particle wave duality

How do we know light is a wave?

Before I answer this question, I’ll need to briefly go over a wave property called superposition. Basically, superposition is the idea that two waves can be in the same position at the same time, and interfere with each other:

When the two waves add to each other and make a larger wave, we call this constructive interference. When the waves cancel each other out, we call this destructive interference. 

Now we’re going to move on to the Double Slit Experiment. Basically, you shine a beam of light at a piece of metal, cardboard, etc with two slits in it, with a surface behind it where you can see the light hit it. 

If light is a wave, what we’d expect to see would be an interference pattern created by the light from the first slit interfering with light from the second slit, which is exactly what we see. It’s a pattern of constructive interference (brighter regions) and destructive interference (darker regions), looking like this:

These images are helpful:

that is how we know light acts as a wave!!

Illustration of Wave Particle Duality.

Wave Particle Duality is one of the most astounding discoveries ever made. Light behaves as a Wave when it is not observed but behaves as a Particle when observed. We all Vibrate through the Structure of Space-Time and we make Waves just like Photons. So are we Particles or Waves? We are Both. Observation Creates your Reality. Math and Art blended as one and the same, Pure Geometry.

Equation #11: Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

Anyone who is not shocked by Quantum Mechanics has not quite understood it”-Niels Bohr

I agree Mr. Bohr, QM does blow your mind. The uncertainty principle is one of those things that prove that our perception of the world is limited. Anything in the universe can be both wave and particle at the same time and that puts a limit to how accurate our measurements can be.
What that means in our context is that, if you try to measure the velocity(or momentum) of a particle as well as its position at the same instant, you cannot have exact values of both. If you measure position accurately, the value of velocity will have some uncertainty associated with it and vice a versa. 

The reason we don’t observe this phenomenon in everyday life is is that the uncertainty values are very, very tiny. A person moving with a velocity of say, 5 km/hr (+or - 0.05 km/hr) and weighing 60 kg will have the uncertainty in position = 1.8 * 10^-35 meters! That’s smaller than the radius of an atomic nucleus. However, when you go into the realm of lightweight, superfast entities(like subatomic particles), the uncertainties get larger and can have a significant effect on the macroscopic properties of an object. 

The uncertainty principle applies to a number of pair of observables other than momentum and position. Most common example is that of energy-time which explains the working of Strong force, according to some theories.

It is important to understand that this fundamental limit is not due to experimental errors, rather a phenomenon of nature itself.

You cannot predict, even theoretically, the exact values of two so called “incompatible” quantities simultaneously.

For uncertainty principle in action, see
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a8FTr2qMutA

For more clarification, see
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=noZWLPpj3to

and
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7vc-Uvp3vwg

Quantum Tunneling 

Quantum tunneling refers to the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically could not surmount. This plays an essential role in several physical phenomena, such as the nuclear fusion that occurs in main sequence stars like the Sun. It has important applications to modern devices such as the tunnel diode, quantum computing, and the scanning tunneling microscope. The effect was predicted in the early 20th century and its acceptance as a general physical phenomenon came mid-century.

Tunneling is often explained using the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the wave–particle duality of matter. Pure quantum mechanical concepts are central to the phenomenon, so quantum tunneling is one of the novel implications of quantum mechanics.

source

anonymous asked:

be safe gogo

Hey did you know that you differ from classical physics in that energy, momentum and other quantities are often restricted to discrete values (quantization), objects have characteristics of both particles and waves (wave-particle duality), and there are limits to the precision with which quantities can be known (Uncertainty principle).

6

Ask Ethan: do gravitational waves exhibit wave-particle duality?

“We’ve actually got a few chances for this, although LIGO is unlikely to succeed at any of them. You see, quantum gravitational effects are strongest and most pronounced where you have strong gravitational fields in play at very tiny distances. How better to probe this than for merging black holes?! When two singularities merge together, these quantum effects — which should be departures from General Relativity — will show up at the moment of the merger, and just before (at the end of the inspiral) and just after (at the start of the ringdown) phases.”

Now that gravitational waves have been verified to exist, and the first black hole-black hole merger has been definitively detected by LIGO, it’s time to start thinking of the next steps in gravitational wave astronomy. The biggest one we can dream of, perhaps the holy grail of this field of study, is to go beyond General Relativity itself, and to find evidence that gravitation is a truly quantum theory at its core. If that’s true, then these gravitational waves should exhibit wave-particle duality, just like all the other quantum entities we know of. In this case, detecting the wave-like phenomenon, which took a century to do, was the easy part; detecting the particle nature of gravitons will be the hard part. Nevertheless, even though this is likely beyond the reach of LIGO, future missions will have a chance to see these quantum effects down the road.

Wave particle duality is a core feature of our world. Or rather, we should say, it is a core feature of our mathematical descriptions of our world. But what is critical to note here is that, however ambiguous our images, the universe itself remains whole and is manifestly not fracturing into schizophrenic shards. It is this tantalizing wholeness and the thing itself that drives physicists onward like an eternally beckoning light that seems so teasingly near. It is always out of reach.
—  Margaret Wertheim
Nerdy Pick up Lines
  • “girl, do you have wave-particle duality? because, you LIGHT up my world.”
  • “girl, are you gravity? because, i keep falling for you.”
  • “girl, are you a black hole? because, when you are near, time just slows down for me.”
  • “girl, are you circumference divided by diameter? i can go on forever thinking about you.”
  • “girl, are you an alchemist? because, you turn my life into gold.”
  • “girl, is your heart made out of black hole? because, when you are near, i feel gravitational waves passing through me.”
  • “girl, are you a supermassive black hole? my whole galaxy revolves around you.”
  • “girl, are you zero divided by zero? because, i can’t define how beautiful you are.”
youtube

Finding quantum mechanics in a cup of coffee. This is a great video from Sixty Symbols featuring an atomic-scale sculpture and an interesting experiment with a cup o’ joe.

A most saddening revelation it is to be convinced that in this existence there are only endless waves which spiral aloofly from one point to an infinitely unreachable other. Waves I would so audaciously perceive as precious particles, as a material less indifferent. Waves that are neurologically translated into an image of stability and steadiness, something solid; something I would desperately grasp on to and that I convince myself I have been holding on to since those zygotic moments. But one cannot hold a wave, instead waves pass through me, around me, they are me. I will move with them for a time too brief, and for a time too brief I will believe moving with the waves is the same as moving by will. And I will never fully accept the consequence of being this way. Of being endlessly shifting ripples, for in all their infinity they cannot make a human, they are not solid. They cannot be held on to.