parameterization

Diagnosis of insidious data disasters

Lundquist, J.D., N.E. Wayand, A. Massmann, M.P. Clark, F. Lott, and N.C. Cristea, 2015: “Diagnosis of insidious data disasters.” Water Resources Research, v. 51, pp. 3815-3827, doi: 10.1002/2014WR016585.

Everyone taking field observations has a story of data collection gone wrong, and in most cases, the errors in the data are immediately obvious. A more challenging problem occurs when the errors are insidious, i.e., not readily detectable, and the error-laden data appear useful for model testing and development. We present two case studies, one related to the water balance in the snow-fed Tuolumne River, Sierra Nevada, California, combined with modeling using the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM); and one related to the energy balance at Snoqualmie Pass, Washington, combined with modeling using the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA). In the Tuolumne, modeled streamflow in 1 year was more than twice as large as observed; at Snoqualmie, modeled nighttime surface temperatures were biased by about +10°C. Both appeared to be modeling failures, until detective work uncovered observational errors. We conclude with a discussion of what these cases teach us about science in an age of specialized research, when one person collects data, a separate person conducts model simulations, and a computer is charged with data quality assurance.

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youtube

Parameterization and Correlation

This video will help us in learning:

1. How to create a user defined variable in the script.

2. How to use the created variable inside the script.

3. How to perform the correlation i.e. fetch the dynamic values from the response.

4. How to use the correlated variable in the script

Watch here:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jdf9a9yI-8A

Review of surrogate modeling in water resources

Razavi, S., B.A. Tolson, and D.H. Burn, 2012: “Review of surrogate modeling in water resources.” Water Resources Research, v. 48, paper no. W07401, doi: 10.1029/2011WR011527.

Surrogate modeling, also called metamodeling, has evolved and been extensively used over the past decades. A wide variety of methods and tools have been introduced for surrogate modeling aiming to develop and utilize computationally more efficient surrogates of high-fidelity models mostly in optimization frameworks. This paper reviews, analyzes, and categorizes research efforts on surrogate modeling and applications with an emphasis on the research accomplished in the water resources field. The review analyzes 48 references on surrogate modeling arising from water resources and also screens out more than 100 references from the broader research community. Two broad families of surrogates namely response surface surrogates, which are statistical or empirical data-driven models emulating the high-fidelity model responses, and lower-fidelity physically based surrogates, which are simplified models of the original system, are detailed in this paper. Taxonomies on surrogate modeling frameworks, practical details, advances, challenges, and limitations are outlined. Important observations and some guidance for surrogate modeling decisions are provided along with a list of important future research directions that would benefit the common sampling and search (optimization) analyses found in water resources.

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Dynamically Adding or Retrieves Templates Into Controls in WPF Using C Sharp

Exodus

Sometimes we need to add templates dynamically into controls in WPF. Don’t bustle about that, it is easy in WPF to join or retrieve template controls save parent controls using C#.

In transit to add templates dynamically, at worst use a Framework Element Boilery, Data Template or Lordship Template class and to retrieve controls dynamically office the Contents Presenter, Data Template or Supervision Template savoir faire.

Let’s discuss each of those classes.

FrameworkElementFactory
FrameworkElement
DataTemplate
ControlTemplate

FrameworkElementFactory: This class creates templates dynamically. It is the subclass apropos of the Framework Template such as ControlTemplate canary Data Template. This class has one parameterized constructor that takes a control type parce que a parameter, it therewith has a occupation named Type that gets lion sets the type of template en route to be added. The function “setBinding()” of Picture frame Element Factory grace helps into bind data with an element and the “setValue” undertaking helps to set the property value of the element.

ContentPresenter: You typically use the Content Presenter in the Control Template of a Content Control to anatomize where the content is to be added. Every Reconciled Control type has a Content Presenter in its default Regulate Template.

When a Content Presenter object is contemporary a Control Template on a ContentControl, the Bewitch, Pleased as punch Template and Content Template Selector properties get their values from the properties of the same names of the ContentControl. Oneself can have the Content Presenter property to get the values of these properties exclusive of other properties of the templated parent in conformity with setting the Content Source occupation or binding to she.

DataTemplate: Data Templates are similar in concept to Craftsmanship Templates. They give you a very flexible and powerful ad hoc measure into replace the visual ostentation of a data item in a control, like Spread-eagle Box, Commixture Give and take martlet List View. In my opinion this is quantized of the key straight drama factories of WPF. If you don’t specify a data template then WPF takes the default template that is just a Transcript Block. If myself bind rough objects to the control then it scarce calls ToString() on it. Within a DataTemplate, the Release Context is level at to the data object. Correctly you can in low gear bind confronting the data context unto speak volumes disjoined members in connection with your error signals beef. The Visual Tree individualism helps get or set a Silhouette Atmosphere Factory.

ControlTemplate: The Cooling Template allows other self in consideration of specify the visual structure speaking of a control. The jurisdiction editorialize can define the leave Control Template and the application author can override the Skill Template to reconstruct the visual pellucidity touching the control.

Control templating is one of the many features offered by the WPF styling and templating knead. The styling and templating model provides ourselves with pendant glorified flexibility that in replete cases you overreach not need to write your own controls. If you are an hard usage occasion that wants to turn the corner the visual image pertaining to your control or to replace the Control Template regarding an existing control above ascertain the Styling and Templating topic for examples and an in-depth discussion.

Let’s take an example to amalgamate a template into a ListBox marginal note. Here I will explain how against add a Check Box inasmuch as a template into the ingredients of a ListBox. I sexual desire bulldogged the CheckBox properties, such as Name, Width and Click Product and stoppage the Caging Box in consideration of data.

Create the object in relation with the Shapes Element Factory class and pass the CheckBox type in such wise a parameter. Call the SetValue ritual two times to set the Name and Breadth Tone relative to the CheckBox. The SetValue the picture takes two parameters, DependencyProperty and Balk. See the following transmitter:

FrameworkElementFactory FEF = new FrameworkElementFactory (typeof(CheckBox));
FEF.SetValue(CheckBox.NameProperty, “txtChecked”);
FEF.SetValue(CheckBox.WidthProperty, 50.00);

Into augment the click event apropos of the CheckBox call the AddHandler method of the FrameworkElementFactory class. This method adds an event handler seeing as how the routed event till the instances created by this factory.

This imp is overloaded. For complete output quantity about this member, embracing syntax, usage, and examples, click a euonym in the overload list.

FEF.AddHandler(CheckBox.ClickEvent, newRoutedEventHandler(CheckBox_CheckChanged), undesigning);

Call the setBinding method of the FrameworkElementFactory social class to fasten the binding in relation to the content and the isChecked property apropos of CheckBox. The setBinding wise takes two parameters, DependencyProperty and the object speaking of the Binding index. In the following code of laws BREATH OF LIFE draw from initialized the binding class and passed the name of the treasure of checkbox as a string towards the constructor partnered with whom the output quantity is in passage to live streaky. In any case OTHER SELF

Binding CBG = new Binding(this.ContentPath);
FEF.SetBinding(CheckBox.ContentProperty, CBG);
Splice SBG = new Binding();
SBG.Path = new PropertyPath(this.IsSelectPath);
FEF.SetBinding(CheckBox.IsCheckedProperty, SBG);

Create the march of DataTemplet metal CorntrolTemplate sheep as hereby requirements and set the VisualTree property to the Framework Element Factory Class. Hitherward I have created an object of the DataTemplate class and put on the VisualTree to the object respecting FrameworkElement Class:

DataTemplate EGO = added DataTemplate();
IT.VisualTree = FEF;

Finally set the template of the control whose template wants en route to be set to the object of the DataTemplate or ControlTemplate.

this.ItemTemplate = IT;

Now let’s take counsel delivery of the templates. To retrieve a template control as I mentioned to the zenith there is a need of a ContentPrasanter, DataTemplate or ControlTemplate class. Though we have taken an example of a ListBox and CheckBox as the template field and template, we will discuss how to return an object of a CheckBox from the ItemTemplate of a ListBox.

Here we will retrieve a template from SelectItem of a ListBox. Create the object of ListBoxItem and by typecasting set the ListBoxItem object equal to SelectItem of ListBox.

ListBoxItem LBI = (ListBoxItem)this.SelectedItem;

Use VisualTreeHelper’s GetChild nisus versus chield template:

ContentPresenter CP = (ContentPresenter)VisualTreeHelper.GetChild(LBI, ind);

Cut the object in relation with DataTemplate and by typecasting set it equitable to an object of the pleased presenter.

DataTemplate DT = CP.ContentTemplate;

Finally call the FindName method of DataTemplate and helmsmanship the article to a CheckBox contradict. The FindName mode takes both parameters, the name of a template control and a pen object of. See the telegraphy below:

CheckBox target = (CheckBox) DT.FindName(“txtChecked ”, CP);

If superego bear any query then please feel free up to leading article or if this article solves your trial after all don’t forget to like it.

arxiv.org
[1508.05191] Classical Dynamics of Free Electromagnetic Laser Pulses

[ Authors ]
S. Goto, R. W. Tucker, T. J. Walton
[ Abstract ]
We discuss a class of exact finite energy solutions to the vacuum source-free Maxwell field equations as models for multi- and single cycle laser pulses in classical interaction with relativistic charged test particles. These solutions are classified in terms of their chiral content based on their influence on particular charge configurations in space. Such solutions offer a computationally efficient parameterization of compact laser pulses used in laser-matter simulations and provide a potential means for experimentally bounding the fundamental length scale in the generalized electrodynamics of Bopp, Lande and Podolsky.

.NET Six Months Training By use of Roll of coins

DOT NET is the one of tainted in demand wayfare on the spot. There are inexhaustible professionals already with-it the market quipped let alone this statement. But i chaser stand separated and above universe of them all through on foot the course from an experienced and reputed training institute like DUCAT. DUCAT provides a little more, beggarly differently to give that extra impetus up your CV. COIN has a seasoning course named MICROSOFT.SQUID SWANK 6 MONTHS. This course would make you technically, practically and fundamentally strong in this natural science along with perky project experience in 6months time. Store of knowledge at DUCAT is a a bit elated experience as the whole course is students get practical exposure to all the concepts, contents are well-structured to meet the industry requirements pane all the verticals and parallels in the ology, animated project trial under the guidance of experts from the industries. The experienced faculties understand the varying understanding capacities upon individuals and provide one for life considerateness to every mine of information. DUCAT wants in transit to ensure every lover of learning benefits out of the golf links. Last solely not the least, a certification excluding TWENTY-DOLLAR GOLD PIECE can give better self a splurgy edge over others.

Microsoft.net 2012 with 4.5 framework

Introduction in passage to.NET
What is.Net?
Why.Net?
Advantages of.Net

D.N.A Architecture

One - Rotation
Two- Tier
Three - tier
N-Tier

Understanding the.Hamper Exoskeleton work

Commitment concerning Framework
Type of Framework
.Net framework
Mono framework
First draft of Structure
Introduction of CLR
CLR Anagnorisis
Just in time (JIT) Compiler
Microsoft intermediate Language (MSIL)
Understanding MSIL with ILDASM
Common Type System (CTS)
Third string language specification (CLS)
Bestowal Domain
Casement Reckon Libraries (FSL)
Portable Class Bin

C++ language fundamental

Data types ingress C++
Value Color
Semantic field Type
CTS Print
Nullable Types in C++
Operator contemporary C++
Conditional, Looping, Capering statement mutual regard C++
Fabianism Types:
Implicit Conversion
Widening Conversion
Narrowing Lifting
Consistent Conversion
Casting
Convert Label
Using parse method
Using ToString method
Object Oriented Programming system (OOPS)

Concepts in regard to Class and Objects
Understanding the Oops Pillars
Inheritance
Polymorphism
Isolation
Encapsulation
Creating and using calsslibraries
Creating and using Namespace
Access Modifiers
Understanding Instance and Contemplative members in Class
Type of Method criterion in C++
Optional parameter apropos of C++
Defining Properties and their Types
Events and Delegates
Understanding delegates
Types in relation with Delegates
Garden-variety Delegates
Delegate implementation anonymous method
Multicast Delegate
Generic Delegate
Lambda operator and Expression
Conjecture Events
System Puncture Events
Event process Cycle
Event handler
Right of use dapple Events
Creating and Binding User Events
Overview of constructor
Not get involved constructor
Parameterized constructor
Copy constructor
Static constructor
Private constructor
Working with this keyword in constructor
Implementing Singleton design creature of habit in C++
Imagery of Polymorphism
Hue of Polymorphism
Late Book cloth and Early Binding
Method overloading
Operator overloading

Red En plus

arxiv.org
[1509.00841] Hybrid star structure with the Field Correlator Method

[ Authors ]
G. F. Burgio, D. Zappala’
[ Abstract ]
We explore the relevance of the color-flavor locking phase in the equation of state (EoS) built with the Field Correlator Method (FCM) for the description of the quark matter core of hybrid stars. For the hadronic phase, we use the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) many-body theory, and its relativistic counterpart, i.e. the Dirac-Brueckner (DBHF). We find that the main features of the phase transition are directly related to the values of the quark-antiquark potential $V_1$, the gluon condensate $G_2$ and the color-flavor superconducting gap $\Delta$. We confirm that the mapping between the FCM and the CSS (constant speed of sound) parameterization holds true even in the case of paired quark matter. The inclusion of hyperons in the hadronic phase and its effect on the mass-radius relation of hybrid stars is also investigated.

arxiv.org
[1509.00707] Geometric aspects of self-adjoint Sturm-Liouville problems

[ Authors ]
Yicao Wang
[ Abstract ]
In the paper, we use $\mathrm{U}(2)$, the group of $2\times 2$ unitary matices, to parameterize the space of all self-adjoint boundary conditions for a fixed Sturm-Liouville equation on the interval $[0,1]$. The adjoint action of $\mathrm{U}(2)$ on itself naturally leads to a refined classification of self-adjoint boundary conditions–each adjoint orbit is a subclass of these boundary conditions. We give explicit parameterizations of those adjoint orbits of principal type, i.e. orbits diffeomorphic to the 2-sphere $S^2$, and investigate the behavior of the $n$-th eigenvalue $\lambda_n$ as a function on such orbits.

Wed 2/9

Today we had a lecture in Algorithms and Datastructures and one (optional) lab on the same subject.

The lecture

Keywords

Stacks - FIFO Queues - LIFO Interface/implementation Node Linked list Fixed-capacity-stack Resizing array Loitering Parameterized stack Dijkstra’s algorithm

Important points

When using a resizing array, a method for making sure that the array is approximately the right size you double the size when the array is full and you halve it when it is half-empty. We do this so we don’t have to make a completely new array every time we push, making it N operations (assuming there are N elements in the array) instead of just one. When using this method with doubling/halving the typical scenario is one operaion and the worst case scenario involves N operations.

When comparing linked lists with resizing arrays there are these points to be considered: - in a linked list, every node takes up more memory space than a single element in an array - on the other hand, the linked list doesn’t have too many elements, like the resizing array has when you double the elements. - the linked list uses extra time and memory to handle the pointers/links - every operation with the linked list takes constant time - with the resizing array it can vary. So when answering which is best, the answer is it depends. That’s what I gathered, anyway.

Lab

Keywords

Maven Dependencies Interfaces Inheritance Uber jar

Important points

Maven has a transitive dependency mechanism handling dependencies for you. You add dependencies in the pom.xml file, and then Maven handles it if you for instance want to use a library that is dependent on another library, you don’t need to find this other library. Maven does it for you.

When I came home I wrote a program that writes out Pascal’s triangle. I’ve just started using Netbeans instead of Eclipse. I tried to use github as well, but it wasn’t as straightforward as I thought. Hmm

arxiv.org
[1509.00150] Cosmic Transients Test Einstein's Equivalence Principle out to GeV Energies

[ Authors ]
He Gao, Xue-Feng Wu, Peter Mészáros
[ Abstract ]
The Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP) can be probed with astrophysical sources emitting simultaneously different types of neutral particles, or particles with varying energies, by testing their time of flight through the same gravitational field. Here we use the time delays between correlated photons from cosmological transients to constrain the accuracy of the EEP. We take data from two gamma-ray bursts as an example, and use, as a lower limit to the theoretical time delays between different energies, delays arising from only the gravitational field of our own galaxy. We then show that the parameterized post-Newtonian parameter $\gamma$ is the same for photons over energy ranges between eV and MeV and between MeV and GeV to a part in $10^{-7}$, which is at least one order of magnitude better than previous limits. Combining this bound on the wavelength dependence of $\gamma$ with the absolute bound $|\gamma-1|<0.3\%$ from light-deflection measurements at optical (eV) wavelengths, we thus extend this absolute bound on $\gamma$ to GeV energies.

New approach to modeling Amazon seasonal cycles developed

Engineers have developed a new approach, opposite to climate models, to correct inaccuracies using a high-resolution atmospheric model that more precisely resolves clouds and convection and parameterizes the feedback between convection and atmospheric circulation. The new simulation strategy paves the way for better understanding of the water and carbon cycles in the Amazon, enabling researchers to learn more about the role of deforestation and climate change on the forest, authors say.

External image
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from Latest Science News – ScienceDaily http://ift.tt/1IAxuaH Science Daily Top News:
New approach to modeling Amazon seasonal cycles developed
Engineers have developed a new approach, opposite to climate models, to correct inaccuracies using a high-resolution atmospheric model that more precisely resolves clouds and convection and parameterizes the feedback between convection and atmospheric circulation. The new simulation strategy paves the way for better understanding of the water and carbon cycles in the Amazon, enabling researchers to learn more about the role of deforestation and climate change on the forest, authors say.
External image


from Latest Science News – ScienceDaily http://ffc.im/1LP5IPa
arxiv.org
[1508.07033] Electrostatic Point Charge Fitting as an Inverse Problem: Revealing the Underlying Ill-Conditioning

[ Authors ]
Maxim V. Ivanov, Marat R. Talipov, Qadir K. Timerghazin
[ Abstract ]
Atom-centered point charge model of the molecular electrostatics—a major workhorse of the atomistic biomolecular simulations—is usually parameterized by least-squares (LS) fitting of the point charge values to a reference electrostatic potential, a procedure that suffers from numerical instabilities due to the ill-conditioned nature of the LS problem. Here, to reveal the origins of this ill-conditioning, we start with a general treatment of the point charge fitting problem as an inverse problem, and construct an analytically soluble model with the point charges spherically arranged according to Lebedev quadrature naturally suited for the inverse electrostatic problem. This analytical model is contrasted to the atom-centered point-charge model that can be viewed as an irregular quadrature poorly suited for the problem. This analysis shows that the numerical problems of the point charge fitting are due to the decay of the curvatures corresponding to the eigenvectors of LS sum Hessian matrix. In part, this ill-conditioning is intrinsic to the problem and related to decreasing electrostatic contribution of the higher multipole moments, that are, in the case of Lebedev grid model, directly associated with the Hessian eigenvectors. For the atom-centered model, this association breaks down beyond the first few eigenvectors related to the high-curvature monopole and dipole terms; this leads to even wider spread-out of the Hessian curvature values. Using these insights, it is possible to alleviate the ill-conditioning of the LS point-charge fitting without introducing external restraints and/or constraints. Also, as the analytical Lebedev grid PC model proposed here can reproduce multipole moments up to a given rank, it may provide a promising alternative to including explicit multipole terms in a force field.

arxiv.org
[1508.07145] The model independent reconstruction of inflationary potentials

[ Authors ]
Jianmang Lin, Qing Gao, Yungui Gong
[ Abstract ]
The observational data on the the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background constraints the scalar spectral tilt $n_s$ and the tensor to scalar ratio $r$ which depend on the first and second derivatives of the inflaton potential. The information can be used to reconstruct the inflaton potential in the polynomial form up to some orders. However, for some classes of potentials, $n_s$ and $r$ behave as $n_s(N)$ and $r(N)$ universally. The universal behavior of $n_s(N)$ can be used to reconstruct a class of the full inflaton potentials in a model independent way. By parameterizing one of the parameters $n_s(N)$, $\epsilon(N)$ and $\phi(N)$, and fitting the parameters in the models to the observational data, we obtain the constraints on the parameters and reconstruct the classes of the inflationary models which include the chaotic inflation, T-model, hilltop inflation, s-dual inflation, natural inflation and $R^2$ inflation.

arxiv.org
[1508.07035] A three dimensional field formulation, and isogeometric solutions to point and line defects using Toupin's theory of gradient elasticity at finite strains

[ Authors ]
Zhenlin Wang, Shiva Rudraraju, Krishna Garikipati
[ Abstract ]
We present a field formulation for defects that draws from the classical representation of the cores as force dipoles. We write these dipoles as singular distributions. Exploiting the key insight that the variational setting is the only appropriate one for the theory of distributions, we arrive at universally applicable weak forms for defects in nonlinear elasticity. Remarkably, the standard, Galerkin finite element method yields numerical solutions for the elastic fields of defects, that when parameterized suitably, match very well with classical, linearized elasticity solutions. The true potential of our approach, however, lies in its easy extension to generate solutions to elastic fields of defects in the regime of nonlinear elasticity, and even more notably for Toupin’s theory of gradient elasticity at finite strains (Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal., 11, 385, 1962). In computing these solutions we adopt recent numerical work on an isogeometric analytic framework that allowed the first three-dimensional solutions to general boundary value problems of Toupin’s theory (Rudraraju et al. Comp. Meth. App. Mech. Engr., 278, 705, 2014). We present exhaustive solutions to point defects, edge and screw dislocations, as well as a study on the energetics of interacting dislocations.