On names: Artemis

And here are some names and titles for Artemis. Some very generic ones, shared by many other divinities, plus lots of confusing geography, but still many great epithets.

Potnia Theron - mistress of beasts
Potna Thea - divine mistress, the Lady
Letois, Latoia - daughter of Leto
Kasignete Hekatoio - far-shooter’s sister
Homotrofos Apolloni - reared together with Apollon
Dios koure - daughter of Zeus
Akalanthis - goldfinch
Amphipyros - with a torch in each hand
Agrotere, Agrotera - of the wilds
Ariste - best, excellent
Astrateia - who stayed the (enemy) advance (referring to the Amazons in this case)
Apankhomene - strangled one (some mortal guys threatened to strangle her statue. Guess how that turned out for them. There are also hints human sacrifice through hanging happened, so this byname might refer to that)
Agoraia - of the Agora
Aristoboule - best in council
Akraia - she on high, of high places
Asylos - inviolable
Basileis - royal
Blaganitis - of frogs
Bousbatos - powerful as a bull
Diktynnaia - of the nets
Daphnaia - of the laurel tree
Delphinia - of dolphins
Dadoukhos - torch-bearer
Dynatera - almighty
Despoine - mistress
Dendritis - of trees
Eukleia - good glory
Epikrateia - of the realm
Elaphebolos - deer-shooting
Ellophonos - fawn-slaying?
Elateira - (chariot?-) driving
Eleuthera - free
Eleutho - liberator
Endiagros - inhabiting wild places?
Epimelidios - protector of sheep?
Eulinos - with good thread, good spinner
Euonymos - well-named
Eustephanos - well-crowned/girdled
Euplokamos - of beautiful locks
Elaphaia - of deer
Eulokheia - of good birth
Ekbateria - of disembarkment
Eunostos - of safe return
Euporia - of safe travels
Euskopos - with good, keen eyesight
Elate - lofty, of fir trees
Genetyllis - of births
Hagne - chaste, pure
Heleia - of marshes
Hemerasia - she who soothes
Hemere - gentle
Hymnia - of hymns
Hegemone - mistress, leader (of dance/song)
Hekate, Hekatebolos - far-shooting, remote
Hekaerge - who works from afar
Hiereia - priestess (sacred one?)
Horaia - who ripens
Heurippa - horse-finder
Hipposoa - horse driving
Iokheaira - of showering arrows, delighting in arrows
Kedreatis - of the cedar
Karyatis - of the walnut
Katagogis - descending
Kordax - of the kordax dance
Kalliste - of surpassing beauty
Khrysalakatos - with golden distaff/ golden shafts
Kynagia - of dogs
Khrysenios - of golden reins
Khrysothronos - golden-throned
Keladeina - strong-voiced, clamorous
Keladodromos - running noisily
Khrysaoros - with a golden sword
Khitone - wearing a chiton
Kynegetis, Kynagon - leading dogs
Klytotoxos - famous with the bow
Karpophagos - boar-eater
Lykeia, Lykaena - of wolves
Leukophryne, Leukophrys - white toad or white brow. It might also simply refer to the town of Leukophrys.
Limnaia - of the lake
Limenia, Limenitis - of the harbor
Limenoskopos - who surveys the harbor
Lokheia - of the blood of birth
Lysizone - who loosens the girdle
Lygodesme - willow-bound (regarding an image of the goddess)
Mesopolitis - in the middle of the city
Melissa - bee
Mogostokos - of hard childbirth
Orsilokhia - helper in childbirth
Orthia - upright (probably).
Patroia - ancestral
Pheraia - of wild beasts
Philomeirax - friend to young girls
Paidotrophos, Kourotrophos - who nurses children/the young
Phosphoros, Selasphoros - lightbringer
Protothronie - foremost on the throne
(Aidoios) Parthenos - (revered) virgin (huge surprise, this one)
Prostateria - standing in front, guardian
Proseoa - eastward facing
Phoibe - shining
Pyronia - of fire
Peitho - persuasion
Propylaia - of the gate
Proskopa - lookout
Paionia - healer
Paralia - of the coast
Pasikrateia - all-powerful
Polymastis - many-breasted
Potamia - of rivers
Prokathegemon - leader, guide
Soteira - saviour (saviours, saviours everywhere!)
Soodina - protectress (during labor?)
Theroskopos - hunter of beasts
Throsia - murmuring
Triklaria - of three territories/provinces
Tauropolos, Taurione - of Tauros or pulled by bulls, or bull-huntress
Thermaia - of hot springs
Toxia - of the bow
Toxotis - archer
Toxophoros - who carries a bow
There are also some local epithets, and sometimes Artemis of, say, Ephesus, was worshipped in other cities as well.
Astias - of Iasos
Brauronia - Brauronian (Attica)
Mounykhia - Mounykhian (Attica)
Aiginaia - of Aigina. Might also mean huntress of chamois, or wielder of a javelin (aiganea)?

Aitole - Aitolian
Koryphaia - of mount Koryphos (Argos), or she of the peak
Dereatis - of Dereion (Lakonia)
Alpheiousa, Alpheiosia, Alpheiaiai - of river Alpheios ( Elis)
Stymphalia - of lake Stymphalos (Arkadia)
Skiatis - of Skias (Arkadia)
Lykoa - of Lykoa (Arkadia)
Knakalesia - of mount Knakalos (Arkadia)
Amarynthia, Amarysia - unwithering? Also of Amarynthos (Euboia)
Pheraia - of Pherai (Thessalia)
Astyrena - of Astyre (Troad)
Rhokkaia - of Rhokkha (Krete)
Koloenis - of Koloe (Lydia)
Kindyas - of Kindye (Karia)
Ephesia - of Ephesos (Karia)
Pergaia - of Perge (Pamphylia)
Mysia - Mysian
Skythia - Skythian
Tauria - of Skythian Tauros
Kynthia - of the mount Kynthus
Delia - Delian
Kondyleatis - of Kondylea
Issoria - of mount Issorion
And, of course, let us not forget all those heroines and heroes!
Iphigeneia, Iphianassa - connected with the heroine Iphigeneia
Saronis - connected with the Argive hero Saron
Knagia, Knakeatis - connected with the Spartan hero Knageus
Elaphiaia - connected with the hero Elaphios of Elis
Kallisto - connected with the Arkadian heroine Kallisto
Laphria - connected with the hero Laphros of Phokis
Sarpedonia - of cape Sarpedon. Or connected with the Lykian hero Sarpedon?
There are also some goddesses, who are closely associated with Artemis for one reason or another, and sometimes their names were used as her titles.
Artio - Gaulish bear goddess
Aphaia - invisible
Britomartis - Cretan deity
Bendis - Thrakian goddess
Eileithiya - goddess of birth, often upstaged by Artemis.
Enodia - of the streets. Also associated with Hekate
Eurynome - wide rulership, broad distribution, wide-wandering
Anaitis - Lydian name for the Persian goddess Anahita

44 Days of Witchery: Day Two

A myth or story for folklore.

Hekate and her Plants

Hekate is the goddess of witches, mother of the witch Circe and aunt of the witch Medea. Many witches work with Hekate, and while I don’t personally, I do find her to be an amazing source of inspiration when it comes to plants. You could say plants are a passion of mine, especially the poisonous ones that Hekate herself is so fond of. Truly, her garden would have been quite a sight to behold!

Concerning her garden, the Orphic Songs of the Argonauts says:

There is a grove in the innermost room of the enclosure,
Where lush green wood ascends with shadowy tips,
Laurel trees and cornelian cherry and slender platanos aloft.
There are also many herbs in this place, arching over the deep roots;
Klymenos, complete with the noble asfoldelos, and adiantos,
Aristereon, most tender of plants, and kypeiros with thyron,
Kyklaminos, like the violet, and erysimon, complete with hormion,
Stoichas, then paionia, surrounded by thickets of polyknemon.
Then polion, mandragoras also, and pale diktamnon,
Krokoa with sweet scent, and kardamom, next to kemos,
Smilax, dark poppy, and low chamaemelon,
Panakes and alkeja, with karpason and akoniton …
And many others more poisonous rose up from the ground.

According to translations in Rätsch’s sections of the book Witchcraft Medicine, these historical plants of the Witch Goddess included Aconite (Monkshood), Mandrakes, Belladonna, Black Nightshade, Juniper, Dittany of Crete, and Lavender, to name a few. A garden filled both with healing herbs and deadly poisons (which of course in trained hands and at low enough doses can still be used as powerful healing herbs). He also makes the connection of Henbane being connected with her. I highly recommend this book for anyone interested in working with plants, by the way.

I began growing a lot of these historical witching plants (especially the deadly ones and the Solanaceae family plants) a year ago, so when I bought this book a few months back and read about Hekate’s garden I was instantly a fan her for her wortcunning and brilliantly wide selection of plants.

[translation] America Character Song: It’s Easy!!!!

[AUDIO LINK] from @hetalia-music
sung by Konishi Katsuyuki


カウボーイブーツ ベルトしめて
いくぞ早撃ち バババンバンバーーーーン☆


なんでも挑戦 アドベンチャー
Hyper Hyper Jump!!

ハリウッド 派手にいこうじゃないか

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On names: Athene

Let’s check out some excellent epithets of Pallas Athene. Lots of names connecting her to places, a few generic appellations shared with other deities, etc. But most really are illuminating. For example, note that the goddess is a leader in peace and war, is very perceptive and quick of mind, a great protectress - but is noted more for quickness of mind and practicality, than for introspection and deep knowledge. Basically, it looks like her presence is more likely to be felt on a military base or in a city hall than in a library.

Adamatos thea - untamed
Agoraia - of the market place
Anemotis - of the winds
Ageleia - who leads and protects people like a herd of cattle or she who takes the spoils
Aglauros - connected with the heroine Aglauros
Aithyia - diver, or a figurative reference to ships?
Alea - connected with the hero Aleus. Possibly also of refuge
Alalkomeneis - protectress, or also of Alalkomenai
Alkidemos - defender of the people
Alkimakhe - defender in battle
Alkis - strong, brave
Amboulia - of counsel
Apatouria - deciever
Areia - warlike
Akraia - She on high
Amaria - of day?
Arkhegetis - foundress, leader
Assesia - of Assesus
Atrytone - unflinching
Axiopoinos - who metes out just punishment
Aiantis - connected with the hero Aiax, or with the attic phile Aiantis
Agestratos- leader of hosts
Boarmia, Boudeia - yoker of oxen
Bia - might
Boulaia - of the boule (council)
Damasippos - horse tamer
Deino - terrible
Epipyrgitis - of/upon the tower
Ergane - of craft
Eryma - defender
Erysiptolis - defender of the city
Euresitekhnos - inventor of the crafts
Glaukopis - bright-eyed, owl-eyed
Gorgopis - gorgon-faced, grim
Gorgolopha - gorgon-crested
Gorgophone - killer of the gorgon
Gigantoleteira - destroyer of giants
Iasonia - connected with the hero Jason, or healer
Ilia - of Ilios
Ismenia - of the Ismenos river
Itonia - of Itonus, or connected with the hero Itonios
Hephaistia - connected with Hephaistos
Hippia - of horses
Hippolaitis - of Hippola
Hellotia - of the fertile marsh, or connected with the heroine Hellotis
Homaria - of the gathering
Homolois - well, one of the gates of Thebes was called that, and there was a Homoloia festival in Boeotia. Also, Homole mountain in Thessaly, and a legendary priestess called Homolois. Might also mean “of concord”. Nice range of options.
Hygieia - of good health
Kalliergos - of beautiful crafts
Keleutheia - of the roads
Khalinitis - bridler
Khalkioikos - of the bronze dwelling
Khryseopelex - gold-helmeted
Khrysolonkhos - of the golden spear
Kleidouchos - keeper of the keys
Koryphasia - of the head, or of the promontory called Koryphasion
Koryphagenes - born from the head
Kyparissia - of Kyparissiae, or of the cypress
Kydonia - of Kydonia on Crete
Kynthia - of the Kynthus mountain on Delos
Kolokasia - of the edible tubers, probably
Kissaia - of ivy
Koresia - of the lake Koresia, which might just mean maiden lake
Ktesia - protectress of the household
Kranaia - of the top of the hill, probably
Laossoos - rallier of the people
Lemnia - of Lemnos
Lindia - of Lindos
Leitis - distributor of war booty
Larisaia - of Larisus
Magarsia - of Magarsos
Medeousa Athenon - protectress and queen of Athens
Mekhanitis - contriver of plans
Meter - mother. (Yes, there was such a cult in Elis. Apparently, there is nothing weird about asking a virgin goddess for children)
Moria - of the sacred olive tree
Nike - victory
Nikephoros - bringer of victory, who holds victory in her hands
Nedousia - of Nedon
Narkaia - connected with the hero Narkaios
Obrimopatre - of a mighty father
Oleria - of Oleris
Ophtalmitis - of eyes
Optiletis - sightful
Oxyderkes - of sharp eyesight
Pareia - of parian marble (in reference to a statue )
Paionia - healer
Pandrosos - connected with the heroine Pandrosos
Pankrates - almighty
Persepolis - sacker of cities
Potnia Egrekydoimos - mistress who raises the din of war
Phalaritis - who wears cheekpieces
Phobesistrate - who is feared by hosts
Phratria - of the phratry
Phronesis - of moral responsibility
Polyboulos, Polymetis - of many counsels
Polioukhos, Poliatis - protector of the polis
Polemedokos - sustainer of war
Promakhos - first in battle, who fights in front
Pronoia - of foresight
Proxima - near one
Panakhaia - of all Akhaia
Parthenos - virgin
Pallas - maybe a reference to her friend she killed accidentally, maybe a giant she killed (not accidentally) , maybe one who brandishes (pallein) her spear or aegis
Pronaia - before the temple
Pylaimakhos - fighter at the gates
Polias - of the city
Pylaitis - of the gates
Sais, Saitis - of Sais. Neith, a Kemetic goddess, is that city’s proper patron, but hey, Interpretatio Graeca, what can you do *grumble grumble *
Salpinx - war trumpet
Soteira - saviour
Sounia - of Sounion
Skiras - of Skiron
Skillyntia - of Skillos
Sthenias - mighty
Stoikheia - marshaler of ranks
Telkhinia - connected with the Telkhines, probably
Tritogeneia - born near the Lybian lake Tritonis or river Triton, or possibly from the head
Zosteria - of the girdle
Xenia - of (hospitality to) strangers

It cannot be stressed enough that Pausanias is invaluable, as well as the Homeric hymns, Kallimachos, Euripides, Aristophanes, etc. We are so very lucky to have their works, aren’t we?