“But before Iceland was settled from Norway, there were other people there, called papar by the Norwegians.(1.) They were Christians and were thought to have come overseas from the west, because people found Irish books, bells, croziers, and lots of other things, so it was clear that they must have been Irish.(2.) Besides, English sources tell us that sailings were made between these countries at the time.”
1. The term papar is the masculine nominative plural of the Old Norse word papi, meaning ‘priest’ or even ‘pope’. The word itself comes from the Irish word pápa, which itself comes from Latin. In Old Norse, the word mainly refers to these Irish monks. (Geir T. Zoëga, A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic. (repr., 1910; Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2004), 325).
2. As for an explanation for all these Irish monks in Iceland, there was a unique practice among the pious Irish to leave their home to seek remote isolation. This practice was referred to as ‘Green Martyrdom’. This practice arose because there was a lack of opportunities for Irish devotees to die for their cause, since Christianity came to Ireland rather peacefully. Since they could not die for their cause, they sought out the next worse thing they could do: leave the comfort of their homeland in exchange for a harsh life abroad. Iceland was only one of the many places that the Irish went. One famous example of this is Columbanus, who decided to leave Ireland and roam the European continent. (Jennifer Dukes-Knight, “Celtic Christianity.” Lecture, Celtic History, University of South Florida, 2015).
*** This post is a revised edition of an older post, which can be viewed here.
Ibu, anakmu sakit
Tidak, tidak ada luka, tidak ada darah
Pun tidak pula sakit karena ulah lelaki
Bathin-nya sedang berperang, dan semakin hari semakin banyak luka-luka pada jiwanya
Bapak, anakmu ini tidak sedang baik-baik saja
Ada tanya-tanya dalam pikir
Ada luka-luka tak kasat mata
Ada air mata yang hanya mengalir saat gelap
Ibu, anakmu semakin hari semakin sakit
Semakin lama semakin tidak waras
Ingin rasanya bilang semua keluh
Papar semua kesah
Tapi, takut dihakimi
Takut hanya dibilang “perasaanmu saja itu, nak.”
Bapak, anakmu ini semakin sekarat kian waktu bergulir
Semakin susah menarik napas satu-satu walau penuh ruang dengan udara
Semakin sesak dada akan tumpah ruah rasa cemas dan ketidakmampuan
Tapi takut sekali, Pak
Takut sekali sekedar ingin bilang bahwa lemah ternyata ia
Bahwa jiwanya terpasung ketakutan dan beban-beban lain
Karena ia tahu, tidak akan didapatinya tenang dari pelukmu
Selain, “kamu hanya melebih-lebihkan, nak.”
Ibu dan bapakku tercinta,
Anakmu sakit, anakmu sekarat
Bukan tubuhnya, tapi jiwanya
I just finished my back to school shopping for my 3rd year of college and I wanted to share how I keep all my school work organized:
1 Binder with dividers: Instead of lugging around multiple binders that I never would fill, I decided to downsize to one binder that I will use for all 5 classes, and use dividers to separate between the pages. The binder will be used to hold all hand outs & worksheets.
Notebooks: I purchased 5 notebooks (1 for each class) which will allow me to keep detailed notes during class. In first year, I used my laptop for note taking but found myself getting way to distracted so paper and pen is definitely the way to go.
2 File Folders: to hold any loose papers, bring papers/projects to class and generally keep my bag organized.
A big pad of paper: I like to keep a large pad of paper next to my computer so I can write down things as they come to me. It allows me to keep all my thoughts in one place and then I can choose what to do with them!
Hard cover small notebook: This notebook is for everything that doesn’t fit into a specific class’s notebook. It could be general knowledge, things from my volunteer work or job. It will stay in my backpack at all times.
Agenda/planner: Honestly my life saver. I like being able to sync my calendars digitally between my computer/phone/tablet BUT nothing beats being able to write down every single detail of my life into a planner. I love this new one I bought because each day has it’s own page (so much room for activities!)
I hope this inspired you to plan your own back to school shopping!