papua new

May 12, 2017 - Restless Flycatcher (Myiagra inquieta)

These flycatchers are found in open forests, woodlands, and farmlands of northern, eastern, and southwestern Australia, as well as in Papua New Guinea. They eat insects and other invertebrates, usually foraging alone or in pairs, and can hover while picking insects from foliage. Males and females build cup-shaped nests together from bark, grass, spiderweb, and lichen, usually near water. Both parents incubate the eggs and feed the chicks, raising up to three broods a year. Their rasping call, given while hovering, inspired the species’ alternate common name of “Scissors Grinder.”

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World Map of literature

The Americas

Canada - Anne of Green Gables
U.S.A - To Kill a MockingBird 
Mexico - Pedro Paramo 
Guatemala - Men of Maize 
Belize - Beka Lamb 
Honduras - Cipotes 
El Salvador - Bitter Grounds 
Nicaragua - The Country Under my Skin 
Costa Rica - La Isla de los hombres solos 
Panama - Plenilunio 
Colombia - 100 Years of Solitude 
Venezuela - Dona Barbara 
Guyana - Palace of the Peacock 
Suriname - The Price of Sugar 
French Guiana - Papillon 
Ecuador - The Villager 
Brazil - Dom Casmurro 
Peru - Death in the Andes 
Bolivia - Bronze Race 
Paraguay - I the Supreme 
Argentina - Ficciones 
Chile - The House of the Spirits 
Uruguay - Soccer in the Sun and Shadow 
Cuba - Havana Bay 
Haiti - Breath, Eyes, Memory 
Dominican Republic - Wonderful Life of Oscar Wao 
Bahamas - The Measure of a Man 
Jamaica - A brief history of Seven Killings 
Puerto Rico - When I was Puerto Rican 
Lesser Antilles - Wide Sargasso Sea 
Greenland - Islands, the Universe, Home


Europe & Russia

Norway - Hunger 
Iceland - Jar City 
Sweden - Gosta Berling’s Saga 
Finland - The Unknown Soldier 
Denmark - Feeling for Snow 
Latvia - Nāvas Ena 
Estonia - Truth and Justice 
Lithuania - Black Sheep 
Belarus - Voices from Chernobyl 
Ukraine - Death and the Penguin 
Moldova - A Siberian Education 
Romania - Forest of the Hanged 
Bulgaria - Under the Yoke 
Poland - Pan Tadeusz 
Germany - Buddenbrooks 
Netherlands - The Discovery of Heaven 
Belgium - The Sorrow of Belgium 
Luxembourg - In Reality: Selected Poems 
United Kingdom - Great Expectations 
Ireland - Ulysses 
Czech Republic - The Good Soldier 
Slovakia - Rivers of Babylon 
France - The Count of Monte Cristo 
Spain - Don Quixote 
Portugal - Baltasar and Blimunda 
Austria - The Man Without Qualities 
Switzerland - Heidi 
Italy - The Divine Comedy 
Slovenia - Alamut 
Croatia - Cafe Europa 
Hungary - Eclipse of the Crescent Moon 
Bosnia and Herzegovina - Zlata’s diary 
Serbia - Dictionary of the Khazars 
Montenegro - Montenegro: A Novel 
Albania - The General of the Dead Army 
Macedonia - Freud’s Sister 
Greece - The Iliad 
Russia - War and Peace


Asia and The Middle East

Turkey - My Name is Red 
Georgia - Knight in the Panther’s Skin 
Armenia - The Fool 
Azerbaijan - Blue Angels
Iran - Shahnameh 
Iraq - The Corpses Exhibition and Other Stories 
Syria - The Dark Side of love 
Lebanon - The Hakawati 
Israel - Mornings in Jenin 
Syria - The Dark Side of Love 
Kuwait - A Map of Home 
UAE - The Sand Fish 
Saudi Arabia - Cities of Salt 
Qatar - The Emergence of Qatar 
Yemen - The Hostage 
Oman - The Turtle of Oman 
Kazakhstan - The Book of Words 
Turkmenistan - The Tale of Aypi 
Uzbekistan - Chasing the Sea 
Kyrgyzstan - Jamilia 
Tajikistan - Hurramabad 
Afghanistan - Kite Runner 
Pakistan - The Reluctant Fundamentalist 
Nepal - The Palpasa Cafe 
India - The God of Small Things 
Bhutan - the Circle of Karma 
Bangladesh - A Golden Age 
Myanmar - Smile as they Bow 
Laos - In the Other Side of the Eye 
Thailand - The Four Reigns 
Vietnam - The Sorrows of War 
Cambodia - First they Killed my Family 
Taiwan - Green Island 
Sri Lanka - Anil’s Ghost 
Mongolia - The Blue Sky 
North Korea - The Aquariums of Pyongyang 
South Korea - The Vegetarian 
Japan - Kokoro 
China - The Dream of the Red Chamber 
Malaysia - The Garden of Evening Mists 
Brunei - Some Girls 
Indonesia - This Earth of Mankind 
Philippines - Noli Me Tangere 
East Timor - The Redundancy of Courage


Australiz, New Zealand & The Pacific Islands

Australia - Cloudstreet 
Papua New Guinea - Death of a Muruk 
Vanuatu - Black Stone 
Solomon Islands - Suremada 
Fiji - Tales of the Tikongs 
New Zealand - The bone People


Africas

Algeria - The Stranger
Libya - In the Country of Men
Egypt - Palace Walk
Morocco - The Sand Child
Mauritania - Silent Terror: A Journey into Contemporary African Slavery
Mali - Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali
Niger - Sarraounia
Chad - The Roots of Heaven
Sudan - Lyrics Alley
Nigeria - Things Fall Apart
Cameroon - The Old Man and the Medal
Central African Republic - Batouala
South Sudan - They Poured Fire on Us from the Sky
Ethiopia - Beneath the Lion’s Gaze
Somalia - The Orchard of Lost Souls
Democratic Republic of the Congo - The Antipeople
Uganda - Abyssinian Chronicles
Kenya - Petals of Blood
Tanzania - Desertion
Angola - A Gloriosa Familia
Zambia - Scribbling the Cat: Travels with an African Soldier
Mozambique - Sleepwalking Land
Zimbabwe - The House of Hunger
Namibia - Born of the Sun
Botswana - The No. 1 Ladies’ Detective Agency
South Africa - Disgrace

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Aside from being accomplished architects and artists, many bowerbirds are also skilled mimics.  Male satin bowerbirds will imitate the calls of other local birds during their courtship displays.  Even more startling, MacGregror’s bowerbirds have been heard imitating human speech, pigs grunting, and even the sound of nearby waterfalls.

Asaro Mudmen of the Goroka people

Legend tells that the Goroka were almost eliminated by their most feared enemy tribe and were forced to flee into the Asaro River. They waited until dusk before attempting to escape. As they hid, they used the grey mud of the Asaro to fashion masks with which to disguise themselves. That night, the Goroka men rose from the river and were spotted by the enemy tribe who, upon sighting the naked grey-white men, believed they were witnessing living spirits and fled to their village in fear. 

The Asaro now perform this ritual to ward off their own evil spirits, creating grotesque masks made with animal jaws and teeth, claws and horns, sculpted from the rivers’ mud. They add sharpened bamboo sticks to their fingers as elongated claws.

The mudmen prowl through the jungle at night, casting fear and trepidation into any spirit or neighbouring tribe who sees them.

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The male bowerbird’s obsession with the arrangement of objects in his bower might seem ludicrous, but it actually has a very distinct purpose.  Many male bowerbirds have been observed using the arrangement of objects to create optical illusions, particularly forced perspective, by arranging similar objects from smallest to largest.  It’s been determined that females find these illusions intriguing, and will spend more time at bowers containing them and give the males a better chance of mating.  This behaviour makes many researchers count bowerbirds among the most behaviourally complex of all birds.

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While cassowaries have been known to eat fungi, flowers, snails, insects, frogs, birds, rats, mice, and even carrion, their diet consists primarily of fruit.  They will eat the fruit of several hundred species of tree and bush, and one tree, the cassowary plum (which is toxic to other species but eaten readily by the cassowary), has even been named for the birds.  Cassowaries can become extremely aggressive about their food; when they find a tree that is dropping fruit, they will stay there and eat, chasing away any other cassowaries who try to approach and feed, until the fruit is gone.

Cassowaries will swallow fruits whole, even large ones like apples and plums.  Because of this, seeds and pits will go through the cassowary’s digestive system and be passed in their droppings.  These birds have been known to distribute seeds over distances of over a kilometre, making them hugely important in the dispersal and germination of fruit trees through the rainforests.  Some seeds, such as those of the Ryparosa trees, are shown to have much greater germination rates when they have been through the gut of a cassowary.  These makes these birds a keystone species for the rainforests they inhabit.

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After mating, the female cassowary will lay three to six large, green eggs.  Once these eggs are laid, the female’s job is done, and she will wander off to find another male to mate with.  It is the father who constructs a nest of waterproof vegetation and incubates the eggs for the next fifty days.  A devoted parent, the male will not leave his eggs until they have hatched.  A broody male cassowary does not need to eat, drink, or even defecate for the entire period of incubation.

Cassowary chicks are small, beige in colour, with dark brown stripes.  The father will protect his new family with devotion, showing them what foods to eat and ferociously protecting them from predators.  The chicks will stay with their father for the next nine months.

It has also been noted in zoos that cassowary chicks will imprint readily on anyone who is present when they hatch, including humans.  These chicks are then extremely tame and will follow their adopted parent anywhere.  In some native villages in New Guinea, cassowary chicks are even kept as pets and left to wander loose through the village, like chickens.  However, even the tamest chick will turn savage and dangerous upon reaching adulthood.  

Duk-Duk is a secret society, part of the traditional culture of the Tolai people of the Rabaul area of New Britain, the largest island in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea.

Duk-Duk has religious and political objectives, and represents a form of law and order through its presiding spirits. In ritual dances, members of the society invoke the male spirit duk duk and female spirit tubuan depending on which mask the dancer wears. Women and children were forbidden to look at these figures. The society has secret signs and rituals, and festivals which were closed to strangers on pain of death.

Justice was executed, fines extorted, taboos, feasts, taxes and all tribal matters are arranged by the Duk-Duk members. In carrying out punishments, they would burn houses and even kill people. Dancers wearing the tubuan masks were regarded as divine beings whose judgment and actions could never be questioned.

Duk-Duk only appeared with the full moon.