paleo indians


BakingWithBooks Does Whole30 - “Tandoori” Roast Chicken with Coconut Curry Sauce and Cucumber Tomato Salad

This is a Whole30 compliant version of Tandoori chicken. It is by no means authentic because there is no yogurt, and I don’t have a tandoori oven, but trust me when I say that the flavor is incredible. 

Ingredients for the Chicken 

1 whole chicken - about 5-6 lbs 

2 tsp chili powder 

2 tsp paprika 

2 tsp turmeric 

Equal parts: ground ginger, garam masala, granulated onion and garlic

1-2 tbsp tomato paste 

Juice from a lime 

1 lime, quartered, 2 whole cloves garlic, and ½ onion for stuffing inside 

Extra virgin olive oil and more kosher salt and pepper 

Kitchen twine for tying the legs

Ingredients for the Coconut Curry Sauce 

½ of a 13.5 fl oz. can of coconut milk 

1 ½ tbsp red curry paste 

2 sprigs of mint, finely chopped 

Juice from ¼ lime and ¼ lemon

½ tsp kosher salt 

2 pitted dates 

Directions for Chicken 

Clean the chicken, removing any giblets and kidneys from the inside and thoroughly pat dry with paper towels. 

In one bowl, mix the chili powder, paprika, turmeric together. Add just enough lime juice so that mixture becomes a paste. 

Make gashes (not deep) in the chicken skin and slather the paste all over the bird. Each part of the bird should be covered. If you need more paste, feel free to make more. 

Marinate in the fridge for about 2 hours. 

Make another paste (without lime juice) with the garam masala, ginger, granulated garlic and onion with the tomato paste. This is going to give the chicken incredible flavor along with the intense red color that Tandoori chicken is known for. 

Slather this paste all over the front of the chicken and return to marinate for another hour. 

Remove the chicken from the fridge and let it come to room temperature for about 30-40 minutes, and preheat your oven to 420 degrees Fahrenheit. 

Season the inside of the chicken very generously with kosher salt and pepper. Stuff it with the lime, onion, and garlic, and tie the legs with kitchen twine. 

About 5-10 minutes before your bird is ready to go into the oven, heat extra virgin olive oil in a cast iron skillet over high heat. You want it to sizzle when a dash of water is added. 

Once the oil is heated, add the bird, breast-side up into the skillet and let sear for about 4-5 minutes. 

Place into the oven to roast. Take it out when the breast meat reads 155 degrees Fahrenheit and the thigh meat reads about 165 degrees Fahrenheit. 

Let the chicken rest before carving for about 20-25 minutes. Make the sauce while you’re doing this. 

Directions for Coconut Curry Sauce 

Combine all ingredients into a blender and puree until smooth. 

Strain through a fine sieve to remove any lumps. Taste for seasoning and adjust to your likeness. The sauce is meant to be rich, slightly spicy, and very faintly sweet. 

Garnish with cilantro. 

The cucumber and tomato salad is lightly dressed with sea salt, pepper, red vinegar, and light olive oil.

Carve your chicken and serve. 


sweet limes + watermelon + mint :: …but…sweet limes! i’ve got tons of ‘em & they’re new to me. :: a totally sweet citrus with hints of lime flower & just a tiny tang of lemon.

The Sings As Lost Cultures

The Mycenaean Civilization, Greece - Aries

The Mycenae didn’t flourish by trade alone – they set out to conquer, and expanded into an empire that overtook much of Greece. The Mycenaean civilization enjoyed five centuries of domination before vanishing sometime around 1100 BCE. Hellenic legend holds that the Mycenae defeated the possibly mythological Troy, and the empire’s artifacts have been found as far away as Ireland. In fact, this culturally and economically wealthy civilization has left behind a wealth of art, architecture and artifacts.

Cahokia, Illinois, United States - Taurus

Cahokia was once the largest urban center north of the great Mesoamerican cities of Mexico and may have once been home to as many as 40,000 people – greater, in the year 1250 CE, than the population of London, England, or that of any American city that was to come until Philadelphia around the year 1800.

The Anasazi, New Mexico, United States - Gemini

Remains best known for stone and adobe structures built along cliff walls, which evolved into amazing multi-story dwellings that were often only accessible by rope or ladder.

Clovis Culture, North America - Cancer

Very little is known about the Clovis culture, a prehistoric Paleo-Indian people that were thought to have been the first human inhabitants of North America. The artifacts, bone and stone blades known as Clovis points, are among the only clues we have that this group – technically not a civilization – ever existed.

The Aksumite Empire, Ethiopia - Leo

Theorized to be the home of the Queen of Sheba, the Aksumite Empire had its own alphabet and erected enormous obelisks including the Obelisk of Axum, which still stands. It was the first major empire to convert to Christianity.

The Indus Valley Civilization, Pakistan - Virgo

Sophisticated and technologically advanced, this civilization featured the world’s first urban sanitation systems as well as evidence of surprising proficiency in mathematics, engineering and even proto-dentistry.

The Minoans, Crete - Libra

Centers of commerce appeared around 2700 BCE, and as the civilization advanced, palaces of greater and greater complexity were built and rebuilt following series of disasters – likely earthquakes and eruptions of the Thera volcano. One of these palaces was Knossos, the ‘labyrinth’ associated with the legend of Minos, which is now a major archaeological site and tourist attraction.

Moche Civilization, Peru - Scorpio

The Moche civilization developed an agriculturally-based society complete with palaces, pyramids and complex irrigation canals on the north coast of Peru. In 2006, a Moche chamber was discovered that was apparently used for human sacrifice, containing the remains of human offerings.

The Khmer Empire, Cambodia - Sagittarius

Once one of the most powerful empires of Southeast Asia, the Khmer civilization spread from modern-day Cambodia out into Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar and Malaysia and is best known today for Angkor, its capital city.

The Olmec Civilization, Mexico - Capricorn

Once a grand Pre-Columbian civilization that constructed incredible ‘colossal heads’, practiced bloodletting and human sacrifice, invented the concept of the number zero, possibly invented the compass, and essentially laid the foundation for every Mesoamerican culture that was to follow.

The Cucuteni-Trypillians, Ukraine & Romania - Aquarius

This mysterious civilization is characterized by its uniquely patterned pottery and by its bizarre habit of burning its own villages to the ground every 60 to 80 years. The villages were rebuilt again and again, on top of the ashes of the old ones.

The Nabateans, Jordan - Pisces

Their legacy is epitomized by the breathtaking city of Petra, carved into the solid sandstone rock of Jordan’s mountains, and they are remembered for their skill in water engineering, managing a complex system of dams, canals and reservoirs which helped them expand and thrive in an arid desert region.


At 85,710 acres in size, Adobe Town Wilderness Study Area (WSA) is the largest in Wyoming. Within the WSA, you’ll find Skull Creek Rim and Monument Valley - names that conjure up images of colorful badlands, buttes and spires created by thousands of years of erosion. Located 80 miles southwest of Rawlins, outstanding opportunities for solitude and primitive and unconfined recreation exist in the WSA. 

This WSA’s rugged badland rims and numerous canyons provide ample opportunities to avoid the sights and sounds of other visitors. The open desert plain, with its expanses of sagebrush and open scenic vistas, projects a feeling of vastness and solitude. 

The WSA is nationally known for the educational and scientific study of paleontological resources. Fossil remains of mammals are numerous and widely distributed throughout the area. Two notable mammalian fossils found in the area are the Uintathere and the Titanothere. The Uintathere was a large mammal about the size and configuration of an African rhinoceros. The species of Titanothere found in the WSA was a tapir-like mammal, about 40 inches in height. This area has been identified as one of the premier sites in North America for paleontological resources.

Significant archaeological resources are found throughout the WSA, representing 12,000 years of continuous occupation by man from Paleo Indian through late Prehistoric periods. The cultural site density of the WSA is estimated to be 30 surface sites per square mile, which is unusually high.

Photos by Bob Wick, BLM


Hannah Wormington (September 5, 1914 – May 31, 1994)

Hannah Wormington was an archaeologist known for her writings and fieldwork on southwestern and Paleo-Indians archaeology over a long career that lasted almost sixty years.

Marie Wormington was born in Denver, Colorado. As a young child she was able to spend most of her time with her mother and her maternal grandmother who had come to the United States from France. Being fluent in both English and French proved to be a useful asset the summer she went to France to start her archaeology career.

Wormington was the first woman to focus on anthropology for a Radcliff Ph. D., which she obtained in 1954. This was during the era in American archaeology when that there was a definite bias against women being included in some departments and in some parts of the country. While taking classes at Harvard for her Ph.D. she had a professor who requested that she sit outside the classroom to take notes.

Before obtaining her Ph.D., Wormington already had an accomplished career in anthropology, which began in 1935 after she graduated with her B.A. in Anthropology from the University of Denver. Her initial areas of interest were medicine and zoology, but changed to archaeology after taking a few classes taught by E. B. Renaud, whose focus was on the French Paleolithic. He supported the idea of Paleolithic stone tool technologies in the New World that were identical to other parts of the world. Renaud suggested traveling to France to do some research.

Wormington jump started her own career through the connections she made by contacting Dorothy Garrod as soon as she was in London. Garrod became a mentor to Wormington, and she put her in touch with some notable archaeologists working in Paris at the time, including Harper Pat Kelley and Henri Martin. While working alongside Kelley, Wormington was allowed to borrow artifacts found in Europe for data collection at the Denver Museum. Martin insisted that Wormington be a part of the Paleolithic excavations taking place at Dordogne, and Wormington spent her 21st birthday doing just that.

After returning home to her native Denver, she was hired on at the Colorado Museum of Natural History (known today as the Denver Museum of Natural History) in the anthropology department until it closed in 1968, thus her appointment as a curator spanned 33 years. Because of her background as one of the foremost authorities on the subject of Paleo Indian studies, the museum was able to establish a formidable reputation. While working at the museum and before obtaining her MA and Ph.D. Wormington wrote Ancient Man in North Americaas well as Prehistoric Indians of the South West.

In the same year she left the Denver museum (1968), Wormington was the first female archaeologist to be elected president of the Society for American Archaeology. She had previously held the title of vice president twice (1950–51, 1955–56).

She was awarded a Guggenheim fellowship in 1970, and in 1977 she was awarded an honorary doctor of letters from Colorado state university. In 1983, the Society of American Archaeology awarded her the Distinguished Service Award, being the first female archaeologist to receive the award.

Just two years later she was awarded the Colorado Archaeology Society C.T. Hurst award for her significant role in Colorado Archaeology. In 1988 she was once again awarded honorary doctor of letters degree from Colorado College, the same year she was appointed the curator emeritus of the Denver Museum of Natural History.

Flint Tools of the Paleo Indians

The Paleo-Indians of North America, or the First Peoples, lived between 14,000 and 10,000 years before the present. Their use of flint tools to hunt, kill and butcher animals as big as mastodons is legendary. Flint is a glass-like quartz stone that splinters easily, which makes exceptionally sharp edges for tools. The tools of the Paleo-Indians have distinct designs developed at three different periods: Clovis, Folsom and Plano.