peptic ulcer disease

Some Interesting Facts About Personality

We each have our own personality – that unique part of us that makes us who we are. It affects every aspect of our lives - from who we date, to what we study, to what we like to do. So what do we know about personality?

1. Birth order can affect our personality: We discussed this a bit in a previous post. There are traits we associate with being a first born (being bossy, motivated, high achievers or more driven); with being a middle born (being friendly, people pleasers, and quite skilled negotiators); and being a last-born (being amusing, more laid back, and also less responsible). Empirical research supports these norms and trends.

2. There are Five Core Personality Traits: These are measures of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness.

3. Personality remains stable through life: The research findings are less conclusive here. It may be that some core traits are less susceptible to change. However, traits which seem less fixed and less stable over time include anxiety levels, friendliness and eagerness for novel experiences.

4. Certain personalities are more prone to disease: There appears to be a link between one of the “big 5 traits” (neuroticism) and proneness to developing headaches, asthma, arthritis, peptic ulcers and heart disease. There is also a link between having a Type A personality (and, in particular, scoring high on the hostility levels) and developing cancer and heart disease.

5. Our personality affects our personal preferences: The impact here is surprisingly far reaching. It includes: our choice of friends and partner, our taste in music, our political preferences, our career choices, our preferred holiday destinations and so on.

6. People can tell your personality from your facebook profile: Interestingly, although you might expect people to project an ideal online identity, research indicates that facebook profiles actually tend to convey our real personality. Sam Gosling, a key psychologist and author, has explained this in the following way: “I think that being able to express personality accurately contributes to the popularity of online social networks in two ways …First, it allows profile owners to let others know who they are and, in doing so, satisfies a basic need to be known by others. Second, it means that profile viewers feel they can trust the information they glean from online social network profiles, building their confidence in the system as a whole.”

7. There are a number of factors that contribute to personality disorders: An estimated 10 to 15% of adults are diagnosed with at least one personality disorder in their lifetime. Factors contributing to the onset of these include: Genetics, relationships with family and peers, inheriting high levels of sensitivity, childhood abuse and experiencing a trauma.

8. Your pet may reveal your personality: Many people consider themselves to be either a “dog person” or a “cat person”? Research into pet preference and personality indicates that dog lovers tend to be more extroverted and greater people pleasers, whereas cat lovers tend to be more introverted and curious.

The Ylvis Guide to Nursing

When I have trouble concentraiting on my studies, I try to find fun ways to make myself do it. And, well, who’s more fun than Ylvis?! It’s surprising how many songs I can apply to nursing principles, so I created the Ylvis Guide to Nursing.

Happy procrastinating learning!


1. How do you palpate the fundus of the uterus in a woman about 12-24 hours post-partum, in order to assess/prevent hemorrhage?


2. How do you assess erythema and jaundice in a dark-skinned person?


3. How do you check for the Babinski reflex in a baby’s foot?


4. Someone comes in with a sprained ankle.  Interventions include rest, compression, elevation and:


5. How can you be sure to catch the auscultatory gap with your sphygmomanometer when you’re taking someone’s blood pressure?


6. What’s the proper breast massage method to teach a new mother learning how to breastfeed?


7. We cannot stress this enough. Infection protection and control. Hand hygiene. When in patient contact, to protect yourself and your patient, always ask yourself this question:

Hey, if you can’t put your distractions down long enough to study, they might as well help you learn. Updating as I think of more.

Thanks, Brovis.

(UPDATE 27 OCT 2014): The Ylvis brothers continue to help me learn:


8: A patient with septicemia may present with nausea, vomiting, and the following symptoms:


9: The above patient may also present with a change in level of consciousness, cognitive or mental status, appearing:


10:  A diagnosis of either stress urinary incontinence or overflow incontinence may be accurate if a patient reports:


11: For patients with immobility, at risk for pressure ulcers and contracture, recommendations include frequent repositioning and exercises such as:


(UPDATE: 16 June 2015) - Here I am, one exam to go before my first year of nursing is done. My brain is mush, so here we go again. I actually do learn when I’m doing this.


12. Urinary tract infections or acute pyelonephritis are most commonly caused by which pathogen?


13. Antibiotics are ineffective against viral infections, and should not be misused and prescribed for infections such as:


14: Fluoroquinolones and macrolides are two classes of antibiotics often prescribed for respiratory tract infections, such as:


15: A nasogastric tube should never be used on a trauma patient who has had a fracture:


16: Anaphylactic shock is characterized by a widespread hypersensitivity reaction, causing vasodilation and smooth muscle relaxation. Within minutes:


17. While most forms of shock require fluid resuscitation, cardiogenic shock is an exception, as fluid will increase the blood volume and the heart’s load, making things:


18: A person who has gastroesophageal reflux disease or peptic ulcer disease should avoid gastrointestinal irritants, including spicy food such as:

I could have really gone on forever with Yoghurt. It’s a medical goldmine. Also, so sad there’s no captioning on Ytterst på Tissen - I had some great catheterization ones!

Some Fascinating Facts on Personality

We each have our own personality – that unique part of us that makes us who we are. It affects every aspect of our lives - from who we date, to what we study, to what we like to do. So what do we know about personality?
1. Birth order can affect our personality: We discussed this a bit in a previous post. There are traits we associate with being a first born (being bossy, motivated, high achievers or more driven); with being a middle born (being friendly, people pleasers, and quite skilled negotiators); and being a last-born (being amusing, more laid back, and also less responsible). Empirical research supports these norms and trends.
2. There are Five Core Personality Traits: These are measures of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness.
3. Personality remains stable through life: The research findings are less conclusive here. It may be that some core traits are less susceptible to change. However, traits which seem less fixed and less stable over time include anxiety levels, friendliness and eagerness for novel experiences.
4. Certain personalities are more prone to disease: There appears to be a link between one of the “big 5 traits” (neuroticism) and proneness to developing headaches, asthma, arthritis, peptic ulcers and heart disease. There is also a link between having a Type A personality (and, in particular, scoring high on the hostility levels) and developing cancer and heart disease.
5. Our personality affects our personal preferences: The impact here is surprisingly far reaching. It includes: our choice of friends and partner, our taste in music, our political preferences, our career choices, our preferred holiday destinations and so on.
6. People can tell your personality from your facebook profile: Interestingly, although you might expect people to project an ideal online identity, research indicates that facebook profiles actually tend to convey our real personality. Sam Gosling, a key psychologist and author, has explained this in the following way: “I think that being able to express personality accurately contributes to the popularity of online social networks in two ways …First, it allows profile owners to let others know who they are and, in doing so, satisfies a basic need to be known by others. Second, it means that profile viewers feel they can trust the information they glean from online social network profiles, building their confidence in the system as a whole.”
7. There are a number of factors that contribute to personality disorders: An estimated 10 to 15% of adults are diagnosed with at least one personality disorder in their lifetime. Factors contributing to the onset of these include: Genetics, relationships with family and peers, inheriting high levels of sensitivity, childhood abuse and experiencing a trauma.
8. Your pet may reveal your personality: Many people consider themselves to be either a “dog person” or a “cat person”? Research into pet preference and personality indicates that dog lovers tend to be more extroverted and greater people pleasers, whereas cat lovers tend to be more introverted and curious.

What is Peptic Ulcer Disease?

External image

Peptic ulcers are sores or eroded areas that form in the lining of the digestive (gastrointestinal) tract. They usually occur in the stomach (gastric ulcer) or in the duodenum (duodenal ulcer), which is the upper region of the small intestine. The two primary causes of peptic ulcers are infection with specific bacteria (Helicobacter pylori) and use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications.

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of suspected peptic ulcer disease. It is highly sensitive and allows for direct visualization, with the potential for biopsy and cytologic brushing of suspected lesions. The endoscopy image shown is from a 35-year-old woman who presented with tarry stools and a hemoglobin level of 75 g/L.

Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria. It is s-shaped/spiral, has flagella, and resides in the antrum of the stomach between the mucous and epithelial cells. It migrates proximally over time. 

Pathology      

  • Secretes urease
  • Urease and other factors compromise integrity of gastric/duodenal mucosa
    • Gastritis, ulcer formation
  • Incidence of infection increases with age
  • Related pathology
    • Chronic active gastritis
    • Majority of PUD cases
    • Can lead to B12 malabsorption and anemia
    • MALT lymphoma and gastric CA
  • Documentation
    • Urea breath test – test of choice
      • Must be off PPO 7-14 days and ABX 28 day before test
    • Fecal H. pylori antigen test
    • Rapid urease testing
    • Bacterial culture
    • Serology

It’s ‪Microbiome Monday‬! In the mid-1980s, internist Barry J. Marshall tested, and proved, his theory that ulcers could be cured with antibiotics by infecting himself with the corkscrew-shaped bacterium Helicobacter pylori. This not only earned him the nickname “guinea pig doctor” but also the Nobel Prize, which he shared in 2005 with pathologist J. Robin Warren for their discovery that H. pylori caused gastritis (irritation or inflammation of the stomach lining) and peptic ulcers, diseases that were long thought to be caused by excess acid resulting from stress. 

Their work led to the near-eradication of stomach ulcers in developed countries through treatment with antibiotics, as well as to a drop in stomach cancers, for which gastritis is a risk factor. But as welcome as these cures are, researchers now think H. pylori isn’t just a pathogen. Studies strongly suggest that it is essential to the prevention of asthma, allergies, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and esophageal cancer.

Read the full story on the Museum blog