pancreatic cells

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a combination of peripheral insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. Insulin resistance, which has been attributed to elevated levels of free fatty acids and proinflammatory cytokines in plasma, leads to decreased glucose transport into muscle cells, elevated hepatic glucose production, and increased breakdown of fat.

Tunneling nanotubes

Cancer patients are often treated with chemotherapy that kills rapidly dividing cells. Some cancers, however, can mutate and become resistant to chemotherapy, causing the cancer to recur much more aggressively later in life. In this microscopic image, two pancreatic cancer cells “communicate” with a tunneling nanotube, a thin bridge between which two cells transfer molecules and information, including instructions for becoming drug resistant. Research is underway to understand how these bridges form and function, providing a new avenue for treatments that can halt cancer communication and progression.

Image by Matthew J. Ware and Biana Godin Vilentchouk, Houston Methodist Research Institute.

I’m just making a point here that really grinds my gears. 

I am a type 1 diabetic, and have been since my pancreas failed at the age of 6. There are several theories for why this happens, but the most widely accepted is that juveniles contract a virus, and for whatever reason, this virus confuses your immune system, and instead of killing the virus, it attacks pancreatic cells as if they are the enemy. They don’t know why certain children this happens to, and others it doesn’t. Some are genetically inclined, because T1 AND T2 diabetes are hereditary, but I have no history of it in my family. 

So, my pancreas is dead, just floating around in there like a lazy unemployed roommate that doesn’t pay rent. Without insulin, which is what healthy pancreases produce, I would die. It wouldn’t take long. 

This all brings me to the point. This is a picture of my most recent pharmacy receipt, just for two vials of insulin. A 30 day supply. $467.99 for one month of my life. 

Narcotics will barely put a dent in your wallet, by the way. Insulin has ZERO street value. It will only inevitably kill anyone who doesn’t need to use it. 

I have been unable to get medical insurance before, many times, and many diabetics I know have to try to find a way to keep themselves alive. It’s part of the reason the nerves are fucked in my feet now; trying to stretch insulin, going without, having to go to an ER begging. 

Can you see why this would piss me off?

New technology enables us to "chart" all cells in the brain

The human brain is made up of hundreds of millions of cells. Many of these cells and their functions are as yet unknown. This is about to change with a new technology that is being used for the first time at the Center for Brain Research at MedUni Vienna and Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. By combining traditional methods of identifying cells under a microscope and so-called “single-cell RNA sequencing”, it is possible to identify every building block of any given excitable cell. “We are well on the way to being able to map many, if not all, neurons and their functions before too long,” explains lead investigator Tibor Harkany, Head of the Department of Molecular Neurosciences at MedUni Vienna.

So far, we have only been able to study neurons based on a set of scientific premises and to determine or “search for” their function on the basis of a priori knowledge on their morphology (what does the cell look like?), biochemistry (what does it contain?) and what partners a cell might communicate with. “This has hindered the analysis of new types of neurons for which we do not have any anatomical, biochemical or electrophysiological markers. Neuroscience therefore needs radically new approaches to chart the identity of all neurons and other types of non-neuronal cells in the brain,” explains Harkany. “Any new method that helps us to gain a better understanding of the brain and its cellular components has direct relevance to our search for new therapies to treat neuropsychiatric and age-related diseases.”

Catalogue and family tree of all mRNAs
Using the new technology, which is being jointly applied for the first time in the world in a collaboration between MedUni Vienna and Karolinska Institutet, it is now possible to screen each cell and to compile an exact list of its constituents without any prior knowledge – and at the same time to assess its activity and function in the brain in relation to specific behaviors. Thousands of genes are active at any given time in a single neuron. “This will enable us to compile a representative catalogue of mRNA molecules in the neurons and we can use this, for example, to differentiate various neuronal subtypes and to compare healthy and diseased cells or young neurons with old. This technology is a revolutionary breakthrough, because it enables us to record molecular determinants of neuronal identity,” says Harkany. mRNA molecules are single-stranded ribonucleic acids that carry the code for all proteins that a cell produces. 

“It was an enormous challenge to overcome existing technical difficulties, especially to preserve RNA in a state that allows high-quality and reproducible quantitative and qualitative analyses even when first assessing more than hundred parameters of neuronal activity” adds Janos Fuzik, the study’s lead author. As such, the novel technology allows to categorise how neurons might be related to each other, which subsets function in a similar way, what essentially differentiates them, and to predict their roles in neuronal networks and response patterns at unprecedented precision.

Harkany: “Then we will be able to compile a family tree for individual neurons and have a better understanding of their specific contributions to their networks, for example during emotional or learning processes or in memory formation.” Initial study findings included the discovery of five subtypes of neurons that have previously been impossible to research because of their diverse nature. The study also offers another important potential for analysing other types of brain cells, such as astrocytes or microglia (parts of the immune system) in greater detail than was previously possible.

The successful application of the new technology opens up new possibilities for research and clinical practice: entry points for new drugs can be identified more quickly, thus speeding up the development of medicines. At the same time, the new method can also be used for identifying and analysing excitable cells in pancreatic and cardiac tissues, or even in brain tumours. “In this way we will be able to detect both accurately and relatively quickly which cell is not working correctly or is damaged and, more specifically, what is going wrong in the cell,” say the MedUni Vienna brain researchers.

Pancreatic Cancer

Palladin Expression in Primary Cultures of Pancreatic Ductal Cells Derived from Increasingly Neoplastic Samples. Expression of Palladin RNA increases relative to the degree of precancer to cancer: normal to PanIN 1 (hyperplasia) to PanIN 3 (carcinoma in situ) to cancer. Each bar represents epithelial cell cultures from one person. The PanIN 1 and PanIN 3 lesions (lower left photomicrograph) were purified from two affected members of Family X. The pancreatic cancer epithelial cells (lower right photomicrograph) were purified from a sample of sporadic adenocarcinoma.

anonymous asked:

I read your post and your right! I don't use birth control, pain pills etc. I just eat a Vegan diet and don't need any of those. BEFORE I was VEGAN I tried to use pain killers and my body overrides them after the 3rd try of taking them. It literally STOPS working. NEED proof of NOT taking insulin? Look up rawfor30days website, watch the video. I don't believe in using anything synthetic. Nature has a way of preventing disease and having a strong immune system naturally like breastfeeding yr baby



Well. I’ll be waiting in the ED with all my evil synthetic medicine in case that plan doesn’t work out for you. Good luck!

Spoiler: if you have type 1 diabetes you literally need exogenous insulin to live because your body has destroyed the pancreatic cells that make it and no amount of raw food is goona bring those guys back, sorry.

A touch of biochem in morning rounds

Intern V doing a short presentation on sulfonylurea drugs: sulfonylureas block ATP sensitive potassium channels in pancreatic Beta cells … blahty blah…which then affects the Krebs cycle… blahty blah

Attending Dr. B: Ok, too much detail!

External image

Sassy Wayfaring, now post-24 hour call: I’m sorry Dr. B but I’m going to need a detailed refresher on the Krebs Cycle from V if I’m going to be able to prescribe sulfonylureas properly in the future.  Now V, from what I remember, the Krebs Cycle is circular, correct?