pathogenic viruses

Every Hollow Has Its Favorite Sound (part 3)

4x15 Coda. FrameworkFitz is rescued/abducted by Daisy and Jemma. He doesn’t put up much of a fight.
Thanks to @bigfunnywords​ for beta reading. Previously.

“How long do you think we have left?” Daisy asked, her voice tight, as she held out the half-empty pretzel bag.

Jemma had never in her life pined for pancakes more strongly than she did right now, but their breakfast options were limited to the contents of the nearest vending machine. Outside, the sun was rising in a cloudless sky. She wondered idly if it ever rained in this world.

“It’s hard to say,” she admitted, cradling her cup of tea in her hands. “With continuous, full range of motion physical therapy and limited exposure to viruses and pathogens, patients who were in a coma for years have been known to make a full recovery. But without proper care… it could be a few months before our bodies shut down. And there’s no telling the effect of this kind of constant artificial stimulation on the brain either, not for such extended periods of time. Even in the short-term–”

“I knew I shouldn’t have asked,” Daisy grunted around another mouthful.

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Top Pathogens To Watch Out For and What They Do
World Health Organization brought together experts to identify emerging diseases with potential to generate a public health emergency.
By Melvin Sanicas

The group of experts represented a range of disciplines, including virology, microbiology, immunology, public health, clinical medicine, mathematical andcomputational modelling, product development, and respiratory and severe emerging infections. The list will be reviewed annually or when new diseases emerge. Do you know which ones made it to the list?

It’s Just a Little Bump in the Road...

Request: “Hi could you please do one in which the reader is a meta-human with amazing powers which they can’t figure out and shes been in star labs for a while now and barry likes her”

Originally posted by rememberofbreathe

(ok so i totally made up this power so i hope it’s not super lame or weird)

“Barry…don’t tell me you like her…” Caitlin quickly patched the young man up, ignoring his little yelps of pain. 

“Ok, I do, what’s so bad about that?” he winced as she poppedhis shoulder back in to place.

“She literally sneezed and you got blasted into a wall!”

“So, that’s just a little bump in the road. Every relationship has a problem you just got to work around.”

“You are an idiot,” she shook her head.

“Love is love, Caitlin dear,” he laughed. 

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Aromatherapy Tip of the Week

The natural oil extracted from the petals of rose is supposed to be amongst the priciest essential oils available. Rose essential oil possesses numerous therapeutic properties that help in boosting one’s physical and mental conditions. In addition, rose essential oil is known to be very coactive in blending with other natural oils. The aroma of rose essential oil is extremely long-lasting, so much so that even using a few drops of this oil will ensure that your small bottle lasts long.

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anonymous asked:

What are considered Gmos? My friend says that they have to be manipulated in a lab, but many biology blogs say that a selectively bred animal or plant is a gmo.

Hey! I can understand your confusion, and I apologize for being one of those people who purposefully muddies the water around the definition of what exactly is a genetically modified organism.

The best description I could find was the one legally defined by the European Union: “An organism is genetically modified if its genetic material has been changed in a way that does not occur under natural conditions through cross-breeding or natural recombination”

These would include things like, in agriculture, introduced resistances to things that crops would normally be susceptible to - either natural pathogens (fungi, parasites, bacteria, viruses, etc), or something like an artificially-created herbicide to facilitate weed management (“Roundup Ready” crops that are resistant to the glyphosate herbicide Roundup). Ideally, it is used to enable more sustainable and efficient farming.

This would also include genetically engineered animals - a phrase that likely sparks fear into the majority of people, but, like in the plants mentioned above, boils down to just the addition of recombinant DNA (essentially a controlled version of DNAs natural reproductive process of genetic recombination) that produces the desired trait. For example, AquAdvantage Salmon that reach adult size faster due to an introduced growth hormone gene being controlled by an ocean pout gene promoter; VERY good news for the fishing industry, and as a result, the environment - since this means less demand on wild-caught sources. Science is so cool, you guys.

On the other hand, you’ve probably heard terms like artificial selection or selective breeding bandied about - and this is essentially the pre-labs, extremely long-game version of GMOs. Not to mention the version that is usually touted as being better since it’s “natural”, as though anything produced in a lab is sent straight from the ninth circle of Hell itself (looking at you, anti-vaxxers)

These are things like most of our basic food crops and domesticated animals, where humans have affected the evolution of the target organism to get the desired trait over hundreds and thousands of years. Such as how the extinct aurochs became more meat-heavy cows, wild teosinte became higher-yield corn, and Brassica became literally everything else, to a point where I wouldn’t even be surprised if dogs had some B. oleracea in them. 

So, artificial selection and GMOs overlap in a lot of ways, but I hope I clarified the subject a little bit better. Enjoy your Brassica oleracea canis

my art / writing trade with sfheibai  ~<3 check out her highschool au art.

“Hello, cupcake…” the rough, smoky voice of the clique’s leader echoed through the halls. Dell swallowed his nervousness down, before he turned his attention to the man in front of him that had been his walking nightmare for the last three years.
“G'day, Jane.”

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anonymous asked:

Just wondering why your vegan. I'm assuming it's because how it's not humane the way they kill them. I assume this because I don't understand how people say it's not right to eat animal products, other animals on the food chain eat other animals so why can't we? We are born with K9 teeth, teeth that are meant to chew meat. So once again I'm just wondering why

Hey love! first off, I appreciate that you asked this in a non-judgmental and open-minded way. Yes, I know that some vegans preaching and shoving their beliefs down your throat can be overwhelming at times; but treating ALL vegans with hostility simply because some are excessively passionate isn’t fair. And I’ve had way too many critical, rude, and hateful messages in my inbox about veganism. So really, I do appreciate that you worded this with genuine curiosity and civility. I respect your decision to include meat in your diet, and I’d like to explain why I choose personally choose to be vegan for my body, the planet, and the animals.

To start off, I’ll tackle your main concern. Where are we getting our protein?

In a vegan diet, it’s more than easy to get the necessary amount of protein for your body to not only survive, but thrive. Contrary to popular belief, excessive protein is NOT optimal for your health (or your muscle growth, for that matter). Ironically, what people often don’t realize is that in developed countries, the problem isn’t that people aren’t getting enough protein, it’s that they’re getting too much! Eating excessive amounts of animal protein has been linked to the development of endometrial, pancreatic, and prostate cancers (Read The China Study to learn more about this – thoroughly discussed in the first few pages). Nutrition experts estimate that most of us need between 0.8 and 1 gram of protein per day for every kilogram of body weight. That works out to 55 grams of protein per day for someone who weighs 150 pounds or approximately 10 percent of normal caloric intake (people in endurance training and pregnant women might require a bit more, of course). If a vegan eats a reasonably varied diet (a balance between whole foods) and consumes a sufficient amount of calories, he or she will undoubtedly get enough protein. And, unlike animal protein, plant-based protein sources contain healthy fiber and complex carbohydrates. Oh, and just to add on to that: plant-based protein is MEANT for our bodies. While virtually all vegan foods contain some amount of protein, soybeans are protein powerhouses. Soybeans contain all the essential amino acids and surpass all other plant foods in the amount of protein that they can deliver to humans. Other rich sources of non-animal protein include legumes, nuts, seeds, food yeasts, and freshwater algae.

Eating cooked meat creates excess uric acid and ammonia in the body, both of which are toxic to the system. The proteins in cooked food become denatured, and, as a result, the polypeptide bonds cannot be broken down into amino acids. These polypeptides are treated as foreign invaders and must be excreted through the kidneys. The cell wall of the kidneys doesn’t allow for easy transport of these substances, causing the distress that leads to kidney stones and eventually to kidney failure. Cooked grains cause fermentation in the body that produces gas, alcohol, and acetic acid; protoplasmic poisons that kill every cell with which they come into contact. Studies have shown that the immune system often reacts to the introduction of cooked food into the bloodstream the same way it does to foreign pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Cooking food denatures the proteins, renders the fats carcinogenic, and caramelizes the carbohydrates. Many other nutrients are damaged, deranged, or destroyed by the heating process, leaving mostly empty calories. Regular consumption of cooked foods results in a detrimental enlargement of the pancreas. (Paragraph quoted by Dr. Douglas Graham)

 Now what about calcium? Well, believe it or not, milk isn’t some calcium powerhouse. As a matter of fact, almond milk has 50% MORE calcium than dairy. And by the time I’m done talking about the dairy industry, which is particularly inhumane, you’ll most likely be regretting that glass of milk you had this morning.

And that brings me to my next argument: the morality of veganism. When I became vegan, it was initially completely health-based. The processed, unnatural, and detrimental meats and dairy products that I was poisoning my body with disgusted me. It wasn’t until about two months into my veganism that I was really introduced to the slaughterhouses.

Let’s talk about the dairy cows:

Cows produce milk for the same reason that humans do: to nourish their young. In order to force the animals to continue giving milk, factory farm operators typically impregnate them using artificial insemination every year. Calves are generally taken from their mothers within a day of being born—males are destined for veal crates or barren lots where they will be fattened for beef, and females are sentenced to the same fate as their mothers. After their calves are taken away from them, mother cows are hooked up, several times a day, to milking machines. These cows are genetically manipulated, artificially inseminated, and often drugged to force them to produce about four and a half times as much milk as they naturally would to feed their calves. Animals are often dosed with bovine growth hormone (BGH), which contributes to a painful inflammation of the udder known as “mastitis.” (BGH is used widely in the U.S. but has been banned in Europe and Canada because of concerns over human health and animal welfare.)According to the industry’s own figures, between 30 and 50 percent of dairy cows suffer from mastitis, an extremely painful condition. A cow’s natural lifespan is about 25 years, but cows used by the dairy industry are killed after only four or five years. An industry study reports that by the time they are killed, nearly 40 percent of dairy cows are lame because of the intensive confinement, the filth, and the strain of being almost constantly pregnant and giving milk. Dairy cows’ bodies are turned into soup, companion animal food, or low-grade hamburger meat because their bodies are too “spent” to be used for anything else.

 Now what about the health risks associated with dairy? Dairy is unnatural and unhealthy to consume. Even fat reduced dairy products contain 25% fat calories. There is as much fat in 1 glass of low fat milk as there are in 3 slices of bacon! Each day the average American consumes the equivalent amount of cholesterol contained in 53 slices of bacon just from milk and dairy products. Cholesterol is what contributes to heart disease, the number one killer of Americans! We don’t realize that cheese and butter is a concentrated form of dairy fat. All the water is removed, leaving the fat intact. Milk is linked to a number of health problems, including gastrointestinal, dermatological and respiratory, with symptoms that include bloating, cramping, diarrhea, constipation, acne, zits, hives, skin rashes, asthma and sinusitis. Studies have found that autism and schizophrenia in children may be linked to the body’s inability to digest casein, a milk protein; symptoms of these diseases diminished or disappeared in 80 percent of the children who switched to milk-free diets. A U.K. study showed that people who suffered from irregular heartbeats, asthma, headaches, fatigue, and digestive problems “showed marked and often complete improvements in their health after cutting milk from their diets.” Bovine (cow) proteins trigger allergies because they are foreign to our system. Ingesting dairy causes an inflammatory immune response ALWAYS! The body does not recognize it as a friendly food and the immune system works to rid the body of the foreign invader. It is known that American women consume tremendous amounts of calcium, yet their rates of osteoporosis are among the highest in the world. Conversely, Chinese people consume half as much calcium (most of it from plant sources) and have very low incidences of the bone disease. Medical studies indicate, that rather than preventing the disease, milk may actually increase women’s risk of getting osteoporosis. A Harvard Nurses’ Study of more than 77,000 women ages 34 to 59 found that those who consumed two or more glasses of milk per day had higher risks of broken hips and arms than those who drank one glass or less per day. Excessive consumption of dairy interferes with the absorption of calcium. Also the excess of protein in dairy is a major cause of osteoporosis, as dairy accelerates its development. Our body must leech calcium out of our bones to neutralize the acid created by protein consumption.

If you’re interesting in looking further into veganism, here are some documentaries + a list of informative books! 

1. Earthlings 

(Age-restricted). I actually had to watch this one periodically, as I couldn’t seem to get through the first twenty minutes without being completely shaken up. It’s a really graphic video, but also very thought-provoking and makes you question your own morals/values and your responsibility as a human being on this Earth.  It’s considered one of the most persuasive vegan films. 

2. Home

As cliche as this sound, Home really makes you feel in touch with nature and reminds us how powerful humans are and how important it is that we use this power to benefit all other creatures of Earth.

3. 101 Reasons to Go Vegan

The first vegan video I was ever exposed to, and it just about pushed me over the edge and sparked my interest in vegan nutrition. It’s incredibly relatable, persuasive, and thought-provoking. When I first watched this video, I was chewing away at my chicken breast (which I ate almost every night for dinner). I credit my new lifestyle to this AMAZING speech. 

4.  Vegan Sense

Ellen Degeneres has always been a very influential person in my life; I respect her conduct, morals, and overall outlook on life. When I first saw this little “mini-speech”, I absolutely LOVED it. She has such a way with words!

5. The Best Speech You Will Ever Hear

I loved how relatable this video was. There’s no denying that this man is incredibly persuasive, and the logic behind what he’s saying really makes you question your role as a human! 

Books to check out: 

80/10/10 by Dr. Douglas Graham, The China Study and Whole by T. Collin Campbell, Eat To Live by Joel Fuhrman, Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease by Caldwell Esselstyn, Skinny Bitch by Kim Barnouin, Diet for a New America by John Robbins, Eating Animals by Jonathon Saffron Foer, The Omnivore’s Dilemma by Michael Pollan, and Forks Over Knives by Gene Stone

I hope you found this informative and insightful. Once again, I thank you for asking this in such a respectful way, and I hope this helps clear my side of the argument up! Much love to you! xoxoxo

Fiber-Optic Solar Toilet Turns Sewage To Plant Friend

by Michael Keller

World Water Day is coming up this Saturday. One of the event’s goals is to bring attention to the billion people who live without access to safe drinking water.

A major obstacle standing before that objective is a lack of the sanitation that would prevent human waste from polluting water supplies. One innovation, a solar-powered, fiber-optic-equipped toilet that requires no water and sanitizes sewage with high heat, is among several that are trying to fix the problem and improve public health.

Developed by engineers at University of Colorado Boulder, the system uses eight parabolic mirrors that focus sunlight onto an area the size of a postage stamp. This energy is then piped through fiber-optic cables to a reaction chamber that heats waste to 600 degrees Fahrenheit. 

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Why do people have such a problem with re-boiling water to make tea or cook with? Why do people have such a problem with boiling water from the hot-water tap, and insist you use the cold? I’ve heard something about the oxygen solubility/concentration in the water, but that shouldn’t affect the taste or “healthiness” of water. Is there any scientific basis for this distrust of twice-boiled water?

Asked by anonymous


Good question; many people pass on inaccurate claims without critically examining the evidence. There is no scientific evidence to suggest that boiling water twice is either necessary or harmful.

Boiling water for a minimum of one minute removes all of the pathogenic microorganisms such bacteria and viruses. Two pathogens that are particularly vulnerable to boiled water are the parasites Cryptosporidium, which cause gastrointestinal illness, and Giardia lamblia, which cause Giardiasis, “the most common pathogenic parasitic infection of humans”, which infects the intestines of 280 million people worldwide annually, according to a Clinical Microbiology Reviews paper.

Chemistry expert Anne Helmenstine, Ph.D., says that “generally, boiling water, allowing it to cool and then reboiling it does not present much of a health risk. If you keep water in a tea kettle, boil it and add water when the level gets low, you aren’t likely to endanger your health. It’s best if you don’t let water boil down, which concentrates minerals and contaminants”.

So reboiling water isn’t really the issue– it may even be beneficial with regard to pathogen removal. The real concern is letting the water boil down, because, as Dr. Helmensteine explained, evaporation may concentrate minerals or contaminants in the water.


 ”A Guide to Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 10 Apr. 2009.

Esch, K. J., and C. A. Petersen. “Transmission and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Protozoal Diseases of Companion Animals.” Clinical Microbiology Reviews 26.1 (2013): 58-85.

Helmensteine, Anne Marie. “Is It Safe to Reboil Water?” About. About Education, 24 Apr. 2014. Web. Sept. 2014.

Answered by John M., Expert Leader.

Edited by Margaret G.

Close Quarters Pt. 1

Sherlock and Molly don’t get on so much post-hlv. During one of the evenings Sherlock finally gets Molly to work with him they get exposed to some disease and put under quarantine. Ensue the two bickering it out behind locked rooms for almost a week. Someone write it.

conchepcion posted this prompt some time back and I couldn’t resist and started this story while waiting an eternity at the registration office. Not sure how many parts it will have yet. Anyway enjoy!

Other chapters:

Close Quarters Pt. 2

Everything had happened so fast. One moment they had been examining the body, the next they had been locked inside the morgue. She couldn’t recall how exactly they had been sprayed in blood. It must have been her fault. One wrong movement, one little cut, just an inch too deep. It didn’t matter now anyway. Now it was too late.

Now Molly was standing under the decontamination shower, cleaning herself as thoroughly as possible while her clothes were already carried away, sealed into plastic bags. It was the standard procedure, nothing to worry about. At least that was what she kept telling herself over and over again. Stick to the list, everything will be fine. And still she couldn’t quite push away that tiny bit of fear, this nagging feeling at the back of her mind, constantly reminding her of the fact that it actually could be something bad; something really bad, judging by the dead body lying on the cold steel table next door.

A gentle knock on the door pulled her out of her thoughts.

“Molly? Are you ok?” John asked through the door.

“Yeah, nearly done. I will be out in a minute,” she shouted back turning the water off and stepping out of the shower.

Pulling on the fresh scrubs the morgue had stashed away for a case like this she thought about what would happen next. Broad-spectrum antibiotic shots first, then isolation until the blood tests were through. They would start with the more worrying fatal diseases, working their way through a long list of possible viruses and pathogens. That John had to go through all of this was only a precautionary measure. He didn’t stand close to the corpse, the dead man’s blood never touched him but you could never be too careful. But that surely meant that he would be separated from them. Great, just what I needed. A potentially deadly disease and being locked away with Sherlock for God knows how long. Molly took another deep breath before reaching for the door and stepping outside.

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