particle collision

5

New tattoo: subatomic particles photographed colliding.

Referenced Image: Computer enhanced photo of sub-atomic particle collision in a linear accelerator’s ‘bubble chamber’.

Why I got it: It’s a part of my wrist tattoo of the Fibonnaci spiral that extends over to the rest of my arm of examples where the Fibonnaci spiral seems to appear. Examples of the intricate beauty and mysterious patterns that reoccur in nature, be it tiny subatomic particles colliding, little sea shells washing up on the shore, or massive galaxies at work, it’s a pattern that appears every where you look in nature.

vernon; lucida

genre: fluff/romance

word count: 1141

characters: Hansol Vernon Chwe/Original Female

(a/n) for all the stargazers out there! happy valentines day to my valentine @vivavernon, and a big thank you to @vernkn for adding to the starry aesthetic 

On the warmest day in winter, they decided to stargaze.

Well, she decided. Vernon would’ve gone anywhere with her (yet another movie marathon was his first choice) but she really wanted to sit under the stars, and who was he to object to his favorite girl’s request? The prospect did sound romantic, kissing under a beautiful night sky with his beautiful girl, so he was all for it.

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unburn me with your umbra

I am satellite lost
(to a collection of massacred moons),
dripping data into pools unswum

darkness as substance,
not a lack there of

petrochemical plant pastels
cleanse the virus from the system
but the system cannot afford the canvas’
deductibles

a course– taken
                                             for granted

pathogenic pathways through
my melting permafrost

I hide the last glacier in your shadow
and break bread with the mammoth’s
bones

what prayer is left in my particles
                       asks only

                     for collision

Originally posted by myloveseokjin

lost

It’s a thing called life. 

Everything in existence, everything within the scope of our understanding, as far as we know it to be goes through this thing called life. 

Some say it’s meant to be.

Some say it’s the work of a higher being.

Some say it’s the collision of particles, the perfect formula and balance of the right things at the right place at the right time that created this spark, that created us. 

We will never know for certain. 

Surely not when this thing called life is viewed from so many different perspectives, experienced from so many different circumstances and carried through by so many different hands. 

Surely not.

Some say there is life after death. 

Namjoon knows there is life after death. 

We are masses of energy created by the universe, he tells you, and energy doesn’t die.

It transforms.

On days where the sun kisses your skin and the breeze holds you in her arms, you feel as though you could fall into those worlds, as though you could exist forever. 

Forever in a world where Namjoon exists and so do you. 

And that makes you happy, happy that of all the lifetimes, of all the dust of possibilities, you existed in a world where he was yours and you were his. 

But there were days, overcasted and heavy, the world misted over in a cloud of grey despair and suffering, it was days like these that you wished nothing will last forever. 

Especially not you. 

Because how? How long do you have to go around and around in circles, pouring over the reason for your existence, over the reason why you always feel like you are the lesser person, the imperfection in this circle of life. 

How could you think of forever when death to you can be the answer? 

When death is a destination, not the start of a new beginning?

It was days like these that Namjoon climbs through the window you never remember to lock, finds you curled up in bed, messes sprawled all over your floors, your covers pulled right over you so tightly you could hardly breathe but feel tormented all the same. 

It was days like these that he takes you in his arms and strokes your hair, kisses your temple and soothes your tears. 

He never, not once told you that things will be okay.

That you are stronger than this.

That you can do this if you try.

No.

Namjoon holds you close and whispers that he is here. 

That he wants you to remember that no matter what he is not going anywhere. 

That he believes in you.

Keep your head up, flower. 

You will find your place.

Your people.

Different versions of yourself.

You will find your own answers to questions.

Good.

And bad.

They will be different from everyone else because there is no one out there like you. 

And that is fine. 

You will find the path, no, rather you will make your own path, the one you are made to take. 

But even if you don’t, one day you’d see. 

That perhaps being lost, isn’t so bad afterall.

That perhaps being alive, isn’t so bad afterall.

Originally posted by bangthebae

i’ve been feeling pretty trapped in myself lately and i know many of you are going through similar experiences and heartache. i hope this makes you feel better, at least just a little. also it’s been awhile since i wrote something for the bae, so i thought why not

- Raye (⑅´•⌔•`)*✲゚*。

d0g-bless  asked:

I have a couple sentence prompts. Would you do one of these for a Shidge fic? “I have in front of me: One DVD, seven remote controls, and an entertainment center. This will be a voyage of discovery.” OR “Fight me. Pillow fight. And by fight I mean cuddle.”

AH thank you! Both of these prompts were sooo good. I am genuinely surprised that I didn’t go with the pillow fight one… maybe next time. Because I’m terrible, this is actually a follow up to the last Shidge ficlet I did.  And, like the last one, this one is silly long. I hope you enjoy!

There were very few certainties in the universe. She’d been told as much in the upper level physics classes she’d sneak into when Matt was still at the Garrison. Numbers could get you far, past the point where real became intangible, but the further you went, the more probability became just that: chance

It wasn’t certain that the sun that had risen over a small, blue planet for millions of years wouldn’t suddenly buckle in on itself, taking everything with it. It wasn’t certain that the alien life hailing over the comm was friendly. Staying alive wasn’t a certainty, but then again, neither was staying dead. Even the laws of gravity, which Katie had sworn by every day for the first seventeen years of her life, were far from certain. Newton had gotten a decent amount right, but then again, he’d been pretty certain that there weren’t ancient extraterrestrial species zipping around space with complete disregard for his laws and calculations millennia before the Earth was even two particles destined for a collision course. Katie had learned that whole ‘gravity isn’t a certainty’ thing the hard way, over and over again, for her next four years.

All of this Katie reflects on in the first few ticks of wakefulness. That was the problem with the healing pod, as far as she was concerned: her brain went offline for who knew how long, and when she finally rebooted, it was like one hundred different programs were all trying to start up at once.

 Her brain provides more examples of uncertainties as the thick restoration suspension drains from the rest of the pod. Opening her eyes, she blinks away the quick-drying fluid. It’s not so much that she expects to see anything past the thick, lighted glass of the pod, as that she doesn’t want the liquid to cake her eyes shut.

Seeing through the glass is an impossibility, but in an unpredictable universe, she is positive that there’s someone just on the other side. She feels the tug on her bones as gravity starts to take its hold once more in the pod. For once, there are two things she can be utterly certain of: her knees will give out the moment gravity is fully restored, and Shiro will catch her.

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3

‘Perfect liquid’ quark-gluon plasma is the most vortical fluid

Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid.

The new analysis of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) - a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility for nuclear physics research at Brookhaven National Laboratory - shows that the “vorticity” of the QGP surpasses the whirling fluid dynamics of super-cell tornado cores and Jupiter’s Great Red Spot by many orders of magnitude, and even beats out the fastest spin record held by nanodroplets of superfluid helium.

The results, just published in Nature, add a new record to the list of remarkable properties ascribed to the quark-gluon plasma. This soup made of matter’s fundamental building blocks - quarks and gluons - has a temperature hundreds of thousands of times hotter than the center of the sun and an ultralow viscosity, or resistance to flow, leading physicists to describe it as “nearly perfect.”

By studying these properties and the factors that control them, scientists hope to unlock the secrets of the strongest and most poorly understood force in nature - the one responsible for binding quarks and gluons into the protons and neutrons that form most of the visible matter in the universe today.

Specifically, the results on vorticity, or swirling fluid motion, will help scientists sort among different theoretical descriptions of the plasma. And with more data, it may give them a way to measure the strength of the plasma’s magnetic field - an essential variable for exploring other interesting physics phenomena.

“Up until now, the big story in characterizing the QGP is that it’s a hot fluid that expands explosively and flows easily,” said Michael Lisa, a physicist from Ohio State University (OSU) and a member of RHIC’s STAR collaboration. “But we want to understand this fluid at a much finer level. Does it thermalize, or reach equilibrium, quickly enough to form vortices in the fluid itself? And if so, how does the fluid respond to the extreme vorticity?” The new analysis, which was led by Lisa and OSU graduate student Isaac Upsal, gives STAR a way to get at those finer details.

Aligning spins

“The theory is that if I have a fluid with vorticity - a whirling substructure - it tends to align the spins of the particles it emits in the same direction as the whirls,” Lisa said. And, while there can be many small whirlpools within the QGP all pointing in random directions, on average their spins should align with what’s known as the angular momentum of the system - a rotation of the system generated by the colliding particles as they speed past one another at nearly the speed of light.

To track the spinning particles and the angular momentum, STAR physicists correlated simultaneous measurements at two different detector components. The first, known as the Beam-Beam Counters, sit at the front and rear ends of the house-size STAR detector, catching subtle deflections in the paths of colliding particles as they pass by one another. The size and direction of the deflection tells the physicists how much angular momentum there is and which way it is pointing for each collision event.

Meanwhile, STAR’s Time Project Chamber, a gas-filled chamber that surrounds the collision zone, tracks the paths of hundreds or even thousands of particles that come out perpendicular to the center of the collisions.

“We’re specifically looking for signs of Lambda hyperons, spinning particles that decay into a proton and a pion that we measure in the Time Projection Chamber,” said Ernst Sichtermann, a deputy STAR spokesperson and senior scientist at DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Because the proton comes out nearly aligned with the hyperon’s spin direction, tracking where these “daughter” protons strike the detector can be a stand-in for tracking how the hyperons’ spins are aligned.

“We are looking for some systematic preference for the direction of these daughter protons aligned with the angular momentum we measure in the Beam-Beam Counters,” Upsal said. “The magnitude of that preference tells us the degree of vorticity - the average rate of swirling - of the QGP.”

Super spin

The results reveal that RHIC collisions create the most vortical fluid ever, a QGP spinning faster than a speeding tornado, more powerful than the fastest spinning fluid on record. “So the most ideal fluid with the smallest viscosity also has the most vorticity,” Lisa said.

This kind of makes sense, because low viscosity in the QGP allows the vorticity to persist, Lisa said. “Viscosity destroys whirls. With QGP, if you set it spinning, it tends to keep on spinning.”

The data are also in the ballpark of what different theories predicted for QGP vorticity. “Different theories predict different amounts, depending on what parameters they include, so our results will help us sort through those theories and determine which factors are most relevant,” said Sergei Voloshin, a STAR collaborator from Wayne State University. “But most of the theoretical predications were too low,” he added. “Our measurements show that the QGP is even more vortical than predicted.”

This discovery was made during the Beam Energy Scan program, which exploits RHIC’s unique ability to systematically vary the energy of collisions over a range in which other particularly interesting phenomena have been observed. In fact, theories suggest that this may be the optimal range for the discovery and subsequent study of the vorticity-induced spin alignment, since the effect is expected to diminish at higher energy.

Increasing the numbers of Lambda hyperons tracked in future collisions at RHIC will improve the STAR scientists’ ability to use these measurements to calculate the strength of the magnetic field generated in RHIC collisions. The strength of magnetism influences the movement of charged particles as they are created and emerge from RHIC collisions, so measuring its strength is important to fully characterize the QGP, including how it separates differently charged particles.

“Theory predicts that the magnetic field created in heavy ion experiments is much higher than any other magnetic field in the universe,” Lisa said. At the very least, being able to measure it accurately may nab another record for QGP.


TOP IMAGE….Tracking particle spins reveals that the quark-gluon plasma created at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is more swirly than the cores of super-cell tornados, Jupiter’s Great Red Spot, or any other fluid! Credit Brookhaven National Laboratory

CENTRE IMAGE….Telltale signs of a lambda hyperon (Λ) decaying into a proton (p) and a pion (π-) as tracked by the Time Projection Chamber of the STAR detector. Because the proton comes out nearly aligned with the hyperon’s spin direction, tracking where these 'daughter’ protons strike the detector can be a stand-in for tracking how the hyperons’ spins are aligned. Credit Brookhaven National Laboratory

LOWER IMAGE….The STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory with a superimposed image of particles tracked by the detector. Credit Brookhaven National Laboratory

UCLA physicists discover apparent departure from the laws of thermodynamics

According to the basic laws of thermodynamics, if you leave a warm apple pie in a winter window eventually the pie would cool down to the same temperature as the surrounding air.

For chemists and physicists, cooling samples of charged particles, also called ions, makes them easier to control and study. So they use a similar approach – called buffer gas cooling – to lower the temperature of ions by trapping them and then immersing them in clouds of cold atoms. Collisions with the atoms cool the originally hot ions by transferring energy from the ions to the atoms – much the same way a warm pie is cooled next to the cold window, said Eric Hudson, associate professor of physics at UCLA.

But new research by Hudson and his team, published in the journal Nature Communications, demonstrates that ions never truly cool to the temperature of the surrounding gas. Also, very surprisingly, they discovered that under certain conditions, two final temperatures exist, and the temperature that the ions choose depends on their starting temperature.

“This apparent departure from the familiar laws of thermodynamics is akin to our warm apple pie either cooling as expected or spontaneously bursting into flames, depending on the pie’s exact temperature when it is placed in the window,” said Hudson, the senior author of the study.

The UCLA researchers have, for the first time, placed fundamental limits on the use of buffer gas cooling in “ion traps.” To perform their experiment, the researchers prepared a microscopic sample of laser cooled ions of the chemical element barium and immersed them in clouds of roughly 3 million laser-cooled calcium atoms. The researchers make molecules extremely cold under highly controlled conditions to reveal the quantum mechanical properties that are normally hidden.

The ions were trapped in an apparatus that levitates charged particles by using electric fields that oscillate millions of times per second, confining the ions to a region smaller than the width of a human hair. Both the atomic and ionic samples were brought to ultra-cold temperatures –just one-thousandth of a degree above absolute zero – via a technique in which the momentum of light in a laser is used to slow particle motion.

After allowing collisions between the atoms and ions to occur and the system to reach its final temperature, the physicists removed the calcium atoms and measured the temperature of the barium ions. The results, which show the existence of multiple final temperatures based on ion number and initial temperature, suggest that subtle non-equilibrium physics is at play.

The researchers trace these strange features to the heating and cooling rates which exist in the system – the peculiar temperature dependence of the interaction among multiple ions in an ion trap. Both simulation and theory support their experimental findings, and paint the buffer-gas cooling process as a fundamentally nuanced, non-equilibrium process rather than the straightforward equilibrium process it was originally understood to be.

Lead author Steven Schowalter, a graduate student researcher in Hudson’s laboratory and now a staff scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said, “Our results demonstrate that you can’t just throw any buffer gas into your device – no matter how cold it is – and expect it to work as an effective coolant.”

Buffer gas cooling is crucial in fields ranging from forensics to the production of antimatter. Hudson’s research group has discovered important nuances that revise the current understanding of the cooling process, explain the difficulties encountered in previous cooling experiments and show a new path forward for creating ultra-cold ion samples. With this framework the researchers showed how troublesome effects can be overcome and even exploited to study the mechanisms at play in molecular motors and single-atom heat engines in a precisely controlled manner.

“Of course, this work does not violate the laws of thermodynamics, but it does demonstrate there are still some interesting, potentially useful things to learn about buffer gas cooling,” said John Gillaspy, a physics division program director at the National Science Foundation, which funds the research. “This is the sort of fundamental research that can really guide a wide range of more applied research efforts, helping other scientists and engineers to avoid going down dead-end paths and illuminating more fruitful directions they might take instead.”

Blue-sky bifurcation of ion energies and the limits of neutral-gas sympathetic cooling of trapped ions
Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12448 (2016)
doi:10.1038/ncomms12448

UCLA

Giant Accelerator Ready to Restart in Search for Fundamental Laws of Nature

by Michael Keller

The world’s largest and most powerful atom smasher will be firing back up for a new round of experiments as early as this Thursday after being shut down for upgrades two years ago. 

When physicists throw the power switch, the overhauled Large Hadron Collider will send unimaginably tiny particles like protons and the nuclei of lead atoms in opposite directions with significantly more energy than when the experiment’s first run ended in early 2013. 

“We are really excited because we are entering a new phase of the LHC after two years of heavy maintenance and heavy improvement of the whole accelerator chain, of the whole infrastructure,” said Rolf-Dieter Heuer, a German particle physicist who heads CERN, the organization that runs the LHC. “And to restart the LHC now at a new, higher energy, which hopefully opens new windows–depending on the kindness of nature, of course–we are excited.”

See more images and learn more below.

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Kalt - 2 (Harrison “Harry” Wells/Reader)

Imagine being Harrison Wells’ secretary. Everyday you simply move around him and his frigid demeanor. What happens when you catch his eye?

Part One

Originally posted by darkangel66a


You sat in the car your hood pulled up as you tapped your fingers against the steering wheel. Yesterday you were sitting at your desk in STAR Labs waiting to bring Harrison Wells coffee when he asked. Now you were waiting for him in a getaway car.

Oh yeah and you were apparently in an alternate universe.

“What the hell are you doing here?” He stared at you standing you up holding you steady.

You stared at him looking around the room, “I…”

“Focus.” He snapped his fingers in your face.

“Your phone. You dropped your phone. I was trying to give it to you.” You finally got out looking at him, “I’m sorry…I didn’t…I didn’t-”

His hand went back to your mouth silencing you as he listened. Your eyes shifted around the room. Where were you? The room was not set up the same, nor did it have the same looking components. His hand moved getting your attention back to him.

“Follow me.” He took your hand in his as he started dragging you behind himself.

“You don’t have to pull.” You whispered to him, catching on that you weren’t someplace you should be.

He glanced back at you, “I can’t have you in the way, nor can I just leave you here. You have to keep up.”

“I will.” You told him, “I can.”

He glanced you over letting your hand fall from his, “Where are your shoes?”

“I was in a hurry.” You told him staring at him confused, “Shouldn’t we be going?”

He took a deep breath before beginning to move again. You could tell he was slightly annoyed by your presence. It wasn’t part of his plan to get his daughter back.

This was certainly not part of your job description. Breaking and entering to get god knows what from Tina McGee…not to mention this poor person’s car you were in.

You glanced at the gun in the seat next to you. When he handed it to you it certainly didn’t make any of this better. You looked up seeing a hooded figure walking quickly from the labs.

You started the car without turning the headlights on as Harrison climbed inside. He kept his hood up as he spoke, “Drive.”

Flicking your lights on you pulled out into the night traffic, “Where are we going?”

“Just drive.” He told you as he started pulling a tool from his bag. Once located he reached into the backseat for the rifle he brought with him. It apparently was missing a component. When you asked him what it was he gave you an incredulous look and told you, ‘You won’t understand.’

You could feel your eye twitch slightly as you drove around aimlessly. Glancing over at what he was doing you saw what he had stolen, “Uh…is that and antimatter annihilation device?”

He stopped connecting the device to the rifle looking over to you, “What would you know about it?”

“I did go to Harvard, and did my grad studies at MIT.” You rolled your eyes as you grumbled, “Not that you bothered to look at my resume”

“In physics?” He continued to stare at you in disbelief.

“Yes and engineering.” You told him clenching the wheel nervously.

His eyes stayed on you a moment longer before he went back to his work, “If you know so much about it you tell me.”

You swallowed glancing at him again. He didn’t believe you and that pissed you off, “When you attach that device to the rifle it will become a particle gun. To get that result you’ll need collisions between particles and antiparticles leading to the annihilation of both, giving rise to variable proportions of intense photons, neutrinos, and antiparticle pairs. The total consequence of annihilation is a release of energy available for work, proportional to the total matter and antimatter mass, in accord with the mass–energy equivalence equation.”

He clicked the power on as you finished looking at you again as you stopped at a light. You looked at him staring him down, “In other words, E = mc^2. It’s the basics.”

“Why are you my secretary?” His eyes narrowed on you.

You looked forward as the light turned green sighing, “I have been asking myself that for three years…”

He looked forward as he pulled up his watch, “Take a left…we have a speedster to talk to…and apparently amphibious being.”

“Jay Garrick’s here?” You asked turning.

“No…a different speedster…a more capable and hopefully less irritating one.” He said putting his tools away.

2

Breaking Bad 3.10: Fly

“I told him that I had a daughter and he told me he had one too. And he said, "Never give up on family.” And I didn’t. I took his advice… The universe is random, it’s not inevitable, it’s simple chaos. It’s subatomic particles in endless, aimless collision. That’s what science teaches us, but what does this say? What is it telling us when on the very night that this man’s daughter dies, it’s me who is having a drink with him? I mean, how could that be random?“

This is my second favorite episode of Breaking Bad after 4 Days Out. It’s so hilarious and then so heartbreaking and tense. The dialogue is beautifully written. It’s a full episode of non-stop Jesse/Walter interaction, which makes for the best TV ever.

pedrogomezz  asked:

Can you explain the haldron collider and what it's used for? Thanks a lot.

The Large Hadron Collider is a particle accelerator; a collider is a type of particle accelerator that has two directed beams of particles. 

The simple answer is: the LHC is a multi-billion-dollar experiment where physicists smash stuff together and hope it will answer some open-ended questions about the formation of the universe, the structure of space and time, and various other unsolved questions of physics.

The complicated answer is: the LHC is the largest particle accelerator in the world, with multiple experiments to test the Standard Model’s accuracy, search for the Higgs boson, and search for physics beyond the standard model (which includes concepts such as extra dimensions and supersymmetry). 

ALICE, a large ion collider experiment, studies heavy ion (lead-lead nuclei) collisions, which produces a quark-gluon plasma. The plasma is believed to be similar to the conditions existing a fraction of a second following the Big Bang, before quarks and gluons fused to form hadrons and other heavy particles. 

ATLAS, a toroidal LHC apparatus, is used to search for new discoveries in head-on collisions of particles at the LHC. It was one of two experiments that most likely detected the Higgs boson in 2013. 

CMS, the compact muon solenoid, serves the same purpose as the ATLAS experiment and was the second experiment involved in detecting the Higgs boson.

LHCb, the Large Hadron Collider beauty, records the decay of particles that contain b and anti-b quarks (b mesons). Essentially, it looks for anti-matter when the LHC’s particle beams collide, particularly the “beauty quark,” to investigate the slight difference between matter and anti-matter, and where anti-matter went after the Big Bang.

LHCf, the Large Hadron Collider forward, simulates cosmic rays by using particles thrown forward from collisions in the LHC and measures the energy and numbers of neutral pions the collider produces and may explain the origins of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

MoEDAL, the monopole and exotics detector at the LHC,  directly searches for the Magnetic Monopole or Dyon and other highly ionizing Stable (or pseudo-stable) Massive Particles (SMPs) at the LHC.  Another important area of physics that can be addressed by MoEDAL is the existence of SMPs with a single electrical charge, which provide a second category of particle that is heavily ionizing by virtue of its small speed.

Finally, TOTEM, the total elastic and diffractive cross-section measurement, (obviously) measures total cross-section, elastic scattering, and diffractive processes. 

Other experiments have been proposed but not started. 

Dark Matter

A/N: i don’t suppose it’s exactly correct to call this phanfiction. more like “fiction inspired by phan.” what i love most about their relationship is not so much the possibility of a romantic attachment as it is the way that they inspire each other and spur each other on to greater creativity. and how that creativity has led to all of this – all of our interactions and creative work inspired by them.

———————————————————————————–

If an aeon of existence has taught me anything it is this: To exist is to be alone.

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anonymous asked:

Hi, my class has just started electromagnetic in hs physics and I'm confused why the auroras/northern borealis occurs near the poles. In my textbook it says magnetic fields are stronger near poles which makes sense because field lines are closer. However, it also said that Earth's poles have a weaker magnetic field allowing more cosmic rays to enter the atmosphere thereby more particles collisions and the kinetic energy is transformed to light energy but that's contradicting its previous explana

Hi! Sorry I took so long, I’ve been kinda busy.

The poles of the magnetic field are where the field lines “go into” the source of the field, in this case the core of the earth. As the field lines curve in towards the earth’s surface (and core), the charged particles are pulled in towards the surface of the poles, creating the auroras through the process you described. This image should be useful, the blue lines represent the path that charged particles take leaving the sun.

If I made an error or mistake, feel free to let me know and if anyone else has anything to add, go ahead!

LHC smashes old collision records- SYMMETRY MAGAZINE


BY Sarah Charley

The LHC is colliding protons at a faster rate than ever before, approximately 1 billion times per second. Those collisions are adding up: This year alone the LHC has produced roughly the same number of collisions as it did during all of the previous years of operation together.
This faster collision rate enables scientists to learn more about rare processes and particles such as Higgs bosons, which the LHC produces about once every billion collisions.

“Every time the protons collide, it’s like the spin of a roulette wheel with several billion possible outcomes,” says Jim Olsen, a professor of physics at Princeton University working on the CMS experiment. “From all these possible outcomes, only a few will teach us something new about the subatomic world. A high rate of collisions per second gives us a much better chance of seeing something rare or unexpected.”

Since April, the LHC has produced roughly 2.4 quadrillion particle collisions in both the ATLAS and CMS experiments. The unprecedented performance this year is the result of both the incremental increases in collision rate and the sheer amount of time the LHC is up and running.

“This year the LHC is stable and reliable,” says Jorg Wenninger, the head of LHC operations. “It is working like clockwork. We don’t have much downtime.”

Scientists predicted that the LHC would produce collisions around 30 percent of the time during its operation period. They expected to use the rest of the time for maintenance, rebooting, refilling and ramping the proton beams up to their collision energy. However, these numbers have flipped; the LHC is actually colliding protons 70 percent of the time.

“The LHC is like a juggernaut,” says Paul Laycock, a physicist from the University of Liverpool working on the ATLAS experiment. “We took around a factor of 10 more data compared to last year, and in total we already have more data in Run 2 than we took in the whole of Run 1. Of course the biggest difference between Run 1 and Run 2 is that the data is at twice the energy now, and that’s really important for our physics program.”

This unexpected performance comes after a slow start-up in 2015, when scientists and engineers still needed to learn how to operate the machine at that higher energy.

“With more energy, the machine is much more sensitive,” says Wenninger. “We decided not to push it too much in 2015 so that we could learn about the machine and how to operate at 13 [trillion electronvolts]. Last year we had good performance and no real show-stoppers, so now we are focusing on pushing up the luminosity.”

The increase in collision rate doesn’t come without its difficulties for the experiments.
“The number of hard drives that we buy and store the data on is determined years before we take the data, and it’s based on the projected LHC uptime and luminosity,” Olsen says.

“Because the LHC is outperforming all estimates and even the best rosy scenarios, we started to run out of disk space. We had to quickly consolidate the old simulations and data to make room for the new collisions.”

The increased collision rate also increased the importance of vigilant detector monitoring and adjustments of experimental parameters in real time. All the LHC experiments are planning to update and upgrade their experimental infrastructure in winter 2017.

“Even though we were kept very busy by the deluge of data, we still managed to improve on the quality of that data,” says Laycock. “I think the challenges that arose thanks to the fantastic performance of the LHC really brought the best out of ATLAS, and we’re already looking forward to next year.”

Astonishingly, 2.4 quadrillion collisions represent just 1 percent of the total amount planned during the lifetime of the LHC research program. The LHC is scheduled to run through 2037 and will undergo several rounds of upgrades to further increase the collision rate.

“Do we know what we will find? Absolutely not,” Olsen says. “What we do know is that we have a scientific instrument that is unprecedented in human history, and if new particles are produced at the LHC, we will find them.”

clef: The Effect of Higgs Boson Particles on Hume Fields in a High Collision Particle Accelerator Device: a Theory

also clef: 

to the cast and crew of ‘finding bigfoot’, 

              hi, its me again. now i know what you’re thinking and on top of resending my application, as you have not called me back, i am writing to say i am appalled with how season six is going and from my own personal experience in sasquatch huntin