Ornate Elysia (Elysia ornata)

Also known as the Ornate Leaf Slug, Elysia ornata is a species of Plakobranchid sea slug that occurs in tropical waters throughout the Pacific, and the Caribbean Sea. Like other slugs in the genus Elysia, E. ornata feeds mainly on algae. It is currently unknown it if can “hijack” chloroplasts from the algae it feeds on and use them to produce nutrients inside its body like other members of the genus are famous for. 


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Image: Keisotyo


Sphincterochila boissieri 

…an interesting species of Sphicterochilid land snail that inhabits deserts in Israel and Egypt, specifically in the Negev and Sinai deserts. S. boissieri is one of the few gastropods (along with Xerocrassa seetzeni and others) to inhabit such a harsh environment and thus has evolved several adaptations to avoid desiccation. One of the first is a very thick shell with a reduced aperture, a thick epiphragm and slow body surface heat conduction.  Its shell also reflects around 90% of the visible and solar spectra During the summer S. boissieri will dig itself into the soil and begin to aestivate (a form of dormancy), while dormant S. boissieri can resist temperatures up to 50°C (122°F) and will experience water loss of only 0.5 mg per day, with a low oxygen consumption rate, which allows S. boissieri to survive droughts for years! When Sphincterochila boissieri is not dormant it feeds mainly on soil, mainly loess mud, lichen, soil algae and limestone. 


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Image(s): Wilson44691

Decollate Snail (Rumina deccolata)

…is a species of terrestrial Subulinid snail that was originally native to the Mediterranean region (except for the south east), but has now been introduced into North America, and occasionally Great Britain. Decollate snails are voracious predators and will feed readily on other snails, slugs and their eggs. They will also eat plant matter, and other invertebrates such as annelids. This has caused them to be a serious pest in the US as they will consume native species.  


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Image: tato grasso

Discus rotundatus

Sometimes known as the “Rotund Disc” D. rotundatus is a species of disk snail (Discidae) that lives in Western and Central Europe, occurring in the Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia, and Great Britain, Ireland, France, Italy and various other countries as well. It has been introduced to Canada and the US as well. Like other terrestrial gastropods D. rotundatus typically inhabits forests usually in dead wood, logs, and leaf/soil litter. Sometimes D. rotundatus will associate and form small colonies as well. 


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Image: Francisco Welter Schultes


“Blue Slug” (Bielzia coerulans)

Also commonly known as the Carpathian Blue Slug, the blue slug is a large species of keelback slug (Limacidae) that is endemic to the Carpathian Mountains in Eastern Europe. B. coerulans typically inhabits both deciduous and coniferous forests in its range and is usually seen in leaf litter and under dead wood. Like other slugs blue slugs are generalists and will feed on mushrooms. lichens, and plant matter.


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Images: Alex Zelenko and Martian Vaculik


Red Slug (Arion rufus)

Also known as the chocolate arion, large red slug or the European red slug, the reg slug is a species of “roundback slug” (Arionidae) that is though to be native to northwestern Europe. However, its distribution is unclear as it has bee widely introduced and is easily confused. For example despite being known as the red slug A. rufus also has a black morph and is almost indistinguishable from the Black slug A. aterRed slugs typically inhabit wooded areas and dry coastal habitats. Like many other slugs A. rufus is an omnivore and will feed on a wide variety of foods including carrion, fungi, and vegetation.


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Images: Guilaume Brocker and Hans Hillewaert

“Great Pond Snail” (Lymnaea stagnalis)

…a species of large freshwater Lymnaeid snail which boasts a wide Holarctic distribution. Great pond snails occur solely in freshwater habitats, with individuals typically preferring slowly running or standing water bodies. Like many other freshwater snails L. stagnalis is an opportunistic feeder feeding on a range of organic matter. 


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Image: Rex

Great Ramshorn (Planorbarius corneus)

…a large species of ram’s horn snail (Planorbidae) which is distributed from western Europe, through central Europe and into the Caucasus, north into Siberia and south into the Middle East. It has also been recorded in France, the British Isles, and Belgium. Great ramshorns will typically occupy still or very slow moving bodies of water where a good growth of aquatic plants are present, on which they will feed. 


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Image: Claus Ableiter

“Worm Slug” (Boettgerilla pallens)

…a species of terrestrial Boettgerillid slug which occurs in parts of Europe, including the SW flank of the Caucasus, and presumably the Crimean Mountains in Ukraine. It has also been introduced to many other areas in Europe. B. pallens occupies a wide range of habitats, including gardens, grassland, coniferous/deciduous woodlands and is very tolerant of a wide range of soil pH and calcium/water content. Like other slugs B. pallens is a omnivore and will feed on a range of items.


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Image: Jozef Grego

Fruticicola fruticum

…is a species of terrestrial pulmonate Bradybaenid snail which occurs in parts of Europe, including countries like Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine. Fruticicola fruticum is typically a whitish or brownish color and can reach a shell size of around 22 mm (0.9 inches)


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Image: Micheal Becker

Limax cinereoniger

…a large species of terrestrial keelback slug (Limacidae) which occurs throughout Europe, occurring almost everywhere in Scandinavia and in the extreme South. L. cineroniger is widely considered to be one of the largest species of land slugs, with individuals possessing lengths exceeding 20 centimeters! Like other slug species, L. cineroniger occurs in woodlands and feeds on a range of organic material.


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Image: H. Krisp

Genus: Smeagol 

Smeagol is a genus of small air-breathing Otinoid molluscs which inhabit the gravel substrate in the upper intertidal zones of New Zealand and Australia. Smeagol is the sole genus in the monotypic family Smeagolidae, which contains only five species. Smeagol spp. are small (~10 mm) blind gastropods which lack tentacles and a shell. As you might have guessed Smeagol is totally named after gollum from Lord of the Rings. 



Image: Körger K. M., Stöger I., Kano Y., Fukuda H., Knebelsberger T. & Schrödl M

Lehmannia melitensis

…is a species of airbreathing keelback slug (Limacidae) which is distributed throughout the Mediterranean where it is known to occur  in Malta, Italy, the Aeolian Islands, Sicilia, Sardinia, and the Tuscan Archipelago. Like most slugs, Lehmannia melitensis occupies moist areas and feeds on a wide range of organic materials. 


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Image: tato grasso

Limax dacampi

Sometimes known as “Limax dacampoi" Limax dacampi is a species of air-breathing keelback slug (Limacidae) which has been recorded in the northern Italian mainland and in southern Switzerland. Like many slugs, Limax dacampi is known from a variety of habitats, but it prefers moist and shady forests and bushland where it can feed on decaying organic matter. 


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Image: Hectonichus

Sphincterochila candidissima

…is a species of terrestrial air-breathing Sphincterochilid snail which is known to occur in Italy, Malta, and other surrounding areas. S. candidissima is fairly small with individuals only growing shell widths of ~16-25 mm ( 0.6 -0 .9 inches). Like other members of its family Sphincterochila candidissima is xerothermophilous, meaning it is well adapted to hotter/dryer places.


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Image: Xvazquez

Meridolum gulosum

…is a species of air-breathing terrestrial Camaenid gastropod mollusc which is endemic to Australia, where it is restricted to the rainforests and vine thickets of the Illawarra Escarpment, south of Sydney. Where it occurs from Bulli Pass south to Wollogong. Like most terrestrial gastropods M. gulosum is typically encountered among the leaf litter, and among fallen trees, rocks and bark.


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Image: Peter Woodard