusion in the cores of stars have built up all the naturally occurring elements we know of in the periodic table. You might think that since three heliums can fuse together to make carbon, that would be the third most common element in the Universe. And it’s close: carbon comes in at #4. But another element has it beat.

So who’s number 3, and how did it get to be that way? It’s oxygen! Find out why today.