penny owens

The Callie Chronicles

Someone asked for a flipped version of the Arizona chronicles so here it is.


“Knock knock,” Owen whispered in Amelia’s ear as he slipped his arm over her body and groped her breast twice in unison with the words, “is anyone home?”
“At 7 in the morning?” Amelia queried sleepily yet amusedly, looking at the red numbers on the clock by his bedside table, “I suppose so.”
He grinned and moved around so that he was on top of her now, placing a peck on her lips, “Good morning.” He moved to her neck, giving it the attention that he knew she desired before moving to her chest.
“Morning sex?” she asked aloud, grinning at him, “What did I do to deserve this?”
“Nothing,” he hummed, returning to her lips. He parted his mouth and let his tongue slip into hers, meeting a slow moving, warm one on the other side. His left hand held her face by the back of her neck while his right hand glided along her side, down beneath the covers. She gasped into his mouth when she felt one of his fingers already inside of her and grasped onto the hair at the back of his neck as his tongue mimicked what his finger was doing.
“Well, Sofia and I are off,” Callie said, knocking and walking into the bedroom. She screamed panically when she saw the two and covered Sofia’s eyes, hoping she would never remember this day and not ask any questions about it later. Amelia pulled the cover up over her and Owen, seeing as Owen’s had was preoccupied before, and both looked back shockingly at Callie.
“You didn’t tell me Shepherd would be over,” Callie whined, “now my kid and I are scarred for life!”
“I did tell you, actually,” Owen muttered impatiently, looking down at the amused, icy blue eyes below him.
“Oh my god,” Callie murmured, feeling horridly embarrassed, “was the concert last night?”
Owen simply looked at Callie, not even bothering to say yes.
“Oh my god,” she cried, basically running out of the apartment, “I’m sorry, I’m sorry.” Both the doctors laughed when they heard the front door slam, their embarrassment from before dissipated.

“Up or Cars?” Owen asked the little girl next to him on the floor as they scrolled through a catalog of movies.
“Up, please,” Sofia answered politely, digging her hand into the large bowl of popcorn between her and Owen. He pressed play and then laid back on the floor, his back resting against the front of the couch as they watched the first few seconds of the movie pass by. A question had been pestering the little girl since this morning and, a few minutes into the movie, she finally worked up the courage to ask him.
“Owen,” Sofia said in a soft voice.
“Yeah?” he responded, not taking his eyes off the movie.
“Why were you giving kisses to Dr. Shepherd this morning?”
The question caused Owen to choke on a kernel and he had to drink half his glass of water before he could breathe again without coughing, “Um, because I’m her boyfriend?” He hoped that would answer her question but was slightly nervous when she began speaking again.
“Her boyfriend?” Sofia asked, furrowing her eyebrows in confusion, “but my mommy kisses girls and has a girlfriend so shouldn’t Dr. Shepherd kiss girls and have one too?”
“Well,” Owen began, not sure how to explain that Amelia wasn’t gay, “girls don’t have to kiss other girls. They can kiss boys too if they want.”
“Does that mean you can kiss boys too?” Sofia pursued further, just to clarify.
“Necessarily, yes,” Owen chuckled, “but I don’t think I like boys.”
“Oh,” Sofia said softly, “okay.” Owen breathed a sigh of relief when Sofia went back to focusing on the movie. A few minutes later, somewhere in the movie where the couple had grown old, Sofia asked Owen, “Do you want to grow old with Dr. Shepherd?”
“I do,” Owen answered simply as if it was the most normal thing he could’ve said. Then after a few seconds, he added, “But don’t tell her that I said that.”
“Because she doesn’t know that I want to grow old with her.”
“Why not?”
“I don’t want to scare her,” Owen admitted to the little girl.
“Why would you scare her?” Sofia asked, raising one of her eyebrows at Owen.
“Sometimes,” Owen sighed, grabbing a handful of popcorn from the bowl, “sometimes, too much love can scare people away.”
“Is that why my mommy doesn’t live with my other mommy anymore?”
The question caught him off guard and he’d never felt more like his heart was breaking than he did then, “Something like that, yeah.”
Sofia smiled up at him before resting her head against his shoulder, “I hope she doesn’t run away. Her waffles taste nice and she’s pretty.”
“Yeah,” Owen agreed, “she is.”

Owen awoke to the silent whimpers of someone he assumed was crying. Disoriented and confused, he looked over at Amelia in his arms, but she was soundly asleep. Thinking he’d probably just been hearing things, Owen rested his head against the pillow once more and pressed a light kiss against Amelia’s hair, which caused her to unconsciously move closer into Owen’s chest. Then he heard it again, this time behind him.
“Callie?” Owen asked when he turned and saw her. Her shoulders were shaking as she tried to muffle her cries.
“I-I’m sorry,” Callie apologised, “I didn’t want to be alone. I didn’t mean to wake-”
“No, it’s okay,” he assured her, “What happened?”
“Penny broke up with me tonight,” she muttered through ragged breaths. Owen, ever the gentleman, lifted the cover that he and Amelia were sharing so that Callie could slip under. She wrapped her arms around his torso and tears stained the back of his shirt for the rest of the night as he tried to soothe her and find out what happened. The next morning, Amelia awoke with her eyes still closed and flipped over to snuggle into Owen’s chest. She was about to hang her arm over his torso, but she weirdly felt another arm there that had taken her spot already. She opened her eyes wide and looked over Owen’s shoulder with knitted eyebrows.
“Owen,” Amelia said in a curious tone, stirring the red head awake, “Why is Callie in the bed spooning you?” Owen mumbled a few incoherent words before mindlessly placing a kiss in a random place on Amelia’s face and falling back asleep. Amelia laid her head back on her pillow, kept her hands to herself and stared awkwardly, too uncomfortable to fall back asleep and too lazy to come out of bed at such an early hour. She also didn’t want to leave Owen in bed alone with Callie, not fearful that he would cheat, despite feeling slightly unnerved and jealous that she was spooning him, but because she didn’t know what would be weirder, all three of them waking up together or just Callie and Owen waking up together.

Season 12 Summary

As season 13 started filming yesterday, I thought I’d do a very short summary (in simple, clear, alphabetical, bullet point form) of what the characters were dragged through over the past year.


  • Spent majority of season being Meredith’s tell-it-how-it-is brother.
  • Asked Jo to marry him, many many times.
  • Held a dead baby and made us all weep.
  • Only punched one person- the whole season.
  • Was mainly put to one side and deserved so much more screentime.


  • Knocked a wall down.
  • Became the mostly-naked member of Lady Chief Trifecta.
  • Broke her sobriety over Mer being a bitch and Owen being a dick.
  • Played with puppies.
  • Gave a lot of wisdom-ny advice to a lot of people.
  • Married Owen after a minor freakout over a slushy.


  • He was relevant for a bit.
  • Then he really wasn’t.
  • Couldn’t handle a woman’s P-O-W-E-R.
  • May start season 13 with a bruise or two.


  • Got stuck in a bubble.
  • Nasty, nasty divorce.
  • Preggo.
  • Pulled a lot of   g r e a t   facial expressions.
  • Was an excellent best man until she became an excellent mother instead.


  • Got drunk and hilariously awkward at a dinner party.
  • Got herself a wingman and scored, a lot.
  • Broke April’s trust and got a lot of hate for it.
  • Went through a traumatic custody battle and won.
  • Gave the win up to benefit her whole family. All-round hero.


  • Hot. Mess.
  • Just kept cutting into people in the middle of corridors…
  • But was forgiven cos he delivered a baby and saw April’s vagina.


  • Taught Maggie how to punch properly.
  • Penny this, Penny that.
  • Arizona wanted her to be happy.
  • Like most seasons, spent the majority of the time saying oneliners.
  • Raised one eyebrow a lot.
  • She left.


  • Tried to meddle. Everywhere, all the time. Bless her.


  • Sat on a rocking horse at dinner.
  • Followed Jo Wilson round like a puppy.


  • Managed to get through the divorce still looking pretty.
  • Gave dating advice to Meredith.
  • Became a DILF.


  • Spent majority of time being cryptic.
  • Got jealous of Stephanie at work.
  • Lived in Meredith’s shadow somewhere.
  • Owned a gun.
  • Actually married and called Regina George.


  • Can’t have sex with you.
  • Had sex with DeLuca instead.
  • Tried desperately hard to keep Lady Cheif Trifecta together.
  • Fell in love with bacon. Oh, and Nathan. But mainly bacon.


  • Was late for work a lot due to carpool.
  • Fought for a salary she actually deserved.
  • Started dating.
  • Took Owen’s side but actually ended up sleeping with Riggs.
  • Just about tollerated Amelia by the time she was her bridesmaid.
  • Got attacked and had her jaw wired shut.
  • Made us all cry over a blanket.


  • Became Chief of Lady Place.
  • Went back to bossing people around. Thank God.
  • Never let her silly husband’s wounded ego get to her.


  • Found out where the scrubs were.
  • Got punched a lot.
  • Bought Amelia a vodka tonic.
  • Riled Owen up without doing much.
  • Accidentally made 2/3rds of Lady Cheif Trifecta fall in love with him.


  • Was missed as chief.
  • Admitted he felt relieved.
  • Punched Nathan. Hard.
  • Became Prince Charming.
  • Realised everything does actually need to be talked about.
  • Got married.


  • Put her hand up.
  • Turned out to be a cracking surgeon.
  • Stole Callie from us.


  • As in all seasons, proved that he will always be the chief.
  • Tried to unmeddle everything Catherine meddled.
  • Found out his biological daugher was a wildcat.
  • Gave Meredith some good fatherly advice.


  • Struggled to deal with a patient in pain because of her childhood.
  • Got put in her place by her boss.
  • Fell in love with Guitar Hero… who’s now dead, obviously.

Willing to add suggestions!


So basically, Owen is shutting out Amelia (this is new), Amelia and Meredith are fighting (woah, it was like two episode that this didn’t happen, I missed it) and Amelia is really mad at Penny and Meredith is mean girling the new guy, who’s done something so bad he gets punched in the face by Owen (weird I thought they were friends) 

Never would have guessed


Merder/ Merpe (the ship name says it all)

Ellen Pompeo is the only thing keeping me from throwing a brick at the screen these days. She’s playing this storyline so beautifully and her little vulnerable face makes me want to coddle her. “It’s his stupid blanket” just hit me in a place I didn’t think existed anymore- THE MERDER FEELS! Considering the only time I clean is when I’m drunk or mad, I found tonight all too relatable- I mean, I don’t have a dead husband but you get me!


“Yeah… I understand. So, another time you will get together and you’ll go out! But you won’t, will you? Or you will, and I will cave and go along with it, and I will watch too much, and you will do nothing, and I- I- psh— I don’t know how to do this thing that you do where you make me feel like crap and there are no kisses coming from your mouths so… whatever… you’ll get together, maybe. Or maybe not and maybe I will not care.”


Should have listened to me, you should have stayed simple. Kudos to Maggie for that headband in bed though.


Stop making me like you. I don’t want to like you, I very much want Calzona back together, but if you keep being sweet and smiling like that, I will end up liking you. (A moment to appreciate Arizona saying it how it is and acting pretty mature in that whole situation,,,)


As fabulous as you are in that coat, please don’t hurt April like that. It’s rude, and very out of character. Remember - “Good people raising their babies right”? Also, Richard was humming in happiness about seeing you tonight. Could you be worthy of that love please?!


I actually have a little song that I sing in my head which lists all their names before my head screams “Lady Chief Trifectaaaaa” in an Idina Menzel-styled top note. I love them. All of them. I love them bonding, and being there, and cleaning, and all their hair.

Favourite Moment

Has to go to Stephanie Edwards in the OR with Callie, talking about size. Or rather demonstrating size…


Merder still lives strong in all of us, @shephunt got a good scene at the end there with all that PLAID, MaLuca are as much of a non-issue as they always were,  I’m sticking to fanfiction for any Omelia fix I may need over the coming weeks, and NOTHING HAPPENED. Every character just went back and forth on decisions they made in previous weeks. Also, I like how they got to 12x15 and the writers suddenly remembered Meredith and Calzona had kids- “next week, we’ll include the kids next week”.

vanessabellcalloway: Shot 2 great episodes @shondarhimes Greys Anatomy @greysabc @therealdebbieallen with great cast @chandra_wilson @therealsararamirez @jessicacapshaw @giacomo_gianniotti @samanthasloyanfans @jimpickins directed by @therealkevinmckidd LOVE LOVE this cast! It was a joy to work with them all! Thanks for your warmth & kindness Look out for my episodes tweeples! ☺️

totally uncool.

from uncool to bad to lamest of lame to almost crap.

as I was sadly expecting the code pink lasted about two seconds, not even long enough to justify the amount of build up it got. so disappointing.

I’m not even going to dignify how bad the first episode was because the other one happened right happened right after to make up for it (barely).

Originally posted by sad-in-a-lifetime

it wasn’t intense and it wasn’t one that keeps you on the edge of your seat, it was one of those that just falls under the category of skip-during-marathons, so, in other words, worse than bad. it falls right with the musical and the the arc last year when Derek died - wait, this is the second two-hour thing they manage to screw up? it sure seems that way.

Ben Warren has always been one of those character that is just there for me, like, he’s not my favorite and I wouldn’t cry any tears if he died or left. he’s meh. now he’s become a bad doctor, an arrogant jackass and has come out of this astronomic mess with special treatment, again. (I believe he didn’t see the doors open, but two people died because of what he did and he shows no remorse at all - I would have quit and gone pet sea turtles had it been me.)

April was fired for a much lesser mistake that caused a woman’s life.

Originally posted by ralucik2006

but Bailey was amazing. as per usual

Maggie telling Owen off was much needed, she was kinda badass.

Japril is all rainbows and unicorns and I’m so proud of Jackson.

Originally posted by heartsnmagic

the Riggs and Owen drama has overstayed its welcome. I mean, seriously, it was interesting at first and it was about time Owen got something going on of his own. BUT the result is that Amelia relapsed and got kicked out, also thanks to that she’s moved back in so that’s even. Meredith’s right, though, he’s driving himself crazy and it did cost him Amelia in the end (so far) as well as his credibility with a few people, cause he’s coming off as a madman. it seems Riggs lied by omission and Owen is hung up on it, blaming himself more than Riggs at intervals, and it’s destroying him, and we’ve already seen that with his PTSD and the plane crash, so writers, please throw in something new, like perhaps - oh, I heard he wanted babies? any chance that’s happening?

Originally posted by moan-s

also, go Arizona

seriously, how does Callie get off assuming Sofia is moving with her? they are her parents, both of them and it’s just not fair. I know this is build up for Calzona (and I’m glad), but damn. Callie has been so unCallie lately it’s uuuuuuugh.

and Callie and Penny had me throw up in my mouth, like, please staahp. Owen and Meredith have more chemistry than them and it was just uuuuuuuuuuugggggh.

Originally posted by hogwartsfansite

and when the grandma was talking about her son dying, her baby dying with Amelia standing right there, I thought, hey maybe they remember Amelia lost her son too and mentions something or maybe put in a fraction of a second where we see her face do something and we know, but naw.

grey’s sisters. nothing to add. they’re just awesome. (also, grey’s sisters + Alex is even better).

Originally posted by isuoiocchidentroilmare

and I want Shepwards back with aaalll the drama

anonymous asked:

I wonder if Callie was cheating with Penny as to why she left Arizona in therapy that day then started wondering why the hell like we stopped seeing Callie on her screens because she was sleeping with Penny! Callie probably cheated wayyyyy the hell before Arizona cheated Callie probably cheated the night she went to the bar with Owen during the amputation and that's where she found Penny after Owen left and they danced and drank and fell into a drunken stupor and Callie probably fucked her

Originally posted by n-wordbelike


amelia shepherd in every episode (ga): 12x14 Odd Man Out
“Blake has microscope hands, a lever head, she’d more assured in the OR than any resident I’ve ever seen. She’s a natural neurosurgeon. And now I have to teach her, I owe it to her to teach her.”

Things Change Pt.13

True talk, I almost cried while writing this, that’s how terrible this chapter is. I got mad at myself, that’s how terrible this chapter is. Read at your own risk.

Part 12

She was looking at him when it happened. She was turned away from the window; from the car that T-boned her side of the SUV. The look of pure shock on Derek’s face, milliseconds before she heard the bloodcurdling sound of metal colliding, was her only indication that something was about to happen. That was the last clear memory she’d had.

The first memory she’d had after that was when she was taken into the ER. When she opened her eyes, everything hurt. Her head, her arm, her leg and her back. And her stomach…

Keep reading


That’s right. It’s nearly 5am here. I’m casually being assualted by fluff on all sides. I’ve had a fantastic day. Here’s a summary.

“Previously on Grey’s Anatomy”

YAAAAAAAAAAAAASSSSSSSS, sweet baby cheeses, YES. Every week please!

Meredith and…

- Jo: Finally, finally, finally Jo stood up to her boyfriend’s person. Jo is literally Derek in the Twisted Sisters storyline and I really feel for her. I get that Meredith is protecting Alex and that Alex feels the need to show his loyalty to her in return, but it was all getting a little unhealthy. However much I would like Jo to not give a shit about Meredith’s opinion on Jolex’s relationship, I actually think “I am rooting for you to stick” meant the world to her and so that whole scene made me really love both characters.

- Will Thorpe: So, I shipped Merder since day one. But I’m not against Meredith dating again. I know the hardest of the hardcore Merder shippers are literally lighting a fire up their own arseholes about the whole situation (”It’s not even been one season yet”… yeah but in their world it’s been about 2 years by now!) but I think Ellen is playing the role so sweetly and subtly… charming and respectful. But I’m not sure about Willl Thorpe- I don’t trust a man with a jaw that chiselled. I’d rather Riggs!

- Callie and Maggie: Lol. That’s mainly all I have to say. Callie saying “hot” was perfect. Callie and Maggie innuendo-ing the shit out of “ringer” and “vibrate” made me laugh. Out loud.


See this brick Jackson? You do? Oh ok, cool… could you just close your eyes for two seconds? No silly, I promise I won’t throw it at your face. Yes, no, really, I won’t throw it at your face… (It’s at this point in our back and forth that I obviously throw a brick in Jackson’s face for fucking dating the minute after the ink is dry on his divorce.)


“We all hear the dogs, right?” Poor baby is reduced in this show to saying funny one-liners. Legit writers- either give her a storyline or give her a hospital in a foreign country to run. She deserves better. Poor baby.

Alex Karev

Alex and April. I sometimes forget they once kissed. Pah! Anyway, he was great with April, and I love team peds basically ganging up on her. Arizona totally jumped the gun in spilling the beans to Jackson, dick move, but they both clearly have her back and just want the best.


OK, I really enjoyed him being Chief again. Cos let’s face it, that’s what he was today. He was being wise and good and clever and making EVERYONE around him be better at their jobs. Good job Webber… sorry, I mean chief.


All the patients were AMAZING this week. I loved the quads storyline- although the amount they went on about tax made me think of my own which is a bit soul-destroying! I loved the old rich dude and LOVED Rita Moreno! So good, so so good.

Ben and Bailey

Desperately trying to summon up the will to care to be honest…

Amelia and…

Private Practice: For some reason, I saw more PP Amelia in tonight’s episode than I’ve ever seen on Greys. It was SO refreshing. And I have a feeling it had a LOT to do with… 

Riggs: I enjoyed these two WORRYING amounts. I see a lot of chemistry there and I almost died when he called her “Shep”. Amelia has been a tag along in friendship groups since she arrived in Seattle and I seriously hope they make a little side clique, cos they’d blatantly be the cool kids, let’s be honest.

Blake: Everyone called this. Of course Penny was going to be amazing at neuro. It’s Shonda’s predictable “ironic” sense of twisted humour. I really enjoyed the surgery scene, very well acted. I’m gonna miss the Neuro Nerd team a lot though.

Owen: When your OTP is quite literally PUPPY LOVE you know you’re onto a winner. I loved EVERY SINGLE SECOND of their scenes together. The fact that they just sat on a gurney and TALKED made me so fucking super happy. They talked and actually connected. And then he stood up and they HELD HANDS and just walked through the corridors HOLDING HANDS. And then she said she doesn’t like surprises (like @superheroshepherdess always writes). And then they ROLLED AROUND IN PUPPIES. THEY WERE LITERALLY ROLLING AROUND IN THEIR OWN FLUFF. And then THEY MADE OUT. I quite honestly died and went to heaven. So thanks Omelia… thanks for that.

I’m sure I’ve forgotten some MAJOR plot-twisting storyline but quite frankly by the end of the episode my mind was only on one thing: Omelia and their future puppy kingdom.

finale stuff

in order to prevent my inbox from overflowing and my time from shrinking to nothing, I’ll put up a list of what I think is going to happen (it’s a list because some times what I think diverges from what spoilers say and I hate being wrong and I’m usually not).


Riggs (because spoilers said he’s going to kiss someone) and Meredith (because spoilers say she’d going to kiss someone as well, in one of Mer’s not finest moments - remember she’s going to bicker with Amelia over Derek again on thurs. And Ellen said it’s def not Alex and “it’s not hard to guess [who it is she’s going to suck face with]”)

Riggs and Maggie (cos that’s what it would look like, should I not know any better).

Calzona (would that really be a surprising hookup? really? haven’t we been waiting for that to happen for the last 482250245 years? hasn’t Kevin McKidd been clear enough about that?) AND there’s that photo with the lipstick smudges.


( I’d still like to point out the work proposal has more than one meaning, it might refer to marriage, moving, jobs, etc. my bf actually greeted me last week with a proposal for pizza and the minions movie )

Jo and Alex (I mean, we often forget about them (at least I do), but they have been together for a hell of a long time and they barely have a house and have exchanged ‘I love yous’. plus, the engagement storyline was totally forgotten throughout 12b and I’m not Jo’s biggest fan, but man, just let them be happy and married and normal for once).

Jackson and April (it would be totally weird, but when I saw them at Joe’s talking amicably about the baby’s schedule and when Jackson said all those things about them being friends and feeling the baby kick and whatnot, I couldn’t help but think it might be them - no idea why, I don’t even ship ‘em)

Owen and Amelia. (I KNOW I said many and many and many times I truly believe it’s not them, but I’ve read from what I consider a semi reliable source that it is in fact them, so I’ll leave it be. STILL keep in mind the proposal might be about moving together or about the top secret, Derek involving stuff we know nothing about, so I’ll just leave this up here). (my mind made it okay, because if Amelia is pregnant, which is totally a supposition and just something to make the pieces fit, Owen would totally ask her to marry him) I want them to be happy, but I want to see the relationship work and I want to see them make it work before they take bigger steps like this, Owen did it with Cristina and I would think he’d know better now than to jump to marriage after three seconds they have been a stable couple (as stable as those two can be.) ALSO I just want to see them in their honeymoon period of their relationship, that - I think - is a thousand times better than cheesy, cliched proposal and pregnancy storylines. at least for now, might I remind everyone Amelia ran from an engagement to Seattle? if Amelia doesn’t have commitment issues I’m shonda freaking rhimes (I’m not actually, sigh)

Callie and Penny (let me explain before you kill me. I’m hoping by now Callie will have realized just how big an idiot she’s been recently and will consider dumping Penny who will soon be leaving for ny all by herself - Penny, feeling this, will propose to Callie in the hope of salvaging their relationship, who will obviously say no. in typical grey’s fashion they’re letting us wreck our brains over something stupid. yes, this is contorted and improbable wishful thinking)


doubt I even needed to add this, but it’s definitely Kyle, reason why I briefly thought he and Steph would be one of the couples with the proposal thingy going on, but it’s him. I mean, meningitis? Kind of a crap way to go, but it was to be expected.

I would add Penny, but we all know she’s already a goner.

things to keep in mind:

part of the finale was shot in Mer’s house, where they shoot every freaking thing, but it makes me wonder if it isn’t a Jolex/Omelia engagement party.

another location was one of the Japril wedding churches (other reason I thought they were the ones involved in the proposal scene), which might also mean another wedding (although in none of the BTS pics we ever got anyone dressed even remotely nice enough for that - yes, we got them last year when Richard and Catherine got hitched), funeral (see above category), christening (though April is still pregnant, waaat) or I have no idea what a church could be needed for, unless there’s another time jump involved (PLEASE NO). I’ll put down baby shower, but just because logic - it fits with grey’s drama like Amelia Shepherd with the Kardashians.

we’ve seen BTS pics of Owen and April (who is still obviously pregnant and with a really pretty dress on, which - I might add - was covered up in some of those pics as if it should have been kept under wraps), and Alex and Jo (dressed a lot more casual than April) and the attire suggests nice but not formal, hence engagement party and I would say Jolex immediately, BUT we have no pics at all of Amelia (who could be a little more fancier dressed, but guys this is starting to feel creepily weird).

Meredith and Amelia are going to be wet in the finale (I feel dirty just typing it).

something is happening at the church with a car in the rain. (April’s going to have the baby in the car? it might also mean the church is just an exterior and nothing is actually happening on the inside)