Blunt force trauma to the head often leads to skull fractures. The orbital plate of the base of the skull demonstrates multiple fractures (arrow) seen here in an older patient who fell backwards. The force of the blow was transmitted forward (a contra-coup injury pattern). 


You know how much I love interesting pathologies… so naturally I had to share these photos with you guys!

This is a conjoined bat that was either stillborn or died at birth (as evidenced by the attached placenta)! They were discovered in southeastern Brazil in 2001 and researchers believe the twins are Neotropical fruit bats (Artibeus).

These photos were taken by Nadja L. Pinheiro, from Área de Embriologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro.


- borderline personality disorder + Aileen Wuornos & Jeffrey Dahmer 

After a psychiatric analysis, they were both diagnosticated as borderline. Borderline personality disorder  is a serious mental illness marked by unstable moods, behavior, and relationships.

symptoms of BPD 

  • Extreme reactions—including panic, depression, rage, or frantic actions—to abandonment, whether real or perceived
  • A pattern of intense and stormy relationships with family, friends, and loved ones, often veering from extreme closeness and love (idealization) to extreme dislike or anger (devaluation)
  • Distorted and unstable self-image or sense of self, which can result in sudden changes in feelings, opinions, values, or plans and goals for the future (such as school or career choices)
  • Impulsive and often dangerous behaviors, such as spending sprees, unsafe sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, and binge eating
  • Recurring suicidal behaviors or threats or self-harming behavior, such as cutting
  • Intense and highly changeable moods, with each episode lasting from a few hours to a few days
  • Chronic feelings of emptiness and/or boredom
  • Inappropriate, intense anger or problems controlling anger
  • Having stress-related paranoid thoughts or severe dissociative symptoms, such as feeling cut off from oneself, observing oneself from outside the body, or losing touch with reality.

1. Scalp: 

5 layers 

S - the Skin on head from which head hair grows

C - Connective tissue. A dense subcutaneous layer of fat and fibrous tissue that lies beneath the skin, containing the nerves and vessels of the scalp.

AThe Aponeurosis called epicranial aponeurosis (Galea Aponeurotica). It is a tough layer of dense fibrous tissue which runs from the frontalis muscle anteriorly to the occipitals posteriorly.

LThe loose areolar connective tissue. In scalping the scalp is torn off through this layer. It also provides a plane of access in craniofacial surgery and neurosurgery. This layer is sometimes referred to as the “danger zone” because of the ease by which infectious agents can spread through it to emissary veins which then drain into the cranium. 

PThe pericranium is the periosteum of the skull bones and provides nutrition to the bone and the capacity for repair. It may be lifted from the bone to allow removal of bone windows

2. Skull:

It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain.
The skull is composed of 2 parts:

- the cranium
- the mandible

The human skull is generally considered to consist of 22 bones—8 cranial bones and 14 facial skeleton bones. In the neurocranium these are the occipital bone, 2 temporal bones, 2 parietal bones, the sphenoid, ethmoid and frontal bones.

The bones of the facial skeleton are the vomer, 2 nasal conchae, 2 nasal bones, 2 maxilla, the mandible, 2 palatine bones, 2 zygomatic bones, and 2 lacrimal bones. Some sources count a paired bone as one, or the maxilla as having two bones (as its parts); some sources include the hyoid bone or the three ossicles of the middle ear but the overall general consensus of the number of bones in the human skull is the stated twenty-two.

3. Dura mater:

Thick membrane that is the outermost of the three layers of the meninges. The dura surrounds the brain and the spinal cord and is responsible for keeping in the cerebrospinal fluid.

4. Arachnoid

2nd layer of the meninges

5. Pia mater

3rd layer of meninges

6. Subarachnoid space

Space between arachnoid mater and pia mater It is occupied by spongy tissue consisting of trabecular (delicate connective tissue filaments that extend from the arachnoid mater and blend into the pia mater) and intercommunicating channels in which the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is contained.

7. Cerebral cortex

The Cerebral Cortex is made up of tightly packed neurons and is the wrinkly, outermost layer that surrounds the brain. It is also responsible for higher thought processes including speech and decision making . The cortex is divided into four different lobes, the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital, which are each responsible for processing different types of sensory information. 


Racial differences in skull shape:

White (Caucasian) skull:

· top skull has a very flat profile

· bottom skull is ‘prognathic’ (it’s jaws protrude out)

· skull is relatively long and narrow when compared to Asian or African types

· less pronounced cheek bones and exhibit elongated chins

· nasal openings are triangular shaped with a more pronounced (protruding) nasal bridge

· the eye orbits are rectangular in shape, resembling aviator sunglasses, and somewhat sloped when viewed from the front

· teeth are smaller in comparison to other skull types and set closely together

Negroid (African) skull:

· skull is longer from front to back and has more of a forward slope from forehead to chin

· the slope causes a protrusion of the jaw, also referred to as prognathism

· the nasal opening is also broader

· the teeth are larger and show wider spacing than skulls from other races

Mongoloid (Asian) skull:

· skull tend to be shorter and broader when compared with European or African types

· the cheek bones are wide, flare out to the sides of the skull and are forward-sloping

· the eye orbits are rounded and don’t have the same downward slope as European skulls

· the upper incisors tend to be more “shovel shaped” than either European or African types

· the nasal opening is flared at the bottom, making it wider than the European skull

· asian skulls also have a less pronounced nasal bridge.

The large haemorrhage in this adult brain arose in the basal ganglia region of a patient with hypertension. This is classed as a haemorrhagic stroke. The other form of stroke is an ischemic stroke, which results from a blood clot blocking the flow of blood into areas of the brain.