Extroverted Thinking (Te): Palpatine wastes no time in immediately putting himself forward as the supreme ruler of the senate when the previous administration receives a “vote of no confidence.” His intention is ultimately to rule the Empire, and he gives the task of protecting him on the way up to his underlings, taking on an administrative role, recruiting spies and double agents, eliminating his enemies, and logically targeting the weaknesses of his opponents. Control and organization comes so easily to him that Papatine makes an effective ruler, to great success in the senate… and gradually expands his power into a brutal dictatorship.
Introverted Intuition (Ni): Not only are his own plans long term, Palpatine patiently cultivates others to do his work for him, in assisting him in reaching his ultimate desire to rule the Empire. He reads and manipulates Padme to help push him nearer to power. He sees vast potential in Anakin and nudges him one decision at a time toward the Dark Side. He foresees the threat Luke will be, and wants him eradicated. Each decision and action takes him nearer his ultimate purpose, and he never wavers from it, using other people’s mistakes and miscalculations along the way to boost his power.
Extroverted Sensing (Se): He adapts quickly, leaping on opportunities as they arise—he sees even the potential in his own near-death in pushing Anakin over the edge into darkness, and is not afraid to risk himself bodily in the process. He is effective in sensing power shifts and participating in them. Risks do not frighten him, merely aid him. In his younger years as senator, he enjoys lavish events that let him interact with interesting people. He doesn’t mind stepping into the unknown.
Introverted Feeling (Fi): His belief that emotion is a weakness he can exploit backfires in his face when he underestimates the incredible bond Vader has with Luke; he fails to see how emotion has any part in decision making, thus bringing about his own eventual end. His ruthlessness enables him to be separate from others, using their pain merely to his greater design, rather than receiving pleasure from it.
Note: I often see him typed INTJ but his blind spot is Fi, and he leaps into action much more quickly than a Ni-dom would (they need time to process information and see if it fits into their larger goals and worldview), proving a strong Te/Se dynamic in his behavior.