parasitic diseases

hiyori-tomoe  asked:

So I have outdoor cats, but I live on a farm and they generally take care of the mice problem. I've been hearing all this talk of outdoor cats living shorter lives so I've been wondering if I should try and make them be more indoors more often? Is this a good idea?

It’s a nice thought, but it won’t actually do much to prolong their lives. Outdoor cats die young because of exposure to parasites, poison, disease, cars, predators, and all sorts of other risks. It’s not that they just live a harder life and die younger cause their bodies wear out. Things outdoors are just straight up more likely to cause their death. 

 Every time your cats are outdoors - especially if you’ve got anything down to try to poison the mice they’re hunting - they’re exposed to those risk factors. Sadly, keeping them indoors ‘more’ is only going to marginally decrease their likelihood of running into dangerous things that could kill them. 

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Neurocysticercosis is an infectious parasitic diseases that results from ingestion of the eggs of pork tapeworm, known as ‘Taenia solium’. This is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system, and also the most common form of acquired epilepsy in many developing countries. The images above show the cysticerci (larval tapeworm contained within a sac) within the brain, 

The most common presentation of symptomatic neurocysticercosis involves epilepsy, which is present in 70% of cases. Other symptoms include headache, dizziness, stroke, and cognitive decline. It is worth noting, however, that people with neurocysticercosis can be entirely asymptomatic. The treatment depends on whether the parasite is active, and where in the brain is affected - but this can include anything from anticonvulsants, anti-parasitics,  anticysticercal drugs and surgery.

Sporozoites of the parasite Cryptosporidium parvum emerging from their oocyst to infect gastrointestinal epithelial cells.

Cryptosporidium, commonly known by the comic book supervillian name “Crypto,” is transmitted by ingesting water or food contaminated with Crypto oocysts. Once ingested, the oocyte ruptures, and the sporozoites contained within infect the gut of their new host, causing watery diarrhea. 

Though outbreaks occasionally occur in the developed world, few infected in those outbreaks die from Crypto. However, in the developing world, some of those infected with Crypto develop chronic disease and die, particularly small, malnourished children.

For more on Crypto and how scientists are tackling this tricky parasite, check out this article on NPR’s All Things Considered about the work being done by the Striepen lab at the University of Georgia Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases.

Image courtesy Boris Striepen and Muthgapatti Kandasamy, University of Georgia Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases

anonymous asked:

What's your opinion on wild-caught box turtles?

Originally posted by lorddino

All joking aside, I have problems with wild caught box turtles for several reasons:

1) Collecting turtles/tortoises from the wild can actually be a lot worse than taking other reptiles. It’s usually adult animals that are collected and because of their slow life history strategy it is extremely damaging to remove sexually mature adults from a turtle population. The negative effects aren’t always immediately obvious since turtles have such long lifespan, but one study found that removing only a handful of adult females from a small box turtle population could doom it to a slow but inevitable extinction.

2) There are plenty of captive bred box turtle hatchlings available for sale (and lots of unwanted adults in need of new homes) so there is no reason to take them out of the wild. A captive bred turtle will be much more friendly towards humans, less stressed in captivity, and less likely to harbor disease or parasites.

3) Unfortunately many (if not most) people who have box turtles as pets do not keep them anywhere close to correctly. Many end up in undersized aquariums without proper substrate, humidity, heat, or lighting. If a person takes the time to find a breeder and buy a captive bred turtle they are more likely to also put the time in to do some research on their care (whereas if they just find and keep a wild one it’s more likely to be seen as a disposable whim).

I’m not gonna say it’s never ok to take any animal out of the wild. Ecologically responsible, small-scale collection of super common species for which captive bred individuals are not available (a lot of amphibians like bull frogs, tiger salamanders, and most toads are like this) is perhaps not ideal but I don’t think it’s morally reprehensible either. But unless you’re collecting an invasive species like a red eared slider I think wild turtle/tortoise collecting is almost never ok simply because their populations are so vulnerable to it.

More than half of the world’s turtle/tortoise species are threatened with extinction in some way and collection for the pet trade is a huge threat to many species. We should avoid being part of that problem.

Happy St. Patrick’s Day from this green moray eel in Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary! 

Green moray eels are actually brownish, but they don green in celebration of holidays – or, rather, to protect themselves from parasites and disease. That is, these eels secrete a yellowish mucus that covers their skin, giving them a greenish tinge. 

(Photo: Steve Miller)

It’s funny that our idea of healthy, thriving nature is a bunch of deer frolicking through the forest, because 

a) Deer are not forest animals. They’re meadow animals forced to live in the forest by human development of meadows, and it’s not uncommon for bucks to get their antlers tangled in tree branches and starve to death there

b) Because they’re not forest animals, deer wreak havoc on the trees by stripping their protective bark (whether to eat or just itching the velvet off their growing antlers), leaving them vulnerable to parasites and disease. The forests die, and without them to anchor the soil or harbor moisture, erosion and drought soon follow, leaving desert.

Basically even our idea of nature is unnatural and unhealthy, and has been for centuries lol

Eric x Reader (Soulmate AU) Drabble: Part III

The fear landscapes were hard on everyone. Late into the night, you would hear people screaming and moaning in fear as they had a replay of what they faced that day. The fear levels vary from initiate to initiate. Some had 8, some had 12. And some bastards had only 4.

You plopped your butt down and sighed, running a hand through your hair. “What are they this time?” The boy across from you asked and you gritted your teeth. “Public humiliation. Lost of control. Parasitical Disease. Failure.”

Tobias just nodded silently.

“You?”

“The same.” He said and you feel like strangling him. If you didn’t become friends during the Capture the Flag game a week ago, you would have.

“Screw you, Four!”

He looked up at you. “Hey, calm down. You know I can’t control this.”

Immediately deflating, you apologized. It was not his fault. He was just…lucky, you guessed. Four, being the sweet guy that he is, just gave you a small smile of encouragement.

Keep reading

lizziebeth-hd  asked:

What grades did you have in school? (and did you learn by the 1-5 grading system?)

I honestly don’t remember. I had decent grades, the only subject I ever failed was, uh.. horse.. knowledge? I don’t know, horse stuff, but only because of one test on parasites and diseases :P

Other than that I passed everything, and no we had IG (fail), G (pass), VG (well done) and MVG (very well done). I hovered in the G-VG for maths, sports, history and religion areas with a few MVG in languages (english/swedish) and science I think.

Long time ago! I’m an old man :P

The next time you see a bee buzzing around, remember…
…that a third of our food crops are pollinated by bees and other insects. Up to 90% of all wild plants exist thanks to bees and other pollinating insects. The economic value of pollination services globally provided by bees amount to some €265bn.

Bee-decline is a global problem.

In recent winters, in Europe alone, bee losses up to 53% became a reality. This dramatic decline in bee populations is the result of multiple factors such as diseases and parasites, climate change and wider industrial agricultural practices. Monocultures and the extensive use of deadly pesticides are of special concern. Some pesticides are real bee-killers.

~ Greenpeace.🌻🐝🌺

So I bought the first edition of the @gods-and-radicals journal, A Beautiful Resistance. It has a lot of fascinating & informative pieces & I think is overall a very good read. However. 

There’s a thread that runs through several of the pieces [which I have seen elsewhere in the pagan & occult spheres] of an anti-science, anti-technology worldview & it makes me really uncomfortable. 

Yes, human technology has massively contributed to the environmental disasters we are watching take place; yes, science has been employed for terrible purposes & to reinforce the ideals of capitalism, white supremacy, etc etc. I won’t dispute that. 

But the concept that some thinkers seem to promote as the solution, that we should turn our backs on technology, follow an anarcho-primitivist route, is throwing the baby out with the bathwater. And, frankly, in my opinion stems not only from a lack of education about science but a high level of unexamined privilege.

To advocate rejecting the scientific & technological advances of modern society is to advocate: 

  • the deaths or catastrophic loss of quality of life for many disabled or chronically ill people
  • a return to high mortality rates for mother & baby in childbirth
  • a return to the pre-antibiotic era due to drug resistance that is only kept at bay by continued research
  • no further advances in understanding or treating chronic illnesses, genetic diseases, & conditions such as heart disease & cancers
  • the resurgence of devastating childhood diseases such as diptheria & polio due to a lack of vaccination
  • the extremely high level of suffering caused by malaria, schistosomiasis, African trypanosomes, & other widespread parasitic diseases, continuing unabated, especially in deprived population
  • among many other consequences.

Seeing the advances of science & technology as ills to be fought, with no sense of the vast improvements they have made to humanity’s condition & quality of life … is an incredibly blinkered position to take. If we can’t advocate for radical change without throwing vast numbers of the population under the bus, how are we in any way improving on what’s gone before?

Rules for the apocalypse:

• Always have a rendezvous point. Even if you think you’re safe. Especially if you think you’re safe. Make it somewhere accessible on foot from your current location. In fact, have two in case the first one gets taken by zombies/bombs/diseased/floods/fire etc. if you can hide some of your supplies there in the case of a quick getaway, even better.

• Always use condoms for PinV penetration. If you don’t have condoms, go a different route. You cant afford a pregnancy in this environment.

• Check all pharmacies you can for antibiotics. No one is making or distributing antibiotics anymore; the world is over. You will fucking need them. (Also, if you’ve got a uterus and are pre-menopausal: grab every tampon you can. They’re small and you will need them. You can use leaves to wipe but no leaves can replace a fucking tampon)

• Dehydrated foods not canned. They weigh significantly less and can usually be eaten without rehydration.

• Cigarettes. Grab all of the cigarettes you can. Money means nothing anymore. They will be fucking excellent for bartering with most ruthless people who you may run into.

• Thinking zombies are still your loved ones will get you killed.

• This may be hard but you need to devise a way to tell the infected/effected people from those who aren’t. Radioactivity, disease, zombies, parasites controlling human hosts. You have to be able to tell.

• if you’re somewhere hot, have a hat. Sunstroke will render you completely incapable of fighting and totally vulnerable. Also, if water is scarce it might kill you. Sunburns take forever to heal. A hat can save your ass.

• Cut your fucking hair off, or find yourself some hair elastics in a hurry. You don’t want hair getting in your eyes and fucking you up in a fight.

Dear Internets, I need your help.  About two weeks ago I rescued a small litter of feral kittens being menaced by a fox.  Two of the babies didn’t make it but the survivor is doing strong and has been living with us ever since.  Our older cat has bonded with her and seems to consider her “his” kitten now, and she in turn seems to consider him her surrogate “mommy.”  She’s a sweetheart of a kitten, endlessly cuddly and curious, and we’re already in love with her.  We’ve named her Nimue, small apprentice to Merlin (our older cat).

Here’s where we need your help.  I am in the process of transitioning from a not-great job that had me severely underemployed to a much better job with more regular hours.  However, with how timing settled out it’s going to take a while to get my financial feet under me,  and my partner is a student and not earning any money currently.  Because Nimue was a feral kitten she’s been an expensive little niblet in terms of vet bills because we’ve had to have multiple tests done to ensure she doesn’t have any parasites or diseases (clean so far!).  If anyone could see their way clear to kick in a small amount to help us cover the costs of the tests done so far and the upcoming cycle of vaccinations until I can get settled in my new employment, that would be endlessly appreciated.  I promise to in turn pay it forward to anyone else in a similar situation. PayPal is sadarkes at gmail dot com


And as always, signal-boosting is appreciated.


Thank you! <3

angelicuscadere  asked:

For a sentient specie of omnivorous raptors (think feathered dino) with social complexity, technology and population density similar to humans ~300 years ago, what would be the most prominent health issues for the common folk?

I’m using birds and alligators as references for most things anatomy, so what would be avian/crocodilian equivalent to fleas, flu, cholera, measles, or other highly contagious and common ailments? (They have both feathers and scales)  They have had little to no contact with any large mammals over the course of their evolution - upon contact with mammals (including humans), would that make them less or more susceptible to be affected by human illness, or a random mix? I know this is very broad so I’m not expecting a detailed answer - I was just hoping you could give me some pointers as to what kind of diseases to investigate and inspire myself from.   Thank you! I really love your script blog! :)

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Yay raptors! I hope you like info-dumps.

Originally posted by gifovea

If I assume a similar medical scene to the 1700-1800′s, I’d first broadly group the common diseases into parasitic, bacterial, viral and fungal. Most of these species don’t congregate in terribly large numbers, except in farms and fortunately for your writing, both birds and crocodiles are bred on farms in large numbers to give you disease examples that are probably common at high densities with sub-optimal hygiene. I will link to other sites for the most interesting ones.

Parasites are the group that were extremely common before effective medication, and also the most externally obvious. They’re also potential vectors for the other groups, to spread disease from one raptor to another (think about how mosquitoes do this today).

External parasites are your equivalent to fleas. Avians can get fleas, but mites and lice are far more common. Almost all wild birds are harboring some kind of feather lice. Reptiles commonly get ticks. Scaly leg mite might give you inspiration for a suitably interesting looking disease.

Internal parasites get a bit more variable, depending on the internal anatomy of your raptor species. Almost everything can get intestinal worms (because almost everything has intestines). Where exactly in the intestines they live will depend on anatomy, and young won’t get any placental transmission from their mother if they lay eggs. Worms like Heterakis can transmit other diseases to certain species too.

Birds get respiratory parasites, which are quite unique. Air sac mites may be relevant if your raptors have them, and gapeworm is one of my personal favorites. (Yes, I have favorite parasites. I’m not weird.)

Moving onto bacterial diseases, Cholera was a big killer of humans, and poultry have Fowl Cholera of their own. Botulism toxin kills a lot of birds that congregate around waterways, but interestingly birds and reptiles seem very resistant to tetanus.

Gut pathogens like salmonella are common in reptiles and birds, and are not species specific. These things can get into just about anything, but they are often host adapted. This means the usual species they infect doesn’t get as severe pathology as a new species. This may be relevant for your mammals who encounter this species, as it’s commonly spread by poor hygiene practices.

Psittacosis is a bacterial disease that you should definitely look into. It can affect both humans and parrots, and can be lethal in both. It was historically something of a mystery disease for a while, and worth reading about.

Most species (honestly, probably all species but we haven’t bothered to look) have a poxvirus of their own. Some of these poxviruses will cross species (eg goats and sheep) and will vary in how virulent they are (smallpox vs chickenpox). They hang around in the environment for a really long time and are difficult to exterminate. Your species probably has one, but despite the name not all poxviruses present with pox on the skin.

If your species is feathered, then Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease is simply fascinating and visually dramatic. It’s a chronic disease and may fill a similar social role as leprosy

Influenza viruses commonly affect many species of birds and will also potentially cross over to humans or other mammals. Human and mammal influenza can also cross over into birds. When you get an influenza type into a ‘new’ species, death rates are typically higher.

Most concerning, however, is when you have two different influenza strains infect the same individual, recombine by infecting the same cell, and then by chance produce a totally new strain of influenza which may then infect any species that could have been infected by either parent virus. Immunity to on strain of influenza offers little protection against another.  This is why bird flu outbreaks are such a concern.

I noticed you said no contact with large mammals over their evolution. If they’re farming, what’s eating their stored food? Rats are common and disease vectors to boot, if they have no rats, what do they have instead? Something will be taking advantage of food stores, and will be relevant to the diseases in the population.

And I don’t know if you considered it, but crocodillians tend to be cannibalistic. If they are, then you could potentially have a tapeworm species that spends it’s entire life cycle within this species. It matures and drops cysts in the intestine of one individual, those cysts are eaten by a second individual (faecal contamination of food most likely), then forming cysts in muscle or meat tissue, and when the 2nd individual is eaten by a 3rd individual, those cysts mature into the adult tapeworm to live inside their intestine, and the cycle begins again. There may also be a prion disease, though they are rare.

anonymous asked:

hi im looking for two fics the first ones in a dystopian au where humanity lives in sterile bubbles bc of a parasite/disease. ppl wear bubble suits with artificial hormones and then phans like "nah lets go out into the wild so we can actually have physical affection" the other one is primarily kickthestickz (also dystopian au) but it has phan too where theres genetic mutations and ppl have super powers and are rounded up by the gov to fight in a war tysm sorry this was so long

I Am Phil Lester - Phil wakes up with a throbbing pain in his neck and no memory, except his identity. He’s tied to a boy with chestnut brown hair with a voice he quickly falls in love with. But something’s wrong with the boy’s eyes.

- Tori