On the initial nephrogram images, a large amount of uptake was noted in the right kidney (a.k.a. prompt nephrogram); however, on the left side, there was a delay of uptake into the kidney parenchyma (a.k.a. delayed nephrogram), adelayed nephrogram is pathognomonic for an obstruction, it doesn’t, however, show exactly where the obstruction is located
Ramie comes from the stem of a nettle called China grass (Boehmeria
nivea). A strong, durable fiber and mildew resistant, it is easy to wash
but can stretch if not handled properly.
Ramie fibers are one of the oldest natural vegetable fibers, used for
thousands of years for fabric and clothing, including ancient Egyptian
mummy wraps and shrouds.
Extraction of ramie fiber happens in
three stages. First the cortex or bark is removed in a process called
de-cortication. The second stage involves scraping the cortex to remove
most of the outer bark, the parenchyma, gums and pectins. The third
stage is washing, drying, and continued de-gumming with a chemical
China grass (Boehmeria nivea)
Allo comes from the bark of the nettle plant (Girardinia diversifolia)
grown at the foot of the Himalayas. Naturally antibacterial and mold
resistant, it is finding its way into Western markets as clothing fabric
and household goods.
Allo may be a fiber that is unfamiliar to Americans but it is a
staple in Eastern culture. Allo, also known as Himalyan nettle, is a
tall, stout herb. The fiber comes from the stem, and it is very strong,
smooth and light in weight. After cutting the stem, the bark is removed and peeled and
fiber is extracted.
When the fibers are processed and woven, the fabric has a
natural sheen. Traditionally, the fibers are woven for clothes,
tablecloths, purses, blankets and sacks. In the United States market,
you’ll find combined with other fibers or as yarn for hand-crafting.
Stinging Nettle from Nepal (Girardinia diversifolia)
Cleaning up after ICH: the role of Nrf2 in modulating microglia function and hematoma clearance.
J Neurochem. 2015 Apr;133(1):144-52
Authors: Zhao X, Sun G, Ting SM, Song S, Zhang J, Edwards NJ, Aronowski J
As a consequence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), blood components enter brain parenchyma causing progressive damage to the surrounding brain. Unless hematoma is cleared, the reservoirs of blood continue to inflict injury to neurovascular structures and blunt the brain repair processes. Microglia/macrophages (MMΦ) represent the primary phagocytic system that mediates the cleanup of hematoma. Thus, the efficacy of phagocytic function by MMΦ is an essential step in limiting ICH-mediated damage. Using primary microglia to model red blood cell (main component of hematoma) clearance, we studied the role of transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master-regulator of antioxidative defense, in the hematoma clearance process. We showed that in cultured microglia, activators of Nrf2 (i) induce antioxidative defense components, (ii) reduce peroxide formation, (iii) up-regulate phagocytosis-mediating scavenger receptor CD36, and (iv) enhance red blood cells (RBC) phagocytosis. Through inhibiting Nrf2 or CD36 in microglia, by DNA decoy or neutralizing antibody, we documented the important role of Nrf2 and CD36 in RBC phagocytosis. Using autologous blood injection ICH model to measure hematoma resolution, we showed that Nrf2 activator, sulforaphane, injected to animals after the onset of ICH, induced CD36 expression in ICH-affected brain and improved hematoma clearance in rats and wild-type mice, but expectedly not in Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice. Normal hematoma clearance was impaired in Nrf2-KO mice. Our experiments suggest that Nrf2 in microglia play an important role in augmenting the antioxidative capacity, phagocytosis, and hematoma clearance after ICH.
Ascorbic acid may be considered as a useful candidate to reduce the side effects of delayed application of ecombinant tissue plasminogen activators in stroke therapy.
PMID: Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015 Apr 21. Epub 2015 Apr 21. PMID: 25899606 Abstract Title: Ascorbic Acid Reduces the Adverse Effects of Delayed Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator in a Rat Stroke Model. Abstract: Delayed treatment of stroke with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) induces overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) which leads to breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and causes more injuries to the brain parenchyma. In this study, the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), an antioxidant agent, on the delayed administration of r-tPA in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was investigated. Forty male rats were randomly divided into four groups: untreated control rats (ischaemic animals), AA-treated (500 mg/kg; 5 hr after stroke) rats, r-tPA-treated (5 hr after stroke 1 mg/kg) rats and rats treated with the combination of AA and r-tPA. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced by occluding the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Infarct size, BBB, brain oedema and the levels of MMP-9 were measured at the end of study. Neurological deficits were evaluated at 24 and 48 hr after stroke. Compared to the control or r-tPA-treated animals, AA alone (p http://j.mp/1d05MwE