Dimethyl sulfoxide (C2H6OS), also known as DMSO, is a colourless liquid that is commonly used as a reactant and solvent in laboratories and in the chemical industry.
It is classified as a polar aprotic solvent, and is capable of dissolving a range of both polar and non-polar compounds, and even ionic substances as well. Being an aprotic solvent, it cannot form hydrogen bonds with and stabilise nucleophiles, causing their nucleophilicity to be enhanced. As a result, SN2 reactions are preferred in such media over SN1 reactions and elimination reactions. (The photo below shows acetone molecules instead of DMSO, but the logic still applies)
DMSO is also used as a reactant in some reactions, such as Swern oxidation, in which alcohols are oxidised to aldehydes or ketones. However, while this has been an important synthetic technique in the past, its use is now gradually declining due to the production of toxic by-products such as carbon monoxide and dimethyl sulfide.
An interesting property of DMSO is that people have noticed a garlic-like taste in the mouth upon exposure to it!
The curious case of Gloria Ramirez, in which a pungent, garlic-like smell from her body after defibrillation was administered caused 23 hospital staff to collapse, has been attributed by some to her use of DMSO as an alternative remedy for pain. It is postulated that the DMSO was oxidised to dimethyl sulfate, which is highly toxic, upon administration of the electric shocks from the defibrillator, and this resulted in the mass poisoning of nurses and doctors.
Industrially, dimethyl sulfoxide is produced from the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide with oxygen.
[ NEWS ] Ancient Chinese sword unearthed after 2,300 years by archaeologists is still shiny
A Chinese sword removed from its scabbard for the first time in more than 2,000 years was so well-preserved it was still shiny.
Archaeologists discovered the ancient weapon, believed to be around 2,300 years old, in a tomb among the ruins of Chengyang City in central China.
When they unsheathed the large blade from its muddied cover, they found it had not oxidised but was still sharp, shiny and in near-perfect condition.
The team from Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology posted pictures and a video of the sword on Chinese social network Weibo.
The artefact is believed to be from China’s Warring States period, from around 475 to 221 BC, when the Zhou Dynasty region was divided between eight states which often saw fierce fighting.
The sword, which had been buried inside a wooden coffin next to its owner, had been preserved because ancient tombs in the area are usually humid and sealed off from the outside, team leader Wu Zhijiang told the Daily Mail.
The video clip, taken last week after the sword was discovered on 30 December, has been widely shared online and broadcast by Chinese media.
In a Weibo post, the archaeologists said they hoped those reading would find 2017 as “radiant” and “invincible” as the glittering sword.
a small rant on charcoal peel masks because i hate them so much
if you’re using a charcoal peel to try to get rid of what you think is blackheads on your nose, cheeks, chin, etc. but nothing is working, chances are those ~blackheads~ are actually sebaceous filaments. they usually look like little tiny grey or tan dots and they’re in groups, usually on the T zone, and they are COMPLETELY NORMAL and healthy. think of them as the elevator up to the surface of your skin for the oils that your skin produces naturally. (your skin NEEDS that oil don’t screw it up. there’s a reason people with oily skin age slower than people with dry skin.)
blackheads and pimples happen when crap gets clogged up in your pores but your skin continues to produce the same amount of oil– blackheads turn black because they reach the surface and get oxidised while whiteheads remain white because they’re under the skin. to get rid of them, products (toners, scrubs, creams) with salicylic acid, alpha hydroxy acids (google that), tea tree oil, etc. are a much better alternative.
the trend of nose strips and charcoal peel masks to try and get rid of the sebaceous filaments, mistaking them for blackheads, is actually doing your skin more harm than good. you’re literally ripping skin off of your face. it rips out the filaments, leaving your pores open to any bacteria and pollution in the air. using a timer helps with that but it definitely doesn’t cancel out how harsh it is on your skin… try exfoliating gently instead to reduce the appearance of them
god i hate charcoal masks i wish they weren’t such a big thing
(also even once the filaments are extracted they’ll be back in like a month there’s no point. there’s no way to get rid of them permanently. seriously stop using charcoal masks or pore strips they are so so so harsh on your skin.)
i’m not an expert on this by any means this is just what i’ve learnt at work and from experience and it kills me every time someone comes in and asks me to help them find a charcoal peel mask. it’s giving me so much stress for yalls skin my dudes
VX (C11H26NO2PS) is a colourless, odourless, oily liquid under room temperatures. It is a member of the V-series of nerve agents, and is an extremely potent poison - only 0.01 grams of it is needed to kill a person by skin contact. VX was recently implicated in the assassination of Kim Jong-nam, the half-brother of the North Korean leader Kim Jong-un,
VX is a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into acetic acid and choline. The normal function of the enzyme is to regulate the concentration of acetylcholine within the synaptic cleft, so as to control the frequency of binding of acetylcholine to cholinergic receptors on the postsynaptic cell membrane and hence the transmission of impulses across the synapse.
Consequently, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase results in a rapid increase in the synaptic concentration of acetylcholine, as the presynaptic knob continues to synthesise it and secrete it into the synaptic cleft. As a result, the cholinergic receptors on the postsynaptic cell membrane are continually stimulated, and a rapid series of action potentials are triggered. This results in muscle spasms and eventual paralysis, leading to death by asphyxiation due to paralysis of the diaphragm.
VX exposure is usually treated using an injection of atropine and pralidoxime. Atropine inhibits certain cholinergic receptors, reducing the binding of acetylcholine to receptors and thus the triggering of action potentials. On the other hand, one end of pralidoxime binds to acetylcholinesterase and the other binds to the phosphate group of VX, which causes the VX molecule to detach from the enzyme together with the pralidoxime molecule (see below). This restores the ability of acetylcholinesterase to hydrolyse acetylcholine, hence reducing its synaptic levels.
VX is synthesised from phosphorus trichloride over multiple steps; first, it is methylated, reacted with ethanol, then transesterified with N,N-diisopropylaminoethanol to produce QL. This is then oxidised with sulfur, and isomerised via heating to produce VX.
Hey everyone, it’s been a while. I’m in a better place now, and though my mini-sabbatical was necessary, I hated not updating you all! I can’t wait any longer, so I’m back!
Most people know that certain crystals or stones have associations in Witchcraft, but people seem to forget that this is a relatively new area of Craft. Prior to that, for thousands and thousands of years, Witches and smiths used metals to work their magick and skill, and this shouldn’t be forgotten today!
Alloys have different associations to pure metals, so I’ll do them separately.
Iron - Probably the most common metal in Witchcraft, it’s associated with repelling of spirits, demons, Fae, and magick generally. It’s a dousing metal, one that channels magick exceptionally well, and as such will “pull” magick out of the user. Enchantments don’t stick to iron objects, and any spells placed on them will fade almost immediately or simply not stick in the first place.
Copper - An ancient and useful technology, copper is said to be the second metal ever worked by human hands, and the first to be made into tools. It’s primary associations are with craft and manufacture, especially workings done with one’s own hands or skill. Amulets made from copper are said to enhance skill at creative or inventive endeavours, and altar tools made from copper will work very well for constructive magick or rituals. It’s also strongly associated with harmony and balancing, making it an excellent metal to include in altars focused around balance.
Steel - Whilst technically an alloy, it’s an alloy of iron and a non-metal (carbon) so I’m going to put it in this section. Steel is strongly associated with weapons and armour, and for this reason it works well for defensive magick, destructive magick, and for athames. It retains iron’s strong resistance to magickal enchantment, which for an athame is a good thing - you don’t want the magick “sticking” to your tools, so something like iron or steel is kind of like using a non-stick pan to cook your eggs.
Tin - The working of iron is called “blacksmithing”, and conversely the working of tin is called “whitesmithing”, because whilst iron oxidises black under heat, tin remains quite pale. In the ancient world, this metal was highly sought-after, as it is the crucial ingredient in the manufacture of bronze, an alloy of tin, copper, and occasionally some other metals. As a result, it was highly priced and much haggled-over, and so it’s primary associations are with money, trading, prosperity and success. It’s also very strongly associated with British Witchcraft, because Britain had so much tin that the Romans and Greeks called Britain “the Tin Isles”.
Gold - The first metal worked by humans, the purity, rarity and unparalleled lustre of gold have made it one of the most sought-after metals of all time. Regarded as one of the “noble metals” by alchemists, and one of the precious metals by almost everyone else, gold is of course strongly associated with money, fortune and trading. However, it’s also associated with intelligence, because of the alchemical pursuits followed to try to transmute things into it; and with purity, because it is biologically so inert that Victorian doctors used to coat pills for rich people in 24k gold leaf to mask the taste without harming the patients. It’s an excellent channelling substance, though I doubt anyone will have enough of it for a whole wand! Perhaps just a tip, then!
Silver - Although less prized than gold, this highly lustrous and workable material is also regarded as a precious metal. Due to its unique atomic structure, silver is the most conductive element in the universe - this makes it an unparalleled channelling metal, and it’s much lower cost than gold makes this a theoretically possible metal to make wands for energy-workers and for ceremonial wands for covens. It’s also a very pure metal, and is strongly associated with healing, growth, and cleansing of disease and impurity from the body. Amulets suspended on a silver chain will be imbued with healing energies, strengthening any enchantments upon them, and assisting in the boosting of the wearer’s natural immune system.
Lead - Contrary to popular belief, lead is not toxic to hold in your hands any more than nickel, antimony, or other metals that are often toxic by ingestion. Whilst it’s not advised to wear it as an amulet (because prolonged rubbing against the acidic oils in the skin will cause them to react with the metal over time and be absorbed into your body), holding a charm in your hands or wearing one for only a day or so is not dangerous to your health. This metal is associated strongly with travel, adventure, and safe voyages across both space and emotion. It’s also a metal associated with intelligence and academia, and with magick of all kinds. Pendulums made using lead weights or pendants will be unparalleled for divination. In fact, my own original divinatory pendant is made using a lead fishing weight and an old key, and whilst I now have a fancy new one made with rose quartz and pure silver, my old lead pendulum is still my absolute favourite!
Bronze - An alloy made from the combining of approximately 85% copper and 15% tin. This alloy has many superior qualities compared to both individual metals, and this has made it a first choice metal for a great many people from artists to cooks to metallurgists throughout the ages. Stronger than both tin and copper, and with a higher melting temperature and toughness rating than either, this metal is associated strongly with grand endeavours, imaginative or ambitious projects, and with collaborative enterprises. Bronze would be an excellent component of any spell intended to enhance your performance at your job, in seeking employment, or in advancing your own social or career goals.
Pewter - This alloy has become rarer in these more modern times, but in the Medieval and Renaissance periods pewter was one of the most commonly used metals available. It’s main component is tin, and whilst most pewter is about 92% tin you can get pewter with as little as 80% tin and as much as 99%! The remaining ~8% is usually copper, antimony, and in old alloys lead is often a component (lead is almost always absent in modern pewter for safety reasons). This alloy is the metal that’s most strongly connected to kitchen witchery, followed by cast iron and copper, because it has been used for over a thousand years to make everything from cutlery to plates to flagons. It’s also associated with “common” magick, the magick of everyday people (as opposed to what were traditionally called the “higher” magicks like alchemy and energy-working). So long as your pewter is free of lead, it’s safe to keep it near your skin, or to eat or drink from it. Potions are more powerful when brewed in cauldrons made of pewter, and your kitchen spells will work more effectively when you use pewter in the working somewhere.
Electrum - One of my favourite metals of all time, electrum is a naturally-occurring alloy of gold and silver, often with trace quantities of copper, platinum and palladium in the alloy too. Natural electrum comes in two common varieties; 10-30% silver, which is found mostly in the regions of Western Anatolia; and 50%-60% silver, which is found in the regions around Ancient Lydia (a large empire stretching across much of Asia Minor). However, most modern electrum is alloyed artificially, allowing finer control over the quality of the alloy and making it easier to work with artistically. Electrum is very much a metal associated with commerce - many regions such as the Lydian empire used electrum as a basis for their coins, as opposed to pure gold or pure silver, and it has always been a highly valued commodity. It’s also a very strongly artistic metal, as electrum has been used to make everything from the capstone of the Great Pyramid of Giza (sadly, this has long since been stolen by looters over the centuries), to wedding bands for pagan marriages. Electrum is a metal of love and emotion, and in its alloying of two precious and beautiful metals to make a product greater than the sum of its parts, it represents the joining of two lives together into a single whole to produce a love that will last across all time. Personally, I’d like my wedding band to be made of electrum!
Metals are a much overlooked, but incredibly useful addition to any Witch’s arsenal of magick tools, and I hope most sincerely that this has been useful for all of you wonderful Witches out there looking to expand your collection of Witchery supplies beyond common items like crystals and tarot cards. Remember that Witchcraft isn’t about doing what everyone else does, but rather it’s about doing what only you’ve ever done! As always everyone, Witchcraft is not a thing you do, it’s a thing you ARE - Witchcraft is in the mind, and so be sure to practice your Craft exactly how YOU know it should be practiced.
I’ve been wanting to make this pendant for about a year now. When I received the gorgeous vintage handmade roses they took my breath away. Over time the metal has oxidised to a very subtle rainbow of colours. I’ve lightly dusted the rose with holographic dust to catch the eye as it moves around. For durability I mounted the rose in a tiny serrated teeth funnel and added a curved tubing as the stem. I had two tiny stamped leaf shape brass charms with raised dimples for more texture. Finally I used a three strand wire for the leaves so I could use one wire strand as tendrils. All are mounted to the solid brass bead “vase”. Available in my Etsy store here. US$79 plus $7 postage.
I never really appreciated just how much like a storybook castle my great aunt’s house was. Four stories tall, with two spires and three attics, it was a monstrous edifice of pocked stone, time-darkened wood and yellowed glass. I spent so much time there in the holidays as a child – especially over Christmas – that it became a secondary home. And when a place becomes so familiar that it seems like home, it no longer seems so special or unique. It’s just alwaysthere; occupying the same frame of reference as an old coat, a favourite teddy bear or a well-worn book from your personal library.
The weather in Bombay(I still prefer to call it that) has been unexpectedly charming since yesterday morning. The drizzly sky, coupled with cold breeze has made the temperature plummet so quick, the city suddenly feels so much lovelier! No more heat and harsh sun(at least for the moment.) Absolutely in love with the weather today!
I’ve been wanting to do something with white fabric and silver oxidised jewellery for a while now, it being such a classic combination. Even though Indian textiles are known for being colourful, my wardrobe is still dominated by blacks and whites. I personally feel oxidised jewellery looks good with almost everything.
These photographs are clicked by a friend of mine, Abhishek Verma. Abhishek and I went to the Versova beach one evening hoping to get a good picturesque location, but instead ended on wondering which angles we could click to avoid the dirt and grime on the beach(Welcome to Bombay!) Thankfully for us, we did manage to get some good shots, :)
P.S. If any of you guys want to collaborate, shoot me a mail at email@example.com or drop in a message on tumblr. I’m absolutely free for a couple of weeks, and would love to create exciting new stuff. :)
Yes. We were doing some labs in chemistry and these two guys were working together. One of them says “Hey, I dare you to snort it.” We were working with copper nitrate that day. So dude 2 snorts it up his nose and immediately starts screaming because copper nitrate’s an oxidising material and really shouldn’t be up anyone’s nose. Anyways, everyone started freaking out but my teacher muttered to herself “not again”
Hey, thought I would let you know, that while green tea has been around since the 13th C when it first came to western countries, it took such a long time to come across in boats that due to oxidisation the tea leaves withered a bit turning them and the tea they produce black/bron. So that is probs why a western drink like Coca Cola was brown like tea, cause that was the tea colour westerners were used to :)
Chalcopyrite/Copper Pyrite/Peacock Ore Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) has a golden yellow color. In exposure to air it will oxidise to a variety of oxides, hydrozides ad sulfates. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides: Bornite (Cu5FeS4), Calcocite (Cu2S), Covellite (CuS) , Digenite (Cu9S5); carbonates such as Malachite and Azurite, and rarely oxides such as Cuprite (Cu2O).
Oolong tea (1) - IRON GODDESS OF MERCY (Ti Kuan Yin)
Also named ‘Tie Guan Yin’ the translation means Iron Goddess of Mercy. The story behind the name is of the goddess, Kuan Yin (Guanyin), showed a farmer in his dreams where a tea plant was to thank him for his restoration of a temple and of his worship. This tea plant is now one of China’s most famous teas.
To be enjoyed anytime of the day due to its well known thirst quenching properties and low tannin content, oolong tea is also known for its digestive properties - so enjoy with a meal! It also doubles as a good palate cleanser. The tea is only of 10% oxidisation so this means it is very green in taste, giving it a refreshing, sweet taste. Enjoy with spicy foods, salted dishes and white meats.
taste: low astringency, nutty, caramel, sweet, peach. brew: 85-90 degrees C, 3 minutes the first brew followed by upto 6 infusions of 30-40 seconds (same temp.).