peace concluded

In Congress, July 4, 1776


When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the Earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are life liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed - That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to Institute new government, lying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty to throw off such government, and provide new guards for their future security. - Such has been patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states
To provide this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless subjected in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature, a right Inestimable to them in formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the state remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convolutions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws of naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage the migrations hither, and raising conditions of new appropriations of lands.
He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing to judiciary powers.
He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, in the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and to eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies without the consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the military independent of in superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution and acknowledged by our laws giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation.
For quartering large bodies of armed troops Among Us.
For protecting them by a mock trial from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states.
For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world.
For imposing taxes on us without our consent.
For depriving us in many cases of the benefits of trial by jury.
For transporting us Beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences.
For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring Providence establishing theirin an arbitrary government and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies.
For taking away our Charters abolishing our most valuable laws and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments.
For suspending our own legislatures and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and Waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas ravaged our coasts burnt our towns and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of death desolation and tyranny already began with circumstances of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages and totally unworthy the head of a Civilized Nation.
He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bare arms against their country to become The Executioner’s of their friends and brethren to or to fall themselves by their hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our Frontiers the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare is undistinguished destruction of all ages Sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petition for redress in the most humble terms. Our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by Every Act which may Define a tyrant is unfit to be a ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren we have warned them from time to time of attempts by the legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us we have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration in settlement here we have appealed to their native Justice and magnanimity and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations which would inevitably interrupt our connections in correspondence they too have been deaf to the voice of Justice of consanguinity. We must therefore acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation and hold them as we hold the rest of mankind enemies in War and Peace friends.

We therefore the representatives of the United States of America in general Congress assembled appealing to the Supreme judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions do in the name in by authority of the good people of these colonies solemnly publish and declare that these United Colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent states that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection between them and the states of Great Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved, and that as free independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce and to do all other acts and things which Independence States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other Our lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

The Declaration of Independance

When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. — And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

Zelda’s Log #2: Teammates

A/N: It’s update time! I’ll upload the other entry tomorrow - bless this XL weekend. Enjoy lovelies!

—–

The morning of their departure to Zora’s Domain, Zelda fidgeted with the contents of the crates and boxes under the stairs, as she was already accustomed. One particular item caught her attention, for she had not seen it before.

‘Link, care to explain how did you obtain… this?’, she asked, raising the chestplate of the Zora armor. 'Please don’t tell me you got it from a tomb or something like that’.

‘No, I actually received it as a gift from King Dorephan’, he clarified, seeing Zelda’s disapproving look turn into a surprised one. ‘Mipha had made it for me’.

Zelda remained in silence for a moment, visibly surprised.

‘Do you know what that means?’

‘Yes’.

So the rumors were true, then’, Zelda thought, putting back the chestplate on its container, appreciating all the details so lovingly put with a bittersweet smile.

She went back to her preparations in silence.

6.23 a.m. My heart feels heavy. Mipha, wherever you are: I am deeply sorry. I’ll have to live with this guilt for the rest of my life. I can only promise you this: I’ll take care of Link as much as you would have. I hope I can atone for failing you this way, even if it is a little.


‘How much about Mipha do you remember?’, Zelda inquired Link while on the road.

'Almost as much as I remember you’, he started, 'I started recovering my memories about her since I arrived here looking for Vah Ruta. Some of my childhood memories of her are fuzzy though’.

'I’m so glad you do’, she assured him, smiling softly, 'I honestly thought in the beginning your memory was full of gaps,but you proved me wrong’ - she took a deep breath - 'She was the kindest person I have ever known, always trying to make all of us get along’, Zelda affirmed, gazing into the the blueish hues and intricate shapes of the nearing Domain, which shone like an opal under the starlight.

'That’s true’, he reaffirmed with a sigh.

’She gave me good advice on how to deal with you and your dashing personality back then’, she remembered.

Dashing’, Link snorted, a bit mortified by the adjective. 'As far as I can recall, I was as charming as a brick’.

You were quite the opposite, but charming nonetheless, she said to herself, avoiding imagining a brick with Link’s clothes.

After a horseback ride and some walking, they arrived quite late at night. Zelda admired the late Champion’s sculpture at  the before checking in at the Inn to get some rest.

12.45 a.m. After a long journey, we finally arrived in Zora’s Domain. Seeing how lovingly Mipha is remembered here is moving. The sculpture they made of her reflects perfectly the balance between her tenderness as a person and her fierceness as a Champion of Hyrule. Tomorrow we shall meet the King, to inform him of the current state of Vah Ruta, and see if I can do anything to make it properly function again.


Both woke up early, Zelda feeling not so rested.

'That water bed was weird’, she commented, rubbing her neck, 'I’m not so sure if I feel energized’.

She looked at Link, almost glowing. Part of her lack of sleep was due to him giggling in his sleep.

Maybe we should stay another night in here and study the side effects of sleep in these beds’, she considered deep in thought, eyes squinting at her partner, oblivious to her research ideas. ‘Maybe it can be a good idea to try them again… for science’.

Her devisings were interrupted by a very tall, muscular, red skinned Zora, wearing royal regalia and a toothy grin, striding into the Inn.

'Link! My dearest friend!’, he greeted the short blond man with a vigorous handshake, making him wiggle like a Korok leaf, ‘what brings you here​?!’

‘H-hell-o, S-Sid-don!’, Link shakily greeted back the Zora Prince.

‘Sidon?!’, Zelda almost yelled in astonishment and surprise, barely recognizing who was in front of her, ‘Is that you?!’

He turned to face the petite blonde, his jaw almost dropping.

‘Your Grace’, he gasped, then making a small curtsy and smiling widely, ‘It is I indeed’.

‘You were just a toddler when I last saw you!’, she exclaimed, all giddy, ‘And look at you now!’

'A hundred years don’t pass in vain, not even for us Zoras’.

A few minutes later, they arrived to the throne room to meet King Dorephan.

'Greetings, Princess of Hyrule’, the voice of the King echoed on the room, 'the news of your victory over the Calamity is spreading fast through the kingdom’.

'It is not mine’, she humbly denied, 'for it belongs to all of the people that made it possible, and that includes all of you, specially both of your offspring, and Link here’.

‘Do not rest value to your own effort’, said the King, ‘for despite your initial failure, you still succeeded’.

‘Your eldest daughter died for my failure’, I reminded him. ‘It thwarted her bright future and her happiness’.

‘And her sacrifice was not in vain’, he made it clear, ‘she always knew of the possible consequences of being a Champion at the service of the kingdom, so my dear Princess, do not let your heart still be weary’.

‘I shall try’. Zelda sighed, understanding the King’s position.

‘Changing the subject, I have been informed you have also come to investigate the Divine Beast’.

‘Certainly, Sir’, Zelda chimed, ‘I have observed Vah Ruta stopped sending activity signals some time after the defeat of the Calamity. I would like to check for any malfunction it may have, so I could contact the Sheikah scientists and make the corresponding repairs. I believe their protection is key for the security of the kingdom, now that we are free from our foe’.

‘Then go, Your highness, I trust your judgement’, King Dorephan nodded. ‘Sidon, please escort them to Vah Ruta - even if Link knows this place as the palm of his hand’.

They left the throne room, making their way to the Divine Beast immediately. Once there, Link helped Zelda and Sidon get on Vah Ruta with the help of Revali’s Gale and the paraglider. Not even the travel gate was operative.

'Link told me about the fight you both had against Ruta, you were amazing!’, Zelda commented while turning on her slate.

'I just swam! Link did all the job of appeasing the Divine Beast’.

'Seriously? ‘Just swam’?’, Link chuckled, elbowing the tall Zora playfully, 'I would have been smashed by those ice blocks if it wasn’t for you and your skills!’

'Don’t underestimate your abilities’, she noted, swiping her device over the entrance, looking for a reaction. 'You could have piloted this Divine Beast if you were a champion instead of Mipha’.

The travel gate lit up. A message appeared on Zelda’s Sheikah slate.

Authenticate new user.

'Looks like someone decided it was time for a relay’, Zelda guessed, her eyes turning to the Zora Prince. 'Mipha’s spirit is no longer residing inside the Divine Beast’.

'My sister is at peace, then’, Sidon concluded, with a calm smile. 'She had the closure she needed’.

'Certainly’, Zelda reassured him, Link nodding next to her.

'Maybe we should return, the-’, Sidon’s words interrupted by the flashing light of the travel gate. He had stepped on it.

Initializing biometric scan.

Pilot compatibility 95%.

New user authenticated.

Enter username.

The notifications popped on Zelda’s slate, to her astonishment, and in less extent, to Link’s.

The entrances to the Divine Beast opened. The group approached the guidance stone, Zelda stepping forward to put her Sheikah Slate on it.

Enter username to finish startup.

‘I should ask you first if you are willing to take your sister’s mantle as Champion of Hyrule’, she turned to him, with a serious, worrisome look, ‘and all that it entails’.

‘It would be the greatest honor to follow my sister’s steps’, the Zora Prince didn’t even think further, ‘Besides, working not only with such a pair of amazing Hylians, but also with my most treasured friend for all time here’ - he patted Link’s back, throwing the already merry Hylian out of balance - ‘to help our land recover from this ordeal - We would be teammates now!’.

‘I didn’t expect you to answer so quickly’, Zelda admitted, full of joy, 'but it makes me really happy your answer was positive’ - she made way for him to approach the guidance stone and the slate - 'You should do the honors, I guess’.

The Zora Prince typed his name on the device, full of curiosity at the device’s tactile screen. Once done, the Divine Beast lit up in a bright blue light.

Startup concluded.

Welcome, Sidon.

‘I want to take a picture of Purah’s reaction when we tell her what just happened’, Link commented, trying to contain his laugh. ‘I bet she will snap out’.

Zelda bursted into laugh, and the Hylians reaction made the Zora Prince curious.

‘Purah is a very enthusiastic Sheikah researcher, you will probably meet her soon’, Zelda explained, ‘She is quite… peculiar’.

‘I hope to do so, my dear teammates!’, Sidon exclaimed, enthused at the idea, ‘peculiar is never bad!’

9.17 p.m.  A most unexpected development has occurred: the Divine Beast, in a strange twist of fate, has a new pilot, Prince Sidon of the Zoras. In all honesty, it’s as if Mipha herself had pushed her brother on the gate, but I guess it solves the mystery of why it stopped working (it just needed a new master). Anyway, I couldn’t think of any other person more perfect for the job; he is enthusiastic and really optimist, besides a very charming Zora.

He really admires Link and appreciates their friendship - I know Link feels the same way.

Fun fact: Sidon doesn’t get Link’s lame puns.

I will inform Purah and Robbie - our next stop is Akkala - about this event, and the high possibility it might occur with the remaining Divine Beasts. We will have to find new Champions before the Divine Beasts go inactive. Link’s assistance in this matter will be critical.

10.35 p.m. I tried to conduct a study on the properties of the Zora  waterbeds, but I failed miserably. We accidentally punctured the mattress, flooding the room on the Inn. Maybe we will be able to repeat the experiment… when the innkeeper forgets about the mess I made… for science.

readorsigh  asked:

So this occurred to me while I was scrolling through some fan-art stuff and I saw this picture of Dany and Daario side by side. It got me thinking; what exactly is their relationship? From the only outside POV we get on the matter (Barristen) it's apparently just Dany being infatuated cause she's young and horny and he's exotically attractive. Is that literally all there is? Is Daario just a boy toy in this story? Does their relationship (sexual or otherwise) have any bearing on the narrative?

Definitely there’s more. And even if it was just Dany being infatuated because she’s young and horny it’s still a big deal that Dany, who was sold off to her first husband, is now in a position where she can choose to have a romantic and sexual relationship.

Back to the more going on. It has to do with the contrast between Daario and Hizdahr, and the political paths they represent.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

2D reacting to his S/O confessing to him and telling him why they fell for him and just being genuinely kind to this poor baby BOY, thank u

A/N: yes be good to him he deserves so much LOVE 


“Please,” he begs, perching himself up on his elbow behind you. The other hand rests on your side, slowly siding up and down as he snuggles himself up behind you. 

“No,” you say smiling at his childish antics, he rests his chin on your shoulder and asks again batting eyelashes playfully, “Fine,” you laugh and give in, moving his hand away so you can sit up in front of him. He sits on the opposite side of you, resting against the pillow and headboard.

You pull your legs up and rest your arms on your knees, “Well, I guess I’ll start from high school,” you say before you start telling him your past relationship experiences. You make a few jokes here and there, making him laugh with his shoulders hunched and all. You sigh as you finish, looking up at the ceiling to see if you can remember anything more, “Hmm, that’s really all I can think of right now.”

You look at him and he asks, “What happened to the others?”

“Well, they don’t matter.”

“Why not?”

“Because I have you now,” you say smiling. He stares at you blankly for a moment before his cheeks start turning red, he tries to hide his face with his shoulders but you laugh lovingly at his bashful behavior, scooting over to him. You take his face into your hands and kiss him, “I love you, Stuart,” you say smiling before you kiss him again. “I love you, I love you,” you say in between kisses and he hunches his shoulders again, leaning back a bit. He lays down, pulling you on top of him and you shower kisses all over his face. He laughs, snorting a little becoming completely red in the face as you continue. You place one final kiss on his lips again, much longer than the others before you rest your chin on your arms crossed comfortably on his chest and look up at him. He looks down at you with heavy lidded eyes, a wide smile on his face, it fades when he begins to overthink, “Do you mean that?”

You frown at that, “Of course I do,” you sit up, taking his hand into yours. You kiss the top of it gently, “I love your hands…” you begin, leaning down to kiss his nose, “I love your nose,” you say giggling which prompts his own. You rest your cheek on your shoulder as you push a strand of his hair behind his ear, “I love your hair…” you say before your fingers travel to his lips, “I love how sometimes you lick your lips before you speak,” your hand travels to his chest, “I love how whenever I’m with you,” you pause as his hand joins yours, “I feel… at peace,” you conclude, feeling that those words fit your description quite well.

He pulls you suddenly against his chest, embracing you tightly as his face makes its way into the juncture between of shoulder and neck, he doesn’t say anything and you silently understand, closing your eyes before you drift into sleep, secure and comfortable in his arms.


this cavity shit is so hard for me to write aaa

Has this been done?

IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776 The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America

When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.  — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,  — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.  — Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do.  — And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

lisspeed  asked:

I just wanted to tell you that your art is gorgeous and I love your portrayal of all the Ancient Egyptian stuff. And man, your PoE stuff is so good, I love all the details and thought you put into them. Ramesses II is one of my all time favourite historical figures and characters, and you do such a good job with portraying him. c: Keep up the great work, can't wait to see what else you come up with! :D

Thank you so much! :)
And I didn’t reblog/reply it because of so long post, but I read with interest your reblog comment.

Historical Ramesses II is also interesting person. He is described in PoE as a villain (I don’t deny about it, I just feel sad about he couldn’t understand what Moses said because of his strong sense of responsibility. He seems to be serious and care too much like he was said by Moses (and PoE producer) since he was young), but historical Ramesses II was the first person to conclude a peace treaty with Hittites.
If I get a good idea I want to draw him again as ancient Egypt art :D
(I also want to know more about his son… Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, and Merenptah)

By the way, your icon is Kefka! Kefka is also tragic villain character
(I had drawn FF fanart & comic before I came here, especially VI is wonderful game :) I love Vargas lol)

A Karelian refugee family, Finland, 1947

The photo depicts three generations of a refugee family: a father, a daughter and a grandchild. They lost their homes in WW2 when the Soviet Union conquered a part of the region of Karelia. As a result of the 1940 Moscow Peace Treaty that concluded the Winter War, Finland ceded the area of Finnish Karelia and other territories to the Soviet Union.The treaty did not require Finland to empty the ceded territory, but almost nobody was willing to stay, and almost 100% of the affected population chose to relocate, taking their belongings with them.“

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

Happy Independence Day!
Happy Independence Day, fellow US citizens!

Happy Independence day, fellow US citizens (and welcome to everyone taking their oath today!  We think you’re kinda crazy, but welcome home anyway!)


This, by the way, is what it’s all about.


In Congress, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the situation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. - That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. - That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. - Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

  • He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
  • He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
  • He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
  • He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
  • He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
  • He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsion within.
  • He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
  • He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
  • He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
  • He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
  • He has kept among us, in times of people, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
  • He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
  • He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretend Legislation: - For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: - For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: - For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: - For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: - For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury: - For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences: - For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: - For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: - For suspending our own Legislature, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
  • He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
  • He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
  • He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
  • He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
  • He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

Georgia

  • Buttom Gwinnett
  • Lyman Hall
  • George Walton

North Carolina

  • William Hooper
  • Joseph Hewes
  • John Penn

South Carolina

  • Edward Rutledge
  • Thomas Heyward, Jr.
  • Thomas Lynch, Jr.
  • Arthur Middleton

Massaschusetts

  • John Hancock

Maryland

  • Samual Chase
  • William Paca
  • Thomas Stone
  • Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Virginia

  • George Wythe
  • Richard Henry Lee
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Benjamin Harrison
  • Thomas Nelson, Jr.
  • Francis Lightfoot Lee
  • Carter Braxton

Pennsylvania

  • Robert Morris
  • Benjamin Rush
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • John Morton
  • George Clymer
  • James Smith
  • George Taylor
  • James Wilson
  • George Ross

Delaware

  • Caesar Rodney
  • George Read
  • Thomas McKean

New York

  • William Floyd
  • Philip Livingston
  • Francis Lewis
  • Lewis Morris

New Jersey

  • Richard Stockton
  • John Witherspoon
  • Francis Hopkinson
  • John Hart
  • Abraham Clark

New Hampshire

  • Josiah Bartlett
  • William Whipple

Massachusetts

  • Samuel Adams
  • John Adams
  • Robert Treat Paine
  • Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island

  • Stephen Hopkins
  • William Ellery

Connecticut

  • Roger Sherman
  • Samuel Huntington
  • William Williams
  • Oliver Wolcott

New Hampshire

  • Matthew Thornton
~Ricky Horror Imagine~

Requesed on Quotev.

 At this point Ricky is beyond pissed.

 He’s furious.

 And it’s better that he left the house, or something was going to be broken.

 He’s aimlesslymarching down the street, trying to calm down.

 That bitch.

 How could she ever do something like that?

 No, he should have known. It really was expected.

 But, oh God, her attitude! She was acting like cheating is completely normal!

 That’s what pissed him off the most. Not necessarily the whole act. But the fact that she was so careless….

 Ricky’s a bit calmer now, but he’s still pretty dangerous. No one should be around him, and he’s aware of that.

 Nevermind.

 He doesn’t need her anyway.

 But the whole thing is still making him pissed.

 Well, at least it can’t get any worse than this…

 “Shit!” Ricky exclaims as he realizes that the rain is starting to fall. He growls angrily as he starts looking around to find a place to hide.

That’s when he realizes that he has no idea where he is.

 He spots a small diner across the street. If nothing, at least he found a place to stay till the rain stops…

 He crosses the street and enters the diner.

 It’s a cute little place with wooden furniture and black and white fraimed pictures on the walls.

 It’s empty, except for a girl that’s sitting in the corner, reading a book.

 Not paying much attention to you, Ricky takes his pretty wet jacket off and sits down.

 A woman appears from behind the counter and she approaches him.

 “Oh, my.” She says. “I don’t think that the storm is the only thing that got you off track today, am I correct?” The short, friendly looking woman says.

 “I’m fine.” Ricky spits. You lower your book. This is about to be interesting…

 “You will be for sure.” The woman offers up. “I think that a cup of coffee will fix you up?”

 “I would like to have a beer.” Ricky refuses the offer.

 The woman just smiles. “That will do you no good right now, trust me. Maybe tea will be more suitable?”

 Ricky huffs. “I’ll just have coffee then.” He mutters.

 You close your book and rest it on the table, as you watch the woman leave. You take your own mug from the table and you stand up.

 You sit next to the dangerous looking guy that just walked in.

 Well, at least he would look dangerous to anyone else…

 He sighs. “I’m not in the mood to be around people.” He spits, not giving you a chance to say anything.

 You just smile. “I know. But that doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t.”

 Ricky rolls his eyes.

 “You’re not very polite.” You state, but you add: “I’m guessing that’s because something happened?” You say, taking a sip of your coffee.

 “Nice guess.” Ricky mumbles.

 “So, what happened?” You ask.

 “Why do you think I’d tell a stranger??” He snaps.

 The woman comes with Rick’y coffee, and that gives him some hope that the subject will now close.

 However, when the woman leaves, you continue:

 “It’s just easier to let it all out. Besides, a stranger is actually the last person who will judge you, because they don’t know you.” You offer up shrugging.

 Ricky sighs. “It’s nothing much, really. I just broke up with my girlfriend.” He says, finally realizing how unimportant that sounds.

 “Oh.” You say. “How?”

 “I found out that she was cheating.” Ricky says bitterly.

 “Well, then it’s not a loss.” You say simply.

 “I guess so….” Ricky mumbles.

 But you can see that there’s still something wrong.

 No matter how “useful” the break up was, it was still a break up.

 “Do you want to rent about your ex?” You offer.

 Ricky hesitates, but then he gives in: “Hell, yeah!”

 Whole way through his rant you just nodded and gave comments like: “That’s right.”, “She wasn’t.” and “What a bitch.” And that’s exactly what Ricky nodded.

 Fifteen minutes later he doesn’t feel angry anymore and has nothing else to say.

 After a short silence you say: “Feeling any better?”

 He takes a deep breath and nods. “Yeah, actually. Thank you for listening.”

 You smile. “No problem. That’s what friends are for.”

 “I thought we were strangers.” Ricky smirks.

 “Not anymore.” You offer him your hand. “I’m (Y/N).”

 “Ricky.” He answers shaking your hand.

 “What were you doing here by yourself, anyway?” He throws a random question at you.

 “Well… I come here to read, study, write and such. It’s really peaceful.” You conclude.

 “That makes sense, I guess.” After a short silence Ricky speaks again: “By the way, I’m kinda lost. I have no idea what part of the city this is… Could you help me out?”

 You nod. “Sure. This is my neighborhood.”

 “Also, I like how our “friendship” started. I think I’d like to see you again somethimes. Would you give me your number?”

 You blink. “Sure… Why not…”

 And to think that Ricky thought it would take him a lot of time to move on…

Indigenous, Aboriginal & First Nations Peoples
American Revolution ~ Reasons for War

Little known fact:  The peace treaty that concluded the American Revolution (the Treaty of Paris 1783) allowed American settlers and governments to seize lands from and ignore (refuse to honour) British treaties with the majority of existing First Nations peoples.  Most importantly, by remaining silent on the issue of First Nations lands, the 1783 peace treaty had the effect of rescinding the 1763 Royal Proclamation that prevented the colonization of a significant amount of what is now American territory (the Proclamation continued to apply in Canada).  As can be imagined, this was very popular with American colonists, and fear of this eventuality is part of why so many First Nations bands chose to support the British during the revolutionary war.  

Historians have placed the blame for ignoring First Nations’ rights in the 1783 peace treaty on both American and British negotiators, noting that while the Americans were opportunistic in this respect, the British must take some blame for not trying to protect at least the First Nations who had fought for them and with whom they had treaties.  It is difficult to say whether such protections would have been agreed to or honoured in any event, given subsequent dealings between aboriginal peoples and the newly-independent American government.  

In contrast, while Canada took almost two centuries longer to become a separate nation from Great Britain (in 1867), independence was achieved entirely by way of diplomatic negotiation (all very Canadian, in fact).  This means that Canada still recognizes First Nations treaties going back to the 18th and 19th centuries. Unfortunately, while aboriginal peoples have more rights and protections on paper than in the US, this has not prevented widespread discrimination over the course of the last two-and-a-half centuries.  The best that can be said is that certain aboriginal peoples have the ability to make land claims, or to be compensated for lands wrongfully taken by the government.  They also have certain hunting and fishing rights, and other rights enshrined within the Canadian Constitution; however, getting access to these rights is not a simple process. [Also, none of this begins to touch upon issues of cultural damage.]

The movement within the US to replace Columbus Day with Indigenous Peoples’ Day is an interesting one.  Canada does not have an equivalent to Columbus Day (the Canadian Thanksgiving holiday takes place around that time).  A 1996 Royal Proclamation declared June 21st to be National Aboriginal Day and Canadians (”Our Loving Subjects”)

“are hereby required to take notice and to govern themselves accordingly.”

~ Musings about US Indigenous Peoples’ Day, by impracticaldemon

Note 1: This is intended as a very brief commentary only, and cannot possibly represent the enormous complexity of these issues in both Canada and the US.

Note 2:  I am not a scholar with respect to aboriginal and First Nations issues; merely, I have had reason to become familiar with the basics over the past several years.

“IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.”


Engrossed Declaration of Independence, August 2, 1776; Miscellaneous Papers of the Continental Congress

Series: Miscellaneous Papers of the Continental Congress, 1774 - 1789
Record Group 360: Records of the Continental and Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional Convention, 1765 - 1821

Drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.  The Declaration set forth a list of grievances of the American colonies against the British Crown and declared they were breaking from British rule to form free and independent states.

On July 19, 1776, Congress resolved that the Declaration passed on the 4th be fairly engrossed on parchment with the title and stile [sic] “The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America" and that the same, when engrossed, be signed by every member of Congress. The engrossing was most likely done by Timothy Matlack, an assistant to Charles Thomson, Secretary of the Congress. Although it bears the date “July 4, 1776,“ the engrossed Declaration was signed on August 2, 1776, by members of the Continental Congress who were present that day and later by other members of Congress. A total of 56 delegates eventually signed the document.


Celebrate the 240th Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence at the National Archives’ #ArchivesJuly4 Independence Day Event!

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

—  – Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776

Dedicated to an amazing royal lady, Anne, Duchess of Brittany, who died on 9 January 1514.

Anne, Duchess of Brittany (French: Anne de Bretagne; Breton: Anna Vreizh), was the last independent Breton ruler, and twice the queen of France (having married two successive French kings, Charles VIII and Louis XII). She was born in Nantes, Brittany, on 25 January 1477 and was the daughter of Duke Francis II of Brittany and Margaret of Foix. Upon her father’s death, she became Duchess of Brittany, Countess of Nantes, Montfort, and Richmond, and Viscountess of Limoges.

Anne was the only child of Francis and Margaret to survive childhood (she had a younger sister, Isabeau, who died in 1490 at age 12). Accordingly, she was brought up as the heiress to the Duchy. She was given a good education under the guidance of Françoise de Dinan, Lady of Laval and Chateaubriant, and the poet Jean Meschinot.
Prior to the Breton War of Succession, Brittany had been understood to operate according to semi-Salic La; i.e., women could inherit, but only if the male line had died out. However the war ended with the Treaty of Guérande, which stated that in the absence of a male heir from the House of Montfort, the heirs of Joanna of Penthièvre would succeed. By the time Anne was born, her father was the only male left of the Breton House of Montfort. Over the course of the century, however, this agreement had been violated and/or reinterpreted multiple times. So as to ensure her succession, Francis II had Anne officially recognised as his heiress by the Estates of Brittany in 1486; however, the question of her marriage remained a diplomatic issue. Francis had no intention of allowing France to absorb Brittany. Therefore, he sought to marry his daughter to an individual in a position capable of withstanding French power.

Brittany being an attractive prize, Anne had no shortage of suitors. In 1480 she was officially promised in marriage to Edward, Prince of Wales, son of Edward IV of England; however, soon after the death of Edward IV in 1483 the boy disappeared. Others who bid for her hand included Maximilian of Austria, Alain d'Albret, Jean de Châlon, Prince of Orange, and even the married Louis, Duke of Orléans.

In 1488, the armies of Francis II were defeated at the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier, ending the Mad War (la Guerre Folle) between Brittany and France. In the Treaty of Sablé, which concluded the peace settlement, the Duke was forced to accept clauses stipulating that his daughters were not to marry without the approval of the King of France. Francis died soon afterward, on 9 September 1488, as a result of a fall from his horse. Anne became Duchess, and Brittany was plunged into fresh crisis, leading to the last Franco-Breton war.

The first necessary move for Anne was to secure a husband, preferably powerful enough to maintain Breton independence. Maximilian I of Austria was considered the most suitable candidate. 
The marriage, which took place at Rennes by proxy on 19 December 1490, conferred upon Anne the title Queen of the Romans, but proved to have serious consequences. The French regarded it as a serious provocation—it not only violated the Treaty of Sablé, but also placed the rule of Brittany in the hands of an enemy of France. The marriage also proved ill-timed: the Habsburgs were too busy in Hungary to pay any serious attention to Brittany, and the Castilians were busy fighting in Granada. Although both Castile and England sent small numbers of troops to supplement the Ducal army, neither wished for open warfare with France. The spring of 1491 brought new successes by the French general La Trémoille, and Charles VIII of France came to lay siege to Rennes.

After Maximilian failed to come to his bride’s assistance, Rennes fell. Anne became engaged to Charles in the vault of the Jacobins in Rennes. Then, escorted by her army (ostensibly to show that she had willingly consented to the marriage), Anne went to Langeais to be married. Although Austria made diplomatic protests, claiming that the marriage was illegal because the bride was unwilling, that she was already legally married to Maximilian, and that Charles was legally betrothed to Margaret of Austria, Maximilian’s daughter, Anne celebrated her second wedding to Charles VIII at the Château de Langeais on 6 December 1491. The marriage contract provided that the spouse who outlived the other would retain possession of Brittany; however, it also stipulated that if Charles died without male heirs, Anne would marry his successor, thus ensuring the French kings a second chance to permanently annex Brittany.

Anne was able to negotiate a fair contract before marrying Louis XII. This contract ensured that the second child, son or daughter, would inherit the duchy of Brittany. Anne’s second marriage began badly: she brought two beds with her when she came to marry Charles, and the King and Queen often lived apart. She was anointed and crowned Queen of France at Saint-Denis on 8 February 1492; she was forbidden by her husband to use the title Duchess of Brittany, which became a bone of contention between the two. When her husband fought in the wars in Italy, the regency powers were exercised by his sister Anne of Beaujeu. Pregnant for most of her married life, Anne lived primarily in the royal castles of Amboise, Loches and Plessis or in the towns of Lyon, Grenoble or Moulins (when the king was in Italy). She briefly became Queen of Sicily and titular Queen of Jerusalem with the conquest of Naples by Charles VIII.

The marriage produced four living children, none of whom survived early childhood. Only the first, Charles Orland (11 October 1492 – 16 December 1495), survived infancy. A healthy and intelligent child, he was doted on by his parents, who both suffered terrible grief when he died suddenly of the measles. After him was born Charles, who lived for less than a month; and Francis and Anne, who each died almost immediately after being born. These tragedies caused a great deal of pain to Anne, who prayed openly for a son after the death of Francis.
When Charles VIII died in 1498, Anne was 21 years old and childless. Legally, she was now obliged to marry the new king, Louis XII; however, he was already married, to Joan, daughter of Louis XI and sister to Charles VIII. On 19 August 1498, at Étampes, she agreed to marry Louis if he obtained an annulment from Joan within a year. If she was gambling that the annulment would be denied, she lost: Louis’s first marriage was dissolved by Pope Alexander VI before the end of the year.

In the interim, in October 1498, Anne returned to rule Brittany. She restored the faithful Philippe de Montauban to the chancellery of Brittany, named Jean de Châlon, Prince of Orange, as Hereditary Lieutenant General of Brittany, convened the Estates of Brittany, and ordered production of a coin bearing her name. She took the opportunity to tour the Duchy, visiting many places she had never been able to see as a child. She made triumphal entries into the cities of the duchy, where her vassals received her sumptuously.

Anne’s third marriage ceremony, on 8 January 1499 was concluded under conditions radically different from those of the second. She was no longer a child, but a dowager queen, and determined to ensure the recognition of her rights as sovereign duchess from that point forward. Although her new husband exercised the ruler’s powers in Brittany, he formally recognized her right to the title “Duchess of Brittany” and issued decisions in her name.

As Duchess, Anne fiercely defended the independence of her Duchy. She arranged the marriage of her daughter, Claude, to Charles of Austria in 1501, to reinforce the Franco-Spanish alliance and ensure French success in the Italian Wars; however, Louis broke off the marriage when it became likely that Anne would not produce a male heir. Instead, Louis arranged a marriage between Claude and the heir to the French throne, Francis of Angoulême. Anne, determined to maintain Breton independence, refused until death to sanction the marriage, pushing instead for Claude to marry Charles, or for her other daughter, Renée, to inherit the Duchy.

Anne died at the Château de Blois on 9 January 1514 of a kidney-stone attack. She was buried in the necropolis of Saint Denis. Her funeral was exceptionally long, lasting 40 days, and it inspired all future French royal funerals until the 18th century. According to her will, Anne’s heart was placed in a raised enamel gold reliquary, then transported to Nantes to be deposited in the tomb made for her parents in the chapel of the Carmelite friars. This was done on 19 March 1514, but it was later transferred to the Saint-Pierre Cathedral. 
Anne’s will also conferred the succession of Brittany upon her second daughter, Renée. Her husband ignored this, confirmed Claude as Duchess, and married her to Francis of Angoulême the year following Anne’s death. When Francis became king in 1515 as Francis I, the Duchy of Brittany was once again the property of the queen consort of France.

Anne was a popular patron of arts. She commissioned Les Grandes Heures d'Anne de Bretagne, an outstandingly beautiful book of hours, illuminated in Tours or perhaps Paris by Jean Bourdichon between 1503 and 1508. It is now conserved in the Bibliothèque nationale de France as Ms lat. 9474. It has 49 full-page miniatures in a Renaissance style, and more than 300 pages have large borders illustrated with a careful depiction of, usually, a single species of plant.

The Battle of George Square

This Friday is the 97th anniversary of the great Glasgow strikes that culminated in the Battle of George Square, which took place in the streets of Glasgow on 29th January 1919.

In the crushing economic depression which marked the end of the Great War, 40,000 workers in Glasgow took strike action with the immediate aim of ending unemployment - sharing out the available work by limiting the brutal pre-WW1 working week of 54 hours. By 31st January, over 60,000 dockers, shipbuilders and steelworkers had downed tools. It was the largest mass picket since the Radical War of 1820, when the fledgling Scottish working-class rose in revolt to demand political rights from the aristocratic and distant Westminster government.

The strike was viciously brought to a close when Home Secretary Winston Churchill sent in 10,000 troops to restore order, armed with machine guns, tanks, Lewis guns and a howitzer - the very troops who had been fighting the ruling-class’s war of acquisition against the Kaiser found themselves again fighting for the interests of the elite in the biggest deployment of British troops on home soil to date.

The hurried peace concluded by the warring powers of Europe which ended the Great War obscures the fact that in reality it was ended by the mass action of working-class people: principally the conscious defeatist rejection of war by the Russian proletariat led by the Bolsheviks, and the mutinies by German and French soldiers and sailors sick of spilling their blood for a war-crazed aristocracy. The Glasgow strikes saw themselves firmly in solidarity with the workers all across Europe and Russia rising to throw off the chains of capitalism, and the Glasgow strike demonstrates how quickly immediate economic demands were swept up into abortive socialist revolution in the rarefied atmosphere of the post-war social breakdown. Remarkably, nobody was killed during the post-strike repression, authorities and dock owners clearly wary of provoking even greater social explosions by giving way to a 47-hour week: Churchill satisfied himself with jailing the strike’s leadership.

The “Red Clydesiders” were shoved back into their boxes, but their legacy was one strand of many in forging a new, enduring socialist consciousness amongst the Scottish working-class which still survives today.

10

“In U.C. 0080, with the fall of A Baoa Qu and the destruction of the Zabi family, the Principality of Zeon became a republic and concluded a peace agreement with the Earth Federation government.

"For the Earth Sphere, the six years between the end of the war and U.C. 0086 were a time of even greater confusion than during the war. Although the Zeon forces had been defeated, they still possessed greater military strength than the Federation Forces”

- from the ‘MS Encyclopedia’

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776

In something of an annual tradition here at Politicalprof, the complete text of the Declaration of Independence … a document everyone claims is awesome, but almost no one has actually bothered to read:

—————

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

2

history meme — italian version // two wars: the wars in lombardy

The wars in Lombardy were a series of conflicts between the Republic of Venice and the Duchy of Milan and their respective allies, fought in four campaigns in a struggle for hegemony in Northern Italy that ravaged the economy of Lombardy and weakened the power of Venice. They lasted from 1423 until the signing of the Treaty of Lodi in 1454. During their course, the political structure of Italy was transformed: out of a competitive congeries of communes and city-states emerged the five major Italian territorial powers that would make up the map of Italy for the remainder of the 15th century and the beginning of the Italian Wars at the turn of the 16th century, viz. Venice, Milan, Florence, the Papal States and Naples. Important cultural centers of Tuscany and Northern Italy—Siena, Pisa, Urbino, Mantua, Ferrara—became politically marginalized.

The wars, which were both a result and cause of Venetian involvement in the power politics of mainland Italy, found Venetian territory extended to the banks of the Adda and involved the rest of Italy in shifting alliances but only minor skirmishing. The shifting counterweight in the balance was the allegiance of Florence, at first allied with Venice against encroachments by Visconti Milan, then switching to ally with Francesco Sforza against the increasing territorial threat of Venice. The Peace of Lodi, concluded in 1454, brought forty years of comparative peace to Northern Italy, as Venetian conflicts focused elsewhere.

After the Treaty of Lodi, there was a balance of power resulting in a period of stability lasting for 40 years. During this time, there was a mutual pledge of non-aggression between the five Italian powers, sometimes known as the Italic League. Even there was frequent tension between Milan and Naples, the peace held remarkably well until the outbreak of the Italian Wars in 1494, as Milan called upon the king of France to press his claim on the kingdom of Naples. (x)