palestine in the ottoman empire


Birinci Dünya savaşı sırasında Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’na karşı ayaklanan Arap İsyancıların üniformaları ve kullandıkları bayrak yukarıdaki fotoğrafta verilmiştir. İsyan bayrağı, Britanyalı diplomat Mark Sykes tarafından hazırlanmıştır. 

Bazıları hilafet hayalleri kurarken, geçen sene Arap dünyasında isyanın 100. yılı festivallerle kutlanmıştır. 

A group of Ottoman lancers near Beersheba in Palestine during World War 1, 1917. Attributed to the American Colony in Jerusalem.

Source: Library of Congress.

View of a mock charge by Ottoman lancers in Palestine during World War 1, 1917. Attributed to the American Colony in Jerusalem.

Source: Library of Congress.


In 1901, the founder of the Zionist Movement, Theodor Herzl, himself visited Istanbul and requested to meet with the Sultan Abdulhamid II. The Sultan refused to meet with him and sent his answer with his Head of Ministers Council,

“Advise Dr. Herzl not to take any further steps in his project. I cannot give away a handful of the soil of this land for it is not my own, it is for all the Islamic Nation that fought for the sake of this land and watered it with their blood. The Jews may keep their millions. If the Islamic Caliphate is one day destroyed then they will be able to take Palestine without a price. But while I am alive, I would rather push a sword into my body than see the land of Palestine cut and given away from the Islamic State. This will not be. I will not start cutting our bodies while we are alive”


Jaffa Gate, or Bab el-Khalil, (in Arabic “Gate of the Friend,” referring to Abraham, the beloved of God, who is buried in el-Khalil (Hebron), is another one of the eight gates in Jerusalem’s Old City walls.
Jaffa Gate is the only one of the Old City gates positioned at a right angle to the wall - a defensive measure to slow down oncoming attackers, or to orient it in the direction of Jaffa Road, from which pilgrims arrived at the end of their journey from the port of Jaffa.
Much of Jerusalem’s commerce and political history took place at Jaffa Gate, as seen in these photographs.

anonymous asked:

do you believe that israel have the right to take over palestine or do u believe things shouldve stayed the same before 1948 were jews, christians and muslims lived next to each other peacefully ??

You are operating under a false assumption. Things were not peaceful before 1948. The British Mandate Period, which basically ran from the end of WWI until 1948 was an unmitigated disaster which did nothing but fuel tensions between Jews and Palestinians. 

This is a very abbreviated summary of what was going on before 1948.

Until World War I, Palestine was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. After the war, the Ottoman Empire was essentially destroyed and the regions it controlled were divided by the British and the French in the Sykes-Picot Agreement. This left Palestine under British control. The British and the newly formed League of Nations were attempting to enforce the Balfour Declaration, which promised a Safe Jewish Homeland in Palestine. That was the official policy from about 1919-1939.

During the first ten years of this period, Jewish immigration was steady, but not enormous. But there were a number of unforeseen issues the British did not address. First, the Jewish immigrants were buying up the best farmland and coastal property. Yes, this was legal, but the sellers often didn’t even live in Palestine and the land was usually worked by Palestinian sharecroppers who lost their livelihoods when the new ownership decided they would rather work the land themselves. 

There were periods of tension between the Jews and Palestinians in the 1920s, culminating in the Western Wall riots in Jerusalem in 1929, where around 200 people were killed. 

In 1933, a massive wave of Jewish immigration occurred out of Central Europe because of the rise of Hitler. In 1932, the Jewish population of Palestine was about 175,000. In three years between 1933 and 1936, it would more than double because of refugees. The official British policy was still to enforce the Balfour Declaration, but the Palestinians were restless due to the fact that other Mandate countries like Iraq and Jordan were already independent, and the massive influx of Jews was threatening to create a Jewish majority and prevent the firm establishment of an Arab state in Palestine.

In 1936, there was a massive labor strike and revolt by the Palestinians, largely against the British. The end result was that in 1939, the British issued the infamous “White Paper,” that enforced incredibly strict caps on Jewish immigration. This is 1939, the year World War II started. Palestine, where the British promised a Safe Homeland for the Jews, was now effectively closed to Jewish immigrants during the year that the German Army invaded Poland and began the mass extermination of the Jews in earnest. Immigration to the United States was blocked, the Soviet Union had signed a pact with Hitler, there were few ways out and the British had just turned their backs on the Jews of Europe at the worst possible time.

So what happened? The Jewish bi-nationalists in Palestine were drowned out by the anger of the Jews who wanted to punish the British, force them to be true to their words, and to try to get as many refugees as possible into Palestine before it was too late. 

Now, the British made an enormous number of mistakes, first, they enforced the Balfour Declaration without any regard for the Palestinians.

Second, they pulled a 180 on the “Safe Jewish Homeland” at the very moment that it would prove to be the most devastating.

Third, they never held negotiations with Jews and Palestinians in the same room. 

These mistakes led to Palestinian uprisings, then the White Paper led to Jewish uprisings. The British were being attacked on both sides, threw their hands up, and tossed the issue to the United Nations, which issued a partition plan with no enforcement mechanism. 

So no. You are operating under a false assumption. Palestine was not a place of peaceful co-existence. The British saw to that. Take one people who was promised safety in their darkest hour and were denied it and take another people who were threatened with the loss of their homes and make sure that neither side trusts you or the other side and you have a recipe for violence, which is exactly what happened. 

So I can’t answer your question because you present a false scenario. You are talking about a situation that never was.

It’s like when people try and say “Where as the Palestinian state before 1948, then??” [a question which, by their own standards, should then delegitimize Israel, as there was no Israeli state prior to 1948 either?]

When that is a hugely colonial way to look at it

Palestine existed

The Palestinian people existed

Palestinian culture flourished and the land of Palestine thrived for those who inhabited it

The region of Palestine was part of a greater empire, that of the Ottoman Empire. There were no “states” or internal borders within the Ottoman Empire. There were loosely named regions, such as Palestine and Syria, but there weren’t solid lines signaling borders or territorial control. It was all under the control of the Ottomans, which each general region simply ruling over itself with free roam/entry into other Ottoman regions

During this time, the Arabs of the Ottoman empire simply identified as Arab, because the identities were mostly to distinguish by race, and not by nationality/ethnicity 

Despite this, especially near the end of the Ottoman empire as it began to crumble and fall apart, various regions/groups of people [with British whisperings in their ears] began to vie for independence. 

After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Britain and France divvied up the Middle East as they saw fit, arbitrarily drawing up lines and establishing new “states” to foment further nationalist ambitions within each region, further instigated by these Western forces propping up affluent or friendly families to lead these newly established states. 

The downside is that these borders were drawn with very little care, and cut up a region that had historically lived under the rule of an empire in which they were all essentially equals, all Arabs, with no real differences between them

All of a sudden, these people had new national identities thrust upon them, had new leadership forced upon them, and were cut off from other members of their tribes/families due to these borders, or would be forced into a nationality that they simply wouldn’t have identified with otherwise. 

As a result, these different nationalities were born, and more “specific” identifications began to flourish. Cut to Palestine, where the British maintained their occupation while openly discussing plans to cut up the land and establish a new state on top of the people already inhabiting the land, and the Palestinian identity was clung to as a means of survival, both of the Palestinian people, and of the Palestinian culture and history.

Much of the “turmoil” in the Middle East can still be attributed to these same arbitrary borders that were drawn those hundred years ago, because you simply cannot force these identities upon people who had lived under a radically different way and system of life for centuries and centuries prior and hope it all goes well. We’re literally barely into the second and third generations of people removed from this previous way of life, with much of the conflict and bloodshed being remnants of shitty and failed post-WWI actions

Updated: Myths and Facts about Israel, Palestine, Judea and Samaria (West Bank), and the Middle East
  1. The Middle East Problem - “The Conflict in a Nutshell”
  2. Palestinian Propaganda: Map of territory showing Palestinian land “shrinking” is false
  3. Hamas leader admits ‘Palestinians’ do not exist
  4. 10 Facts About Hamas
  5. Ten myths that prevent peace with the Arabs
  6. Rebuttal The Real Truth about Palestine
  7. Muslim Woman Speaks about Women under Islamic Rule
  8. Balfour Declaration Proving Britain wanted to give Israel to the Jewish People in 1917 and around when the Ottoman Empire collapsed Pre Holocaust
  9. Patronizing Palestine Because we are Racists
  10. 10 Unknown Facts about Judea and Samaria aka The West Bank
  11. The “3 No’s of Khartoum”: no peace with Israel, no negotiations with Israel, no recognition of Israel, and ‘maintenance of the rights of the Palestinian people in their nation.’
  12. Israel’s Critical Security Needs for a Viable Peace
  13. The Etymology of the word Palestine
  14. Boycotting Jewish Inventions in the Muslim World
  15. So you want to Boycott Israel? So here is a list of all the things to Boycott then
  16. The History of Palestine
  17. Hamas bears legal responsibility for EVERY civilian death in Gaza.
  18. Hamas Spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri: Human-Shield Policy Is Effective
  19. Israel Palestinian Conflict: The Truth About the Peace Process
  20. Just a handful of Innovations Israel has made, to give you an idea of what anti-Israel activists need to know.
  21. Jerusalem: The Media Myth of Two Cities
  22. “Hamas is Expert at Driving Media Agenda,” British Commander Tells U.N. Debate
  23. Syrian Leader Admits there is no such thing as Palestine
  24. Arab Attitude towards the “Palestinian Refugees” and why the Arabs refuse to help them 

  25. History of Jews and Muslims in Israel
  26. Palestinian Human Shield Policy
  27. Young Children In Hamas’ Summer Camp Carrying Toy Rifles, Promising To Kill Jews…
  28. Israel Palestinian Conflict: The Truth about the West Bank
  29. Understanding the UN Bias against Israel
  30. Difference between Hamas terrorism and Israeli Self-Defense
  31. Parts of the Hamas’ Charter proving they have no intentions of peace
  32. What the Quran really says about Israel
  33. Hamas Terrorism and Tactics
  34. Hamas a Genocide of the Jewish People
  35. Palestinian Authority Doesn’t Believe in Freedom of Expression
  36. What “moderate” Palestinians teach kids about Christians and Jews
  37. Israel is the only country in the middle-east protecting gay rights
  38. What has Israel done for peace
  39. Pallywood the Palestinian staged news propaganda
  40. Israel an Apartheid State?
  41. What a person who lived through apartheid in South Africa, said about Israel being an “Apartheid State”
  42. Behind the Scenes and the Truth about Palestinian demonstrations
  43. Palestinian “Photo Fraud” many photos recycled from past conflicts, and other forms of “Photo Fraud”
  44. Why do you see pictures of injured Journalists?
  45. Palestinians Throwing Stones at People = Terrorism
  46. Sudan - a remarkable address to the recent “Durban Conference” in New York 
  47. Zionism is not Racism
  48. UN Watch: The “legitimacy war” against Israel at the UN
  49. Debunking the Israeli’s racism towards Africa with FACTS
  50. Israel Aid to USA
  51. Why Sharia/Islamic law is bad for Freedom wherever, and why Mohamed Morsi had to be ousted from Egypt

Since 100 years ago we saw Palestine under the thumb of five different rulers. Remnants of Ottoman Empire, British mandate, beginning of Israeli rule (in ‘48 lands), Jordanian/Egyptian rule ('48-67) and now Israel again. Even if we don’t see the end of Israel or a one state solution in our lifetimes, Israel can’t rule over our lands as it continues for the next twenty or thirty years to come. A military occupation cannot last forever. It becomes damaging for the occupier economically and politically. It just isn’t feasible. We will be free.