Renal connections to the urinary system and the vessels of the hepatic parenchyma

[Remember: RenalKidney and Hepatic Liver]

The liver, like most organs, has a stroma, which is the connective tissue that provides structure, and a parenchyma, which is the functional part of the organ.

The parenchyma of the liver is highly vascularized, and hepatocytes form lobules (the filtering units) in hexagonal groups, centered around a central vein. These veins, arteries, and bile ducts (leading to and from the gall bladder -  the balloon seen in the bottom center of the image) facilitate the processing of foods and toxins from the intestines.

In general, the liver is extremely good at its job - paired with the kidneys’ ability to filter the general blood supply, we’ve evolved to process almost all environmental and ingested toxins that are presented to us in our day-to-day lives. After all, we could never have eaten raw meat and survived on dirty roots for most of our evolutionary history without that.

While some conditions, such as cirrhosis and renal failure inhibit our ability to process environmental toxins, adding “detoxification” scams to what your body has to process can actually harm, more than help. There are already established and effective medical procedures and diets for those with genuine organ troubles.

Anatome quartum renovata. Thomae Bartholini, 1684.

Pulmonary alveoli seen under the microscope 

An alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, “little cavity”) is an anatomical structure that has the form of a hollow cavity. Found in the lung parenchyma, the pulmonary alveoli are the terminal ends of the respiratory tree, which outcrop from either alveolar sacs or alveolar ducts, which are both sites of gas exchange with the blood as well.

Image by David Gregory and Debbie Marshall
Found on

text source: Daily Anatomy

The sequence of healing events after grafting

Lining up of vascular cambia

    • the cambium layers of scion and stock must be lined up

Formation of necrotic material from cells on the wound site

    • healing response

Callus bridge formation

    • parenchyma cell mass produced from the cambial layers fills up the spaces between scion and stock

Cambium formation

    • certain cells of the callus line up forming a cambium layer connecting the cambiums of both the scion and the stock

Vascular tissue formation

    • xylem inside
    • phloem outside 

PLSC 368 - PLANT PROPAGATION - North Dakota State University

Caffeine in Migraine!

Does Caffeine play a role in therapy of migraine? Or does it cause migraine?

Asking a doctor, he said yes caffeine heals pain in migraine attack. OK yea fine. But it can cause an attack too!! This is what I found something Amazing!

Migraine is a disorder characterised by acute pulsating headache, usually restricted to one side of head. Pulsatile dilatation of cranial blood vessels is the immediate cause of pain.

But we know headache is usually caused by vasoconstriction of cranial vessels and not vasodilation!
Actually, excess vasoconstriction or vasodilation, both cause less blood to reach brain parenchyma. This makes brain tissue cry for its necessary nutrients from blood!

In migraine there’s excessive vasodilation of the vessels. So is the cause of acute pain. Caffeine constricts cranial blood vessels ( all other systemic vessels are dilated ). It is a CNS stimulant. (That’s why we have more coffee at night while studying). :p

Now here comes the point. 1-2 cups of coffee (100-200mg) heal the pain by vasoconstriction. More than this will tend to decrease blood flow and so less supply to brain tissue.
That’s why some people, who are in a habit of taking excess coffee or soft drinks, are more prone to headaches!

》 Caffeine is one of the constituents of medicines specific for treating migraine.

MIGRIL: Ergotamine 2mg, Caffeine 100mg, cyclizine 50mg tab.

VASOGRAIN: Ergotamine 1mg,  Caffeine 100mg, Paracetamol 250mg, Prochlorperazine 2.5mg tab.

PS: Remember, the moment you feel migraine symptoms, have coffee. It is the best and most effective way to heal pain, without significant side effects.

That’s all
Thanks :)

Chest Tube Repositioning - Part 2

Yesterday I presented the problem of the malpositioned chest tube, specifically one that is not completely in the pleural space. This one is way out:

So what do the doctor books say? Well, the first thing you will discover if you try to look it up is that THERE IS NO LITERATURE ON THIS COMMON PROBLEM! There are a few papers on tubes placed in the fissure and tubes inserted into the lung parenchyma. But there are only a few mentions of tubes with holes still outside the chest.

I’ve gotten a number of comments, including “you can push them in a little”, “take it out and put in another”, and “never push them in.” Since we don’t have any science to guide us, we have to use common sense. But remember, I’ve shown you plenty of examples where something seems reasonable, but turns out to be ineffective or downright harmful.

There are three principles that guide me when I face this problem:

  • Prevention is preferable to intervention
  • Do no (or as little as possible) further harm
  • Be creative

Tomorrow, I’ll finish this series and provide some tips and guidelines to help manage this problem using the principles outlined above.


anonymous asked:

Hi there! If I shot my character in the head, but the bullet ended up grazing along the right side of the skull, only hitting the most outer layer of brain, could my character survive with minimal impairments? I want her to have to recuperate for 2-3 years before being able to go back to her mostly active life.

That’s a relatively reasonable scenario, sure. Perhaps she gets supremely lucky and the bullet tears the meninges (brain sac) but doesn’t hit the brain parenchyma itself? Also remember that psychological aftereffects of getting shot, period, could be a big factor in staying away from what she wants to do. (PTSD, it is an actual thing.)

Also, disclaimer!

xoxo, Aunt Scripty