people persons paper people

When I say that I can’t stand people who don’t vote I mean the people who are able to vote but simply refuse to. The able bodied and able minded folks who stubbornly said, “it doesn’t matter,” or “it could be worse so I don’t care.” You are the people who are inherently selfish, only looking for what doesn’t screw you over and leaving millions of people to struggle and hurt and die.

Sometimes guilt is good to feel. Let it sink in that you did matter; enough to affect millions of people and drag them all down. And then go do something to help the people you ignored.

Dealing with school and stress

We’ve all had times where school has gotten really overwhelming. These are just a few things that I do to help deal with my stress and to calm myself down.

1. Listen to calming music. This always helps me concentrate, and calms me when I’m studying for an exam or doing homework. here are some of my favorites:

  • Atlas Hands - Benjamin Francis Leftwich
  • Landfill - Daughter 
  • Skinny love - Bon iver 
  • To Build a Home - The Cinematic Orchestra 
  • Bloom - The paper kites


2. Take breaks. Step back from what your doing and go take a long shower or read a few chapters of a book. It always helps to take a break from whatever is stressing you out and give yourself some to take a breath and calm down.

3. Get organized. Being unorganized just stresses me out beyond belief. Make a to do list and plan out what you need to do that day, organize your school work into folders or in binders so that you know where everything is. Set up a system and follow it.

4. Drink some tea. Tea also helps to calm me down. There are so many types of tea I love to drink but green tea especially does the trick, its super healthy and delicious!

5. Look after your self. Getting a good amount of sleep and a good diet helps a lot is really important. Make yourself a huge breakfast, eat some fruit, work out or go to bed and hour or two earlier. 

-Paris

Papercraft wedding gift for my cousin and her new husband! They were married last weekend. Congratulations! <3

today i learned that if you’re the Official Intern you can take anything and people will just hand you things, especially at government meetings where everyone is networking

and i used my powers to take a handout of maps

Hey guys, I wrote my final research paper for Psychology on the authenticity of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

I’m not like, scholarly or some shit - but take a gander if you like, show your friends when they’re all - “you don’t exist”. 

^_^ 

(uh…I don’t know where else to put it….so i’m just gonna copy paste………so scholarly.) 

 

 

Dissociative Identity Disorder:
Fantasy or a Unique Reality?
Brittany Hersman
John Tyler Community College

Abstract

Dissociative Identity Disorder is a Dissociative Disorder diagnosable under the DSM-5 that has received severe skepticism. Those who subscribe to a belief that DID is a manufactured condition state that the disorder is iatrogenic in nature – having a causation of fantasy proneness, therapist suggestion, client suggestibility, etc. This paper will define Dissocative Identity Disorder and present various examples and findings refuting numerous criticisms, and thereby suggesting the authenticity of the phenomenon.  

Dissociative Identity Disorder:

Fantasy or an Authentic Reality?

Dissociative Identity Disorder, formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder, is of the rarest and most misunderstood psychiatric disorders. Its existence dates back to the early 19th century, when French psychiatrist Janet (1889) introduced the idea of multiple personalities to the medical community (Stickley, T.,& Nickeas, R, 2006). To date, it has received perhaps the most skepticism and criticism of any diagnosis. The DSM-5 lists Dissociative Identity Disorder under the category of Dissociative Disorders. It is defined as “a disruption of and/or discontinuity in the normal, subjective integration of one or more aspects of psychological functioning, including—but not limited to—memory, identity, consciousness, perception, and motor control” (Spiegel, D., Loewenstein, R., Lewis-Fernández, R., Sar,V., Simeon, D., Vermetten, E., Dell, P, 2011). Patients diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) have developed two or more personalities, “each with its own way of being; its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to and thinking about the environment and self” (Spiegel, D., Loewenstein, R., Lewis-Fernández, R., Sar,V., Simeon, D., Vermetten, E., Dell, P, 2011). These personalities are often referred to as “alters".

Perhaps the largest criticism of DID is that its diagnoses are due to “fantasy proneness, suggestibility, suggestion, and role-playing” (Reinders, Willemsen, Vos, Boer, & Nijenhuis, 2012). The disorder has been linked strongly to false memory syndrome, dating all the way back to the psychiatrist Janet (1889) who was suspected of projecting ideas of abuse onto her patients (Stickley, T.,& Nickeas, R, 2006). While many remain skeptical of the existence and legitimacy of DID, it is vital that we broaden our understanding of this fascinating phenomenon – as research suggests it is in fact authentic, and a thorough understanding is key to helping those who currently suffer from its effects.

Daily Life with Dissociative Identity Disorder

            There are many things we take for granted, but to an individual diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder, one of those things may be as simple as remembering where we were last night. While the disorder is not as glorified or even obvious as Hollywood may present with movies like “Sybil” (Stickley, T.,& Nickeas, R, 2006) and television series like “United States of Tara”, it can be a terrifying experience. In the article “Becoming One Person: Living with Dissociative Identity Disorder” a nurse and an individual living with alters for most of her life come together in order to shatter some of the common misconceptions of the disorder (Stickley, T.,& Nickeas, R, 2006). The patient, Rachel, was the daughter of a bipolar schizophrenic father and a mother who was eventually admitted to a psychiatric hospital in 1964 (Stickley, T.,& Nickeas, R, 2006). She endured significant verbal, physical, and sexual abuse from both parents – as well as friends of parents (Stickley, T.,& Nickeas, R, 2006). Unknowingly, Rachel began using dissociative methods in order to cope with her abuse – eventually developing Dissociative Identity Disorder. “In order to cope with such persistent abuse, Rachel began to ‘sit beside herself’ so that it didn’t seem to be happening to her. She found a way of watching what happened rather than endure it herself.” (Stickley, T.,& Nickeas, R, 2006).

            Rachel experienced textbook DID symptoms through adolescence and into adulthood, and went on to live most of her life with no diagnosis or psychotherapeutic interference (Stickley, T.,& Nickeas, R, 2006). With this evidence, it is hard to understand a firm belief in DID existing as an iatrogenic disorder (Stickley, T.,& Nickeas, R, 2006).

The Evolution of Alters

Michael Pica of Central Michigan University further explains the development of the DID patient’s personality states in his article titled “The Evolution of Alter Personality States in Dissociative Identity Disorder”.  While many skeptics question why one child may develop Dissociative Identity Disorder following trauma and another may not, writers have begun to describe a prime window for DID development (Pica, M., & Silverman, 1999). “Manner (1991) suggested ‘the window between 18 months and 4 to 5 years of age represents the period of greatest vulnerability for the development of DID’ (p. 685). He attributed this to the tendency to use splitting defenses during this time in development and the still cloudy distinction between self and object” (Pica, M., & Silverman, 1999). There may however be something to the idea that DID relies on a proneness to fantasy – but not in the way criticism implies. Pica (1999) notes, “at about the same time the child begins using dissociation to escape immediate threats in the lived-world, he or she stumbles across another means by which to protect the self from owning the horrendous experiences of traumatic abuse, namely, the ability to form imaginary companions.” According to Wickes (1966) and Nagera (1969), (as cited in Pica, M., & Silverman, 1999), imaginary companions are used by children as a means to fulfill psychological needs. Research done by Lynn, Rhue, and Green (1988) discovered some 4% of the population who are highly hypnotizable, hallucinate vividly, and have trouble distinguishing between fantasy and reality. These children may be more fantasy prone than others, enabling them to use their companions in unique ways (Pica, M., & Silverman, 1999). Pica explains that this equation of the fantasy prone 4% and trauma occurring during the window of Dissociative Identity Disorder development could explain the fraction of children that do develop DID, citing the Three Stage Theory of development (Pica, M., & Silverman, 1999 p.410).           

Inducing psychobiological symptoms of Dissociative Identity Disorder. In the Psychobiological Study of Authentic and Simulated Dissociative Identity States conducted by A. A. T. Simone Reinders, Antoon T. M. Willemsen, Herry P. J. Vos, Johan A. den Boer, and Ellert R. S. Nijenhuis (2012), 11 diagnosed DID patients were studied alongside a selection of 10 healthy high fantasy prone and 8 healthy low fantasy prone individuals. A priori hypothesis was that DID patients would have a difference in psychophysiological and neurobiological behavior while engaged in a neutral identity state and in a trauma identity state (Reinders, Willemsen, Vos, Boer, & Nijenhuis, 2012). High fantasy prone and low fantasy prone controls were then asked to simulate the neutral identity states as well as the trauma identity sates. “Brain imaging data, autonomic (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, discrete heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV)) and subjective (controls’ subjective sensorimotor and emotional experiences)” (Reinders, Willemsen, Vos, Boer, & Nijenhuis, 2012).

Not only did findings continue to support the hypothesis that those patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder would have differing psychophysiological and neurobiological patterns between neutral identity states and trauma identity states, but the identity states were not “convincingly enacted by DID simulating controls” (Reinders, Willemsen, Vos, Boer, & Nijenhuis, 2012). Furthermore, the study actually found that those controls who were low fantasy prone did a better job simulating the personality states than those of which were high fantasy prone (Reinders, Willemsen, Vos, Boer, & Nijenhuis, 2012, p.9). Based on these findings, Reinders, Willemsen, Vos, Boer, and Nijenhuis (2012) believe their study “provides an important contribution to the etiology discussion.”

The study gives strong evidence against the Sociocognitive Model of Dissociative Identity Disorder, not only by providing observable data against it, but also by unexpectedly dislodging its foothold in the high fantasy prone theory.       

The Quest Continues

            In order to understand the phenomenon that is Dissociative Identity Disorder, we must continue to research and attempt to understand the rare cases that present themselves. Although many question the validity of its existence, it is undeniable that DID is recognized by not only the DSM-5 – but by the multitude of patients diagnosed each year. It is imperative that we shake the mystical stigma that has been applied to this complex personality ailment, and give it the attention it deserves. 

References

Pica, M., & Silverman, Wade H. (1999). THE EVOLUTION OF ALTER PERSONALITY STATES IN DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 36(4), 404-415.

Simone Reinders, A., Willemsen, A., Vos, H., Den Boer, J., Nijenhuis, E., & Laks, J. (2012). Fact or Factitious? A Psychobiological Study of Authentic and Simulated Dissociative Identity States (Dissociative Identity Disorder:Fact or Factitious?). PLoS ONE, 7(6), E39279

Spiegel, D., Loewenstein, R., Lewis-Fernández, R., Sar, V., Simeon, D., Vermetten, E., … Dell, P. (2011). Dissociative disorders in DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28(9), 824-52.

Stickley, T., & Nickeas, R. (2006). Becoming one person: Living with dissociative identity disorder.Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 13(2), 180-187.

Just remember that sometimes, the way you think about a person isn’t the way they actually are.
—  John Green
3

actual slides from a presentation i gave to a class of 35 people today. this is what my life has become. i feel like this terrible fate somehow could have been avoided if my parents had supervised my internet use as a child.

Having friends that you can exchange useful biology notes with is such a relief

For those poor souls who were continuously searching for John’s cameo in Paper Towns and didn’t find it.

John yells “I HAVE A GUN!” at the end of the scene where Margo puts the fish in the wardrobe. He’s Becca’s dad audibly – so you can only hear him. It’s really quick and short and yeah, you wouldn’t be able to spot it that fast without notice