paul emile borduas

Paul-Émile Borduas, Untitled (One Bird), 1942, gouache, charcoal underdrawing. Collection of the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

Why all this Borduas?  Because he championed the secularization of the state in Quebec, challenging the authority of the dominant Catholic Church and the  paternalistic government who essentially banned most forms of modern art. His Refus Global helped to usher the province into the 20th century.  He also did it at the expense of his career and family, losing a prominent position at a school of fine arts in Montreal before dying in Paris at the age of 55 in 1960.