paralogism

Paralogism for the month of June, 2011

Each month I will post my favorite paralogism from the previous month. I usually find these when reading articles about politics or religion. Maybe that’s why you’re not supposed to discuss those things at family gatherings.

The NY Times ran an article exploring the idea that human reasoning is nothing more than a weapon for winning arguments. The title goes so far as to say, “Reason Seen More as Weapon Than Path to Truth.”

Aside from the irony of the ensuing debate, the paralogism in this purportedly legitimate news story is simple:

Mr. Sperber wanted to figure out why people persisted in picking out evidence that supported their views and ignored the rest—what is known as confirmation bias—leading them to hold on to a belief doggedly in the face of overwhelming contrary evidence.

Like all paralogisms, at face value, this one seems logical. After all, if employing reason implies employing confirmation bias, then it makes sense reason would be a weapon for winning, and not a method for discovering truth.

But reason is:

…the power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgments by a process of logic. (New Oxford American Dictionary)

Thus, confirmation bias, while a very real and common practice (see said article or any episode of the View), is not an implicit part of reasoning. In fact, quite the opposite–confirmation bias is a refusal to employ reason.

mh to diavasete vol2

aytes tis meres exw viwsei ena pragmatiko theatro tou paralogou me paralogismous epipedou “To mpouzouki einai organo-o astynomikos einai organo=> O astynomikos einai mpoyzouki” pou sovara adynatw na pistepsw kai poso mallon na paradextw pws exw akoloythisei thn idia ekseliktikh poreia, toulaxiston se nohtiko epipedo, me orismena atoma. OLA EINAI MONODIASTATA!!! DEN EINAI ASPRO ARA EINAI SIGOURA MAYRO! ENA K ENA KANOUN DUO EINAI TOSO PASIFANES! EINAI EUKOLO K PANEUKOLO APLO KAI PANAPLO

Poems: Jeremy Freedman

Why We Can’t Have Nice Things

When a man loves a woman
and winces with discomfort
when a worm wins a ribbon
for skydiving like a baby airplane
that’s lost its way instead
of doing something useful
like learning to dance tango
or read Rilke in the original
I’m gonna say German
These velleities (to use an
Ashbery word) are not consonant
(to use another) with one’s life
as lived and never will be
Paralogy will not allow for it
How subtle one is one thinks
to turn the misery of adventure
into a naissance of ordinary
unhappiness one’s thumbprints
barely visible on the pages
of the abandoned autobiography


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Paralogism for the month of July, 2011

Each month I will post my favorite paralogism from the previous month. I usually find these when reading articles about politics or religion. Maybe that’s why you’re not supposed to discuss those things at family gatherings.

This is not a debate of the economic stimulus package.

The Weekly Standard ran a Blog “Report” assessing the White House’s Council of Economic Advisors’ Seventh Quarterly Report on the effects of the $667 Billion Economic Stimulus package from 2009:

The council reports that […] the “stimulus” has added or saved just under 2.4 million jobs–whether private or public–at a cost (to date) of $666 billion. That’s a cost to taxpayers of $278,000 per job.   

In other words, the government could simply have cut a $100,000 check to everyone whose employment was allegedly made possible by the “stimulus,” and taxpayers would have come out $427 billion ahead.

Paralogism: Almost every business has expenses beyond employment. But the analysis assumes that all money in the stimulus bill was used only for jobs / salaries. The math is wrong.

Update: I had composed the above analysis the day the article was posted, and two days later, the White House responded with the same answer:

[…] the White House responds to my piece by claiming that “stimulus” spending “didn’t just fund salaries but also went to the actual costs of building things.” I never said, however, that the $278,000 per job has gone to salaries. Rather, I said that each job has cost taxpayers $278,000.

New paralogism to defend the old one: The author now claims his $278,000 figure was not limited to salaries. However, when he reported his $278,000 figure, he claimed cutting $100,000 checks to job holders would have saved $427 billion. Cutting checks to job holders is known as salary, and salary does exclude the costs of building things.

Paralogism for the month of May, 2011

Each month I will post my favorite paralogism from the previous month. I usually find these when reading articles about politics or religion. Maybe that’s why you’re not supposed to discuss those things at family gatherings.

CNN.com ran an editorial of sorts regarding the Catholic Church’s position on in vitro fertilization (IVF). The entire thing is rife with paralogisms, but the one that stuck with me was this:

[…Catholic doctrine states that through the use of IVF] the generation of the human person is deprived of its proper perfection[…]

[…] Is the church truly claiming that our beautiful and innocent daughter, conceived through an IVF procedure, is somehow “less” because of how her physical life began? […]

Paralogism: the “generation of the human person” (subject: IVF) is not the same thing as the “human person generated” (subject: daughter). The Church has made no claims about the author’s daughter, only about the method by which she was conceived.

anonymous asked:

Tiki's personality in Awakening has little in common with the original Tiki who didn't like Naga, pretty much they left Gotoh out of any mention because he was a male manakete, and not as popular as Tiki. Similar to how Lucina dresses up as Marth, when everyone ingame is talking about the nameless First Exalt, and knows nothing about Marth.

there’s actually 2 tiki’s in awakening. There’s the one you unlock in her paralog, and the one that’s in with all the bonus stuff from older games. The Tiki from the paralog is the one you have supports with and has a bit of a role in the story, the other is just an extra unit. Lucina didn’t need to dress up as a guy she only needed to hide her eyes because of her brand, Marth’s only mentioned in her disguise and as the hero king of old. Pretty weird

Spinal muscular atrophy phenotype is ameliorated in human motor neurons by SMN increase via different novel RNA therapeutic approaches.

PubMed: Related Articles

Spinal muscular atrophy phenotype is ameliorated in human motor neurons by SMN increase via different novel RNA therapeutic approaches.

Sci Rep. 2015;5:11746

Authors: Nizzardo M, Simone C, Dametti S, Salani S, Ulzi G, Pagliarani S, Rizzo F, Frattini E, Pagani F, Bresolin N, Comi G, Corti S

Abstract
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a primary genetic cause of infant mortality due to mutations in the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) 1 gene. No cure is available. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) aimed at increasing SMN levels from the paralogous SMN2 gene represent a possible therapeutic strategy. Here, we tested in SMA human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and iPSC-differentiated motor neurons, three different RNA approaches based on morpholino antisense targeting of the ISSN-1, exon-specific U1 small nuclear RNA (ExSpeU1), and Transcription Activator-Like Effector-Transcription Factor (TALE-TF). All strategies act modulating SMN2 RNA: ASO affects exon 7 splicing, TALE-TF increase SMN2 RNA acting on the promoter, while ExSpeU1 improves pre-mRNA processing. These approaches induced up-regulation of full-length SMN mRNA and differentially affected the Delta-7 isoform: ASO reduced this isoform, while ExSpeU1 and TALE-TF increased it. All approaches upregulate the SMN protein and significantly improve the in vitro SMA motor neurons survival. Thus, these findings demonstrate that therapeutic tools that act on SMN2 RNA are able to rescue the SMA disease phenotype. Our data confirm the feasibility of SMA iPSCs as in vitro disease models and we propose novel RNA approaches as potential therapeutic strategies for treating SMA and other genetic neurological disorders.

PMID: 26123042 [PubMed - in process] http://dlvr.it/BNw6q3

Paraloge ???- A Dukedom Undone
  • Chrom:The country of Rosanne....
  • Chrom:This is the land you and Cherche come from, isn't it, Virion?
  • Virion:It is, though now she is but a shell of her former beauty...
  • Virion:*sigh* I never thought I'd see this place again. It gives an old duke a heavy heart.
  • Chrom:I know well the plight of a ruler, Virion, but your reminiscing will have to come later; risen have been spotted in the town!
  • Chrom:Let's move, shepherds!
  • .
  • [Scene change]
  • .
  • Villager (F):*screams*
  • Villager (M):It's no use, we're all going to die!
  • Villager (F):We have to run away!
  • Villager (M):What, like that traitorous craven of a duke who abandoned us? No way!
  • Villager (M):I didn't leave Rosanne when Valm attacked, and I'm not leaving now!
  • [Nala rides into view]
  • Nala:Fear not, citizens! I will protect you in the name of the dukedom of Virion!
  • Villager (M):Then you come in the name of a villain! It's because of him that we're in this mess in the first place!
  • Nala:...Your loyalty to Rosanne was once loyalty to your dukedom, was it not?
  • Nala:When someone you love leaves you, it leaves a large hole in your heart.
  • Nala:I, too, know that feeling of betrayal, so allow me to atone for the duke in his stead!
  • .
  • [battle begins]
  • Chrom:That woman is trying to fend them off by herself!
  • Chrom:Move quickly, everyone, we must defend the town!
  • .
  • .
  • [If Chrom talks to Nala]
  • Chrom:You there!
  • Chrom:Mind if we join this fight?
  • Nala:Not at all. It is my duty to protect my people, I will take any help I can get.
  • Chrom:You speak to claim authority over these villagers?
  • Nala:.....
  • Nala:Chat can wait. Lives await.
  • .
  • .
  • [If Virion speaks to Nala]
  • Virion:Excuse me, but I don't believe I've ever laid eyes on a woman of greater beauty and nobility,
  • Virion:Please, my flower, your work here is done. Keep your lovely petals unharmed and leave this in the capable hands of-
  • Nala:If you've time to flirt, then you've time to fight!
  • Nala:If you've a mind to prove yourself, than set your weapon in defense of your people!
  • Virion:...My, what a violent refusal.
  • Virion:Still, I suppose she speaks the truth.
  • Virion:Today the grand name of Virion will be redeemed!
  • .
  • .
  • .
  • [After battle]
  • Virion:Ahem!
  • Nala:....
  • Virion:...I'd like to apologize. Your description of my folly was aptly put.
  • Virion:Even so, you fought for me. I'm honored, milady.
  • Virion:May I know the name of my champion?
  • Nala:Your name is my own, and I am honored to fight for it.
  • Nala:I am Nala, heir to House Virion.
  • Virion:What?
  • Nala:The family crest on my ring bares the proof of my words.
  • Nala:You gave this ring in promise to someone not long ago. Let me serve as a testament to the strength of that promise.
  • Virion:I can see the nobility in you, child. You do your- no, OUR house great honor, Nala.
  • Nala:Oh, father-!
Spinal muscular atrophy phenotype is ameliorated in human motor neurons by SMN increase via different novel #RNA therapeutic approaches

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a primary genetic cause of infant mortality due to mutations in the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) 1 gene. No cure is available. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) aimed at increasing SMN levels from the paralogous SMN2 gene represent a possible therapeutic strategy. Here, we tested in SMA human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and iPSC-differentiated motor neurons, three different #RNA approaches based on morpholino antisense targeting of the ISSN-1, exon-specific U1 small nuclear #RNA (ExSpeU1), and Transcription Activator-Like Effector-Transcription Factor (TALE-TF). All strategies act modulating SMN2 #RNA: ASO affects exon 7 splicing, TALE-TF increase SMN2 #RNA acting on the promoter, while ExSpeU1 improves pre- processing. These approaches induced up-regulation of full-length SMN and differentially affected the Delta-7 isoform: ASO reduced this isoform, while ExSpeU1 and TALE-TF increased it. All approaches upregulate the SMN protein and significantly improve the in vitro SMA motor neurons survival. Thus, these findings demonstrate that therapeutic tools that act on SMN2 #RNA are able to rescue the SMA disease phenotype. Our data confirm the feasibility of SMA iPSCs as in vitro disease models and we propose novel #RNA approaches as potential therapeutic strategies for treating SMA and other genetic neurological disorders. http://bit.ly/1C4Jp4o #nature #reports

Generation of functionally distinct isoforms of PTBP3 by alternative splicing and translation initiation

Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) is a widely expressed #RNA binding protein that acts as a regulator of alternative splicing and of cytoplasmic #mRNA functions. Vertebrates contain two closely-related paralogs with >75% amino acid sequence identity. Early replacement of PTBP1 by PTBP2 during neuronal differentiation causes a concerted set of splicing changes. By comparison, very little is known about the molecular functions or physiological roles of PTBP3, although its expression and conservation throughout the vertebrates suggest a role in haematopoietic cells. To begin to understand its functions we have characterized the #mRNA and protein isoform repertoire of PTBP3. Combinatorial alternative splicing events at the 5’ end of the gene allow for the generation of eight #mRNA and three major protein isoforms. Individual #mRNAs generate up to three protein isoforms via alternative translation initiation by re-initiation and leaky scanning using downstream AUG codons. The N-terminally truncated PTBP3 isoforms lack nuclear localization signals and/or most of the RRM1 domain and vary in their #RNA binding properties and nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution, suggesting that PTBP3 may have major post-transcriptional cytoplasmic roles. Our findings set the stage for understanding the non-redundant physiological roles of PTBP3. http://bit.ly/1BJkZ0i #NAR