Laurel Highlands is a penitentiary for men, located 70 miles SE of Pittsburgh. It is the only prison in the state of Pennsylvania that is specifically for inmates who are elderly or infirm. Inmates within the Pennsylvania corrections system are sent to Laurel Highlands when they have been diagnosed with a condition that requires daily medical support, such as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, kidney or liver disease, or pulmonary diseases. The facility operates mostly as a medical hospital, and the staff consists of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and nursing assistants. Security staffing is minimal. The hospice unit is also staffed by a prisoner helper system, where other prison inmates assist the nursing staff by providing personal care such as cleaning, helping a sick inmate move from place to place, and providing company to the dying inmate. There are no bars on the windows, and security fencing is similar to those at a minimum security prison. Showers are outfitted with grab bars and shower seats. Due to the four decade long “war on drugs”, mandatory minimum sentencing and three strikes laws, the percentage of elderly inmates in prison has exploded, leaving the country’s correctional systems in the position of having to provide geriatric care, which costs approximately 30% more than the cost of housing a relatively healthy inmate. There are roughly 300 inmates at Laurel Highlands, with a very long waiting list.
- Witchcraft has no beliefs or traditions that are set in stone. It is a belief system created by, & for the witch themselves. When establishing a craft there are no rules or guidelines, wrongs or rights, only the individual beliefs of different witches. Listed below are some traditions of Witchcraft. You need not religiously follow any if you don’t wish, but hopefully, they should enlighten you on different forms of the craft.
♦ Alexandrian: A modified Gardenian system founded in the 1960’s by Alex Sanders, whom refers to himself as the “King of witches” Covens are made up of both men & women.
♦ British Traditional: Witches who follow a mixture of both Celtic & Pagan beliefs from the pre-christian era. Today, British Traditionals move mostly from the Farrar studies, the findings of a famous with husband in wife living in England. Their training in the craft is actually a structured degree process where one can study a coarse & receive a degree in traditional British Witchcraft.
♦ Celtic Wicca: A craft that focusses mainly upon the Celtic & Druidic Gods & Goddesses. Thier studies maintain a strong emphasis on the importance of nature & it’s rituals focus on enhancing the energies of the earth, to understand the natural rhythm of our planet to work & live in total harmony with nature. Gods & goddesses throughout Wicca are often referred to as “The Ancient Ones,” & through Divination & worship, a vast knowledge of, & respect for the natural healing & magickal qualities of plants, stones, crystals, flowers, trees & more. A wiccan will most commonly work with the elements, spirits, nature & crystals, & are particularly interested in Fae & Gnomes.
♦ Caledonii: Once known of as the ‘Hecatine’ tradition, it is traditional Scottish Witchcraft, & practitioners of the Caledonii craft still preserve the unique rituals & festivals of the Scots today.
♦ Ceremonial Witchcraft: Followers of the Ceremonial craft incorporate much ceremonial magick in their lifestyle & almost all of their rituals & magickal workings strictly follow ancient traditions. Little emphasis is put on nature, however, detailed rituals with elements of Egyptian magick are a favourite throughout this religious craft.
♦ Dianic: First established by Margaret Murray in 1921 in “The witch cult in Western Europe.” The term holds a mixture of various traditions, with the prime focus on the Goddess. Dianic witches will generally only worship the goddess, with little, to no mention of the God, Separating them from Wiccans. They are also known to focus a lot of their workings around the phases of the moon & are known by some as 'the feminist movement’ of the craft.
♦ Druidic: Worshippers of Mother Earth. Very little is known of Ancient Druidism & their practices, but modern day Druids perform rituals in areas in which nature has been preserved. Usually rural expanses of land, or ever-green forests untouched by man. Druids are also known for their sacrifices to mother nature as a means of worship. Offerings of grain, flowers, & sometimes meat are made & are often followed by appropriate chants & magickal workings.
♦ Pictish: Nature based Scottish witchcraft, involving little to no religious elements or deities. The tradition focuses on attuning oneself with all forms of nature, animal, vegetable & mineral.
♦ Pow-wow: Indigenous to South Central Pennsylvania, it is a system, rather than a religion, based upon a 400 year-old elite German Magick. Over time, this craft has greatly deteriorated into simple faith healing, & can be applied to almost any religion, making the word unheard of to most & blurring the truth of traditional Pow-wow ritual & the history of it’s origin.
♦ Strega: A craft said to be started by a women named Aradia in Italy, 1353, who is often referred to as the “Goddess of Witches.”
♦ Teutonic: Also known as the 'Nordic’ tradition of the craft. Culturally it was made up of English, Dutch, Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian & Swedish people, & still follow its traditions today.
Are We Born Evil? - Our basic philosophy about human nature is that we are born with evil in us. However, that evil inclination can be the driving force of greatness and creativity, but it must be tempered with socialisation and consideration of others. James Q. Wilson notes: “The forces that may easily drive people to break the law - a desire for food, sex, wealth, and self-preservation - seems to be instinctive, not learned, while those that restrain our appetites - self-control, sympathy, and a sense of fairness - seen to be learned and not instinctive” (The Moral Sense).
Considerate law-abiding behaviour has to be taught; psychologists and philosophers argue over when these traits are ingrained and when, and if, these traits can be altered. One hopeful goal of incarceration is to rehabilitate and educate. That us a debatable concept. Most modern prisons seem to be more geared to better educating inmates in the ways of crime. The 19th-century prison’s ideologies of both the New York (Auburn) and Pennsylvania (Quaker) systems demanded silence to prevent the exchange of expertise between criminals.
Human nature cannot be relied upon to ensure people will do what is right; it must be taught. While this doesn’t mean we are born bad, it doesn’t mean we are born good. America is now a society of numerous subcultures, and some of these emphasise behaviour that foster disrespect of society’s community values. Home schooling, another recent “right,” does not guarantee that socialisation and community standards are included. Children are born self-absorbed and have to be educated toward sharing, empathy, and generosity. Watching two and three year olds’ aggressive behaviour on a playground or the viciousness of some teenagers reflects this superstition. Joseph Telushkin, in his A Code of Jewish Ethics, notes: “It is rare to hear a mother yelling at a three-year-old child to stop giving his toys away to other children: generous behaviour has to be taught.”
Harrisburg State Hospital, Harrisburg, PA…… Built in 1903, the morgue sits in a valley to the south of the main hospital complex and just west of the water works. Besides its obvious use of holding the bodies of deceased patients until they would be examined, buried, or sent home, it also contained a pathology laboratory on the second floor. On the first floor was an autopsy table as well as coolers. A tunnel connects to the rear of the first floor and runs into the hill side. At the end of the tunnel is an elevator that connects to the basement of the female convalescent building. The second floor lab was quite possibly the most elaborate of any in the Pennsylvania state hospital system at the time of its construction.
This might be a obvious question, but are there different types of witchcraft? If so what are some of them and the differences that set them apart from each other? Thank you.
Different types of witches:
It practices by home and hearth, mainly dealing with practical sides of the religion, magick, the elements and the earth.
Mainly use ceremonial magick (obviously) in their practices. They commonly use Qabbalistic magick or Egyptian magick in their rituals.
This deosn’t exist. Why? Witches don’t believe in Satan remember.
Goes by the elements, the Ancient Ones and nature. They are usually healers or respect them highly. They work with plants, stones, flowers, trees, the elemental people, the gnomes and the fairies.
Deosn’t follow a particular religion or tradition. They study and learn from many different systems and use what works best for them.
British Traditional Witch:
A mix of Celtic and Gardenarian beliefs. They train through a degree process and the covens are usually co-ed.
They are said to be modified Gardenarian.
Follow a structured root in ceremony and practice. They aren’t as much vocal as others and have a fairly foundational set of customs.
Includes a lot of different traditions in one. Their prime focus now-a-days is the Goddess. It is the more feminist side of ‘The Craft’.
It’s originally from Scotland and is a solitary form of The Craft. It is more magickal in nature than it is in religion.
Someone who has been taught the ‘Old Religion’ through the generations of their family.
Also known as the Hecatine Tradition, it’s the denomination of The Craft with a Scottish origin.
Comes from South Central Pennsylvania and is a system based on a 400 year old Elite German magick. They concentrate on simple faith healing.
This is one who practices alone, without a cover etc.. following any tradition.
Originally coming from Italy are the known to be the smallest group in the US. It is said their craft is wise and beautiful.
Is someone who can be theistic or
la vayan satanist who also practices witchcraft.
There are many other types of witches out there and this is in no way a complete list.
Chew House today, preserved by the American nation as a National Historic Landmark. It was built between 1763 and 1767 by Benjamin Chew and inhabited by seven generations of the Chew family, until 1972. Benjamin Chew was head of the Pennsylvania Judiciary System under both Colony and Commonwealth, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Province of Pennsylvania. For his own safety, days before the battle, the Executive Committee of the Continental Congress forcibly removed Chew and his family from Cliveden, as his close personal friend, George Washington, was ordering his troops to move towards Philadelphia. Lt Col Musgrave of the 40th Foot then quickly occupied the sturdily-built mansion as his battalion headquarters. The 40th held the house during the battle of Germantown throughout the day against a Division-sized Patriot attack.